Bosnian Wor(l)d

Bosnia-Hercegovina is a multinational state. Today, most citizens identify themselves as one of three groups: Bosniaks (48 percent, Illyrians), Bosnian Croats (14 percent, Illyrians), or Bosnian Serbs (37 percent, Slavs).


05.06.2017.

Snake-girl

There is an interesting legend among people from Velika Kladuša about a buried treasure in the settlement of Rudnik, which is allegedly guarded for centuries by an immortal giant snake. This legend begins like this: during the time of the Roman occupation of the Illyricum in the area of today’s Velika Kladuša a Japodean family lived there – a father with seven sons and a daughter. Their lives were full of everyday chores and work until one day out of wrath and boredom the brothers placed a piece of bread on a large stone and they competed who will be the first to hit it with a spear. Horrified by this sacrilege the father tried to reason with them not to do it, but young and willing to prove themselves, the son’s didn’t listen to him, until the moment something happened which scared them – blood started to flow from the bread. Seeing this, the father wept in a desperate voice, holding his head and gazing towards the sky:

-You spilled blood! The Gods will curse you and punish for your craziness, the scared, poor man repeated.

Not long after that incident the weeping father died and the son’s one by one left the home without a trace. The only one that was in the deserted house was the daughter, since she couldn’t find the strength to leave the graves of her parents. In her sorrow and loneliness the wrath of gods hit her though she was innocent, and she was turned into a giant snake. In that form she was given a task to guard their gold and precious stones in a deep hole in the ground, until the moment someone strong and brave appears and stands in front of her and allows her to kiss him in the forehead, between the eyes.

A lot of time has passed since then, a lot of centuries, but the memory of the curse of the Illyrian gods and the large snake-girl, guardian of the unseen treasure, stayed in the legend which the old people from Kladuša transferred from one generation to the next to the young, warning them to respect the bread which feeds them. The legend in long winter nights woke up a desire among the young to be brave enough to stand in front of the giant snake, so that she may kiss them, which means that they would be immensely rich and that they would get a loving wife.

Every spring around the Mijene (May 6th) the giant snake-girl would exit at dawn from the depths of the earth and she would wallow in a sad voice.

-Oh, help! Are there any males, Muslim or Christian, to come to me, to allow me to kiss him between the eyes so that I may be a wife or sister. I will give him all the gold!

Everyone knew about her lament but rare were those which dared to head towards her, they were never brave enough, and so through centuries the girl-snake had less and less hope that she will ever be free of the horrible curse.

Persuaded by a stravarka a poor lad decided to head to the snake, around a hundred years ago. He waited patiently for the phase and one night, before dawn, he headed towards Rudnik, threading carefully through the forest. During the road he consoled himself that poor as he is he has nothing to lose even if the plan goes wrong. Suddenly in the darkness he heard a sorrowful female voice how it pleadingly called for a brave human heart to come and save her. He carefully came to the place where he heard the voice and suddenly a silence befell him, he stood, scared waiting to see what would happen. Suddenly in the darkness two eyes shined and the head and entire body of the giant snake appeared, such that the human eye has never seen. Frozen out of fear the young man watched the giant snake approach him looking into his eyes. At the moment when the snake was close to his head his bravery gave up on him completely, he pushed her away and started running as far as his legs could take him. The snake looked at him sadly and uttered:

-May you suffer as I do, may you die when I cannot!

Uttering that curse she disappeared in the darkness, receding into its lair. Soon the boy died and no one knew of what. From that time no one heard that sad cry of the snake-girl.

05.06.2017.

Kad zmija uđe u čovjeka

Još od drevnih bosanskih predaka Ilira zmija zauzima primarno mjesto po svom religijsko-mitološkom značaju. U predaji o genezi prvi Ilir ili praotac nastao je od zmije te zbog toga ona ima centralnu ulogu u samoj familiji, predstavlja animalnog dvojnika glave familije, te štiti kuću i njene stanovnike od svakog zla. Prilikom zidanja kuće, sve do sredine prošlog vijeka, obavezno se ostavljala mala rupa na zidu, pri samoj zemlji, kako bi u njoj mogla obitavati takozvana kućna zmija. Nju često niko od članova familije nikada ne bi vidio ali se usprkos tome čvrsto vjerovalo u njeno postojanje pa joj se znalo pored rupe u zidu ostavljati hrana ili zdjelice sa kravljim mlijekom. U pojedinom dijelovima BiH graditelji bi uklesavali crtež zmije na zidu, kako bi na taj način označili njenu svetu ulogu i iskazali joj dobrodošlicu.

No, osim toga u bosanskom narodu se vjerovalo kako šumska ili poljska zmija može ući u čovjeka i neko vrijeme živjeti u njegovoj utrobi. Naime, kako to pričaju seljaci u prošlosti se znalo desiti da neki čovjek zaspi napolju, na livadi, ili pod krošnjom stabla, te da mu kroz otvorena usta u tijelo uđe zmija. Takav čovjek bi se raspoznavao po naglom mršavljenju i bljedilu u licu. Po kazivanju seljaka, sve ono što bi on pojeo i popio jela je zmija u njemu i na taj način oduzimala mu hranu i snagu. Ukoliko se zmija ne bi istjerala iz ljudskog tijela taj čovjek bi nakon nekog vremena mogao i umrijeti. Stoga se pekla mlada kokoška i nalijevala posuda sa mlijekom pa ostavljala pored lica te osobe dok bi ona spavala. Zmija bi, navodno, privučena mirisom piletine i mlijeka izišla iz ljudskog tijela i tako ga oslobodila svoje pogubne prisutnosti. Kako još informatori tvrde takva zmija bi obično nakon izlaska bila potpuno bijele boje. Sasvim je očito kako je i ovo vjerovanje ilirsko te da odražava mitološku tezu o bliskoj povezanosti zmije i čovjeka.

05.06.2017.

Bošnjakinje - žene koje su rađale zmajeve

U bosanskom narodu od antičkih vremena prisutno je vjerovanje u postojanje zmajeva, koji ne samo što egzistiraju među ljudima već i seksualno atakuju na žene, ali i krave, te se iz takvog neprirodnog odnosa rađaju zmajska mladunčad - snijeti. Ovo nesvakidašnje vjerovanje tradicionalno je najviše prisutno kod Bošnjaka dok kod bosanskih kršćana ono ne postoji ili se pojavljuje u vrlo rjetkim slučajevima.

Zmajevi su po pričanju naroda voljeli boraviti po šumama ili brdima, preletajući sa jednog drveta na drugo, spavajući u unutrašnjosti stijena ili se kupajući na rijekama. Naime, znalo se desiti da slučajni prolaznici približavajući se rijeci iznenada začuju čudne udarce po površini vode i prštanje kapljica. Za takve zvukove se mislilo da su od preplašenog zmaja koji je osjetivši nečiji dolazak pobjegao. Navodno, dok je u vodi zmaj bi pravio svojim tijelom krugove u njoj a kada bi se okupao uspravio bi svoje tijelo i poletio ravno u pravcu neba.

Pogled očiju boje smaragda

Narod zmaja opisuje kao dugu zmiju, preko dva metra, sa vrlo tankim i kratkim nogama i rukama, čije je tijelo prekriveno tamnim krljuštima i repom koji je na kraju šiljat. Ono što ga posebno karakterizira su njegove čudne, magnetične oči boje smaragda sa kojima hipnotiše svoju žrtvu i tako spriječava svaki njen otpor. Često je u prošlosti zmaj znao vrebati mlade žene koje su same išle po vodu na izvor ili radile u polju te ih iznenaditi svojim pojavljivanjem i pogledom dovesti u svojevrstan trans, iz kojeg su se kasnije budile bez ikakvog sjećanja na taj susret. No, taj čudni događaj nije ostajao bez posljedica jer nakon četiri ili više mjeseci žena, koju je hipnotizirao svojim pogledom zmaj, rodila bi snijet - mladunče zmaja.

Rođenje zmaja

Snijet ili Snit je u narodu dobila naziv po mekanoj opni kokošijeg jajeta koje ponekad usljed nedostatka kalcija izleže kokoš. Mnogi etnolozi su često pravili pogrešku dovodeći taj narodni naziv za zmajsko mladunče sa kukuruznom snijeti (Ustilago maydis) ne shvatajući ono što im informatori zapravo žele reći.

Nekoliko starica od kojih sam imao prilike čuti kazivanje o rođenju snijeti imale su identičan opis njenog rođenja. Naime, kako su sve bile nepismene i nisi znale za naziv placenta, one su je jednostavno nazivale narodnim nazivom, onako kako im se činilo da najbolje opisuje ono što vide a to je po snijeti odnosno mekanoj opni kokošijeg jajeta. No, to je svakako bitan detalj koji nam otkriva kako se snijet konstantno rađala u bijeloj placenti, za razliku od normalne ljudske bebe čija je boja placente uvijek tamno crveno-plava ili kestenjasta, a iz koje bi snijet izlazila što prije, bježeći u strahu od dodira ljudske ruke. Po kazivanju informatorica ako bi u stomaku žene bila samo snijet onda bi one često rodile u snu, dok spavaju, i ujutro bi se probudile praznog stomaka. Svake noći mladunče zmaja bi se vraćalo svojoj majci dok ono spava kako bi se nahranilo njenim mlijekom. Navodno, takva žena bi navečer legla u postelju grudih punih mlijeka a ujutro se probudila potpuno praznih.

Kako se može zaključiti proučavajući etnološke zabilješke, ali i slušajući izjave pojedinih starih žena, posebno onih koje javno i bez skrivanja tvrde da su u mladosti rodile snijet, svaka Bošnjakinja je u prošlosti, sve do Drugog svjetskog rata, bar jednom tokom svog reproduktivnog perioda rodila snijet. Upravo zbog navedene tvrdnje ukorijenilo se vjerovanje da nije grijeh roditi mladunče zmaja, čak, štoviše, nazivalo se dobrim dijelom i onoj ženi koja kroz život tri puta rodi snijet obećan je odlazak u raj nakon smrti. No, očito se to smatralo povoljnim samo u slučaju da se snijet odmah po rođenju ubije i zakopa a nikako da joj se dozvoli da pobjegne.

Kanibalizam i ubijanje

Narod čvrsto vjeruje kako sve one snijeti koje žene ne uspiju da ubiju nakon rođenja postaju zmajevi. Možda se u tome krije zapravo kolektivni strah bosanskog naroda da ukoliko bi se dopustilo svoj mladunčadi zmaja da žive njihova bi populacija porasla do zabrinjavajućeg broja i ozbiljno ugrozilo same ljude. Žene su snijet, nakon što iziđe iz bijele placente, opisivale kao malo dlakavo stvorenje tamne boje koje izgledom najviše podsjeća na krticu. Kretalo se vrlo brzo, penjući se uza zid i histerično ciktajući.

Dešavalo se da zmaj seksualno atakuje na ženu, kada je ona već u ranom stadiju trudnoće sa svojim mužem, pa u njenoj utrobi zajedno, jedno pored drugog, rasli bi dijete i snijet. U pojedinim etnografskim bilješkama stoji dokumentirano da se događalo da žena rodi živo dijete sa mrtvom snijeti na glavi, pa onda i dijete umre. Isto tako, ako se rode oboje živi, pa se snijet ubije, vjerovalo se kako će ubrzo umrijeti i dijete. Po tome bi se moglo zaključiti kako snijet po narodnom shvatanju predstavlja i neku vrstu ljudskog animalnog dvojnika.

Nalikuje na čovjeka ali nije ljudsko biće

Strah od snijeti, iako zajednički cijelom bosanskom narodu, nije bio istog intenziteta u svim područjima, te se na pojedinim lokalitetima bilježio njegov naglašeniji uticaj. Presudan faktor u tome zasigurno je bila i sama učestalost rađanja, jer u regijama gdje je takva pojava bila rjeđa, ili bolje skrivena i tabuisana, on je bio manje prisutan. U Zukićima su snijet opisivali kako liči na neko demonsko biće "koje nalikuje na čovjeka ali nije ljudsko biće". Taj opis u pojedinim dijelovima BiH rezultat je straha od kanibalizma kojem je navodno snijet bila sklona u prvom periodu života, kako bi uspješno završila inkubacijski period i izišla iz žene u vanjski svijet. Tvrdilo se da je u pojedinim slučajevima snijet izjedala utrobu žene odnosno hranila se njome. Zbog toga se u Zukićima vjerovalo kako snijet za trudnicu predstavlja veliki fizički i zdravstveni problem jer teško bi ju nosila u stomaku a i rodila.

U ovom dijelu Bosne tvrdilo se kako se snijet može ubiti samo praljom, daskom za pranje odjeće, nakon čega se zakopavala u zemlju. Pamti se da je prije Drugog svjetskog rata u obližnjem selu Kusonje žena rodila žensko dijete sa pojedenim prstima na rukama i nogama i snijet. Za taj deformitet optužena je snijet, tvrdeći kako je ona pojela dječije prste, te je odmah ubijena praljom. U drugim dijelovima BiH žene bi je ubijale metlom.

U Pazariću i okolini svaki put kada bi neka žena rodila snijet to bi se zataškavalo i držalo tajnom, što je uostalom bio tradicionalni tabu u svim područjima BiH. Snijet bi, ako se rodila mrtva ili pak nije uspjela pobjeći i spasiti se, odmah zamotali u staru tkaninu i zakopali je u zemlju pazeći da to niko ne vidi. Pravilo kojeg su se držale sve žene po BiH bio je da se mrtva snijet uvijek zakopa, bilo u zemlju ili u stajski gnoj, te da se nikako nije smjela jednostavno baciti u smeće. Da li je to rađeno u strahu od moguće osvete zmaja, što je vrlo izvjesno, ako uzmemo u obzir da se o zmajevima čak nije bilo preporučljivo ni pričati, ili se pak gajila određena doza poštovanja prema tim mješancima ostaje još jedna od mnogih misterija u bosanskom narodu.

19.02.2017.

FEITIÇO DE AMOR BÓSNIA

A moça que deseja ser cobiçada por todos os homens, deve esconder um morcego na sua axila esquerda e deixa-lo ali. Isto fará com que todo homem que encontre, se apaixone perdidamente por ela.

08.02.2017.

Bosnia, Illyrians and tombstones – beginning of European civilization

Continuity of our people from the old days up to today was not in question, and it was part of the scientific discourse until the end of the XIX century. Therefore, up until that period everyone knew that south Slavs were actually Illyrians. However, after the Illyrian name, crest with a crescent moon and tri colour were banned by the emperors decree, by Germanic-Hungarian political decision the progeny of the ancient Illyrians were declared as Albanians, and south Slavs all of a sudden became “settlers from Carpathians”.

Ancient Illyrians

Since long we are aware that Bosnia and Herzegovina represents an ancient land with its tombstones, with its ancient people, which surprised Europe with its unexplored world once it was occupied by Austro-Hungary in 1878. For the first time, entire Europe was aware that on the territory of BiH there was a unique cult, anthropological and national space which possesses the most imposing and the oldest megalithic culture in whole of Europe. The occupying force did not like this, it actually presented them a large problem: size and hoariness of our culture made Western Europe inferior, and their civilizations mission absurd. This is why a systematic plan of twisting historical facts was put into place, which was an easy task taking into consideration the pretty bad military, economic, demographic but also educational condition of the people living in BiH at that time.

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Stećci

The greatest historical lie which brought the greatest suffering in the Balkans is the one about the influx of Slavs to this area, this myth started with systematic destruction of the Illyrian people and their ancient culture. Slavs were therefore always unsophisticated and primitive people, and their name comes from the word “servant, slave”, these people in reality don’t have structures nor cultural achievements, and they were always to the “civilized” and colonial Europe a symbol of barbarism and primitivism, to which we can attest to today. Namely, when we would performs a poll across Italy, Germany, France or Britain on the topic of Slavs we could hear some pretty unpleasant comments and judgements, which is a result of traditional belief but also ranking of European peoples, civilized– western and primitive – eastern peoples.

Until the beginning of the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina the theory of the great immigration was not seriously considered until the ruin of the Illyrian movements happened, this is best described by the historian Bogoslav Šulek (1816-1895). According to him, first the immigrants were of the same birth as the Illyrians, and second they could not outnumber the Illyrian aboriginals which inhabited the entire Yugoslavian area, and even further than that. Dr. Tibor Živković (1966-2013) also confirmed that during the VI and VII century only a couple of thousand people migrated and not hundreds of thousands, this Serbian historian of the newer generation estimated that during that period the part of immigrated people among the aboriginals did not exceed 3%.

Croatian historian Dr. Neven Budak similarly concludes that the older historiography mistakenly believed that the ancient aboriginals were deported and exterminated in large numbers, with a minority staying in mountainous regions, coastal areas and islands. According to him, modern research in various areas proved that aboriginals survived in greater numbers than was previously presumed. Bosnian historian Đuro Besler also claims that 85% of the ancient inhabitants stayed. Vladimir Dvorniković in his Magnum opus “Characterology of Yugoslavs” recognises an “ancient Illyrian” in humans of the Dinaric karst.

Stećci – Illyrian tombstones

After inventing lies that Illyrians are actually Slavs another lie begins, it places the emergence of tombstones, the ancient monuments of the Illyrian culture, into the middle ages, since Western Europe cannot tolerate the fact that in BiH there is proof of the existence of the oldest culture on European soil. Implications of discovering tombstones in the XIX century is that the European roots and continuity of existence belongs to our culture, which is in fact very logical: whoever opened an ancient atlas knows that it is nowhere stated that the European culture was begotten in Berlin, London, Vienna or Paris. To prevent further political and geopolitical implications of this cognition, the truth had to be buried under the deposits of twisted narrative.

However, despite all frauds and historical rigging, gradually enlightenment in scientific circles began and extensive research of various archaeologists and experts confirm that the origin of tombstone dates back to the ancient time even prehistory. Thoughts about prehistoric origin of tombstones was shared by an Austrian geologist and researchers Heinrich Sterneck which as an Austro-Hungarian officer-geologist researched mineral wealth of Bosnia and Herzegovina and found various necropolis’ in the field. He thought that the tombstones most certainly belonged to the ancient times, since they were usually located on Illyrian piles or in their vicinity and that they’re old as the Illyrian burial mounds. The other researcher Alexandar Sapieha spoke about tombstones as very old monuments which resemble Egyptian and Parthian ones. German archaeologist George Wild had an interesting claim, namely the tombstones in Bosnia represent the old European cultural heritage, and that some symbols such as lilies (which are symbols on the Bosnian crest) stems from the ancient times, often as tombstones, that various types of crosses are pre-Christian and were known in the ancient culture, and Christianity adopted them at a later period, giving them Christian interpretation.

Yet, the best proof that tombstones were not built in the middle ages are the dimensions and weight of a large number of tombstones. There is no technological context which would place the practice of breaking off of 32 ton megaliths and their transportation of across great distances. Anyway, why would someone do such a thing, and not use such technology in building other structures. Kemal Čolak from Sarajevo calculated that for the construction of such a megalith which is located in Pavlovac near Sarajevo, one would need to break off a cuboid of 40 tons. A logical question can be posed, where would one find such a quarry, and what tools were used for such a purpose. It is especially interesting to mention that some locals claimed that the monument is located on the former training grounds of JNA, and that the army removed all other monuments from that location, but they didn’t have the necessary machinery to remove this one. What did the man from middle ages use to move it? With that, in the dark middle ages, times of wars, fratricide and crusades against Arian Christians, time of famine, poverty and survival, there was no time for erecting hundred thousand monuments, nor the time for laborious and long transportation and great embellishment of the monuments. Was it done in the middle ages, such a powerful and technically advanced civilization would easily fend off attackers and conquer entire Europe.

There are numerous arguments which testify that tombstones cannot be from the middle ages, though in the middle ages they were used, partially inscribed and ornamented. Here are some of them:

1. Official science until the end of the 19th century considered tombstones to be prehistoric monuments.

2. It was noted that the symbols on the monuments were tied to ancient civilizations, especially Egyptian and Parthian.

3. There are no known folk tales which speak of construction of monuments in the middle ages. However, there are numerous ones which place the process far in prehistory.

4. There are no inscriptions about the building of monuments amongst the ancient people from Dubrovnik, and it is known that the agents from Dubrovnik recorded anything which was of the smallest interest. Such inscriptions are not known in other archives of Dalmatia and Italy.

5. In heaps under the monuments we see a continuation of burials from the 20th century BCE up until the 20th century.

6. Tombs from the middle ages on necropolis’ are located near tombstones or underneath stone switches, i.e. smaller tombstones, which proves the continuity of burial from prehistory, but not their medieval origin.

7. From around 100 000 tombstones, and there were more, only 6000 of them are ornamented, and a smaller number contains various crosses which were pre-Christian and familiar in ancient times. Yet if we persist that they’re actually Christian symbols, we’re talking about a number which is smaller than 1%. The possibility of Christians avoiding cross symbols when ornamenting is simply absurd.

8. In the middle ages in Dalmatia, Bosnia and Serbia numerous wars were waged, mostly crusades against Arian Christians, during this time social-economic conditions were not ripe for erection of megalith necropolis.

9. Depiction of ancient pillars of a temple in numerous megalith monuments additionally confirms the pre-historical origin of tombstones.

10. Layers of humus on monuments which are today underground are between 30 and 80 cm, while on Roman monuments they are between 15 and 30 cm, which rather points to the Bronze age and not the Middle Ages.

11. That burial under tombstones and under a mound was a custom from the Bronze age is depicted through the verses from the Iliad and Odyssey in which burials of cremation remains are mentioned, bodies in a heap on which a tombstone was placed.

12. Tombstones are also mentioned in the Old Testament, which also points to the Bronze and Iron age.

Illyrian god Vidasus on stećak

13.12.2016.

Ciganska magija

Cigani su bez ikakve sumnje izuzetno zanimljiv nomadski narod, koji je oduvijek plijenio pažnju svojim bogatim folklornim ali i životnim navikama. Iako se za njih tvrdi da su narod bez prave vjere, najčešće zbog toga što od svake religije na koju su naišli uzimaju samo ono što njima odgovara, Cigani su izuzetno duhovan narod.

Družeći se sa pojedinim Romima imao sam prilike doći do krajnje interesantnih izjava sa kojima se sasvim sigurno može bolje razumijeti šaroliki religijsko-magijski svijet ovih nomada. Kako i sami tvrde za sebe oni su jako tradicionalna skupina koja se strogo drži starih zakona i običaja, najviše zbog straha da ih u protivnom više sile ne bi čule. Naime, uvjerenja su da ovaj zemaljski i gore nebeski svijet egzistiraju i komuniciraju posredstvom drevnih pravila, koja su bijeli ljudi skoro pa u potpunosti zaboravili. Njegujući stara pravila, ritualne geste, pokrete i molitve, koji su zapravo i jedini mogući način komunikacije sa višim silama, Romi si obezbjeđuju zaštitu i pomoć istih tih nadnaravnih entiteta.

Opasna ciganska magija

O Ciganima se uglavnom i danas priča sa puno predrasuda, koje ih izjednačuju sa pripadnicima kriminalnog miljea, no, kada se zaista želi upoznati njihov svijet i sam način života onda se dođe do drastično drugačijih zaključaka. Istina je da i među njima ima ljudi koji se bave nelegalnim stvarima, kao i među svim drugim zajednicama, no ono što njih čini posebnim i jedinstvenim, osim vječitog optimizma i sklonosti ka kiču i pretjerivanju, jeste upravo ona magična nit sa kojom se rađaju i umiru.

Spletom historijskih dešavanja i samog nomadskog načina življenja Romi su, poput Židova, imali priliku da asimiliraju mnoga religijska i magijska vjerovanja naroda sa kojima su stupali u kontakt, te su u interakciji s njima nadopunjavali svoja autohtona, i na taj način stvarali krajnje fascinantne rezultate. Dokaz tomu jeste i priznanje mnogih bosanskih stravarki i hodža iscjelitelja kako se najteže skida ciganska magija „jer Romi nisu od jedne vjere" pa treba dosta muke i znanja da se pogodi pravi način kako razmrsiti ono što je neka njihova vračara napravila.

Vračanje sa mrtvacom

Proučavajući osnove romske magije došao sam do zaključka da se ona najviše bazira na kultu mrtvih te ritualnim povezivanjem sa svijetom mrtvih, odnosno svijetom duhova, njihove čarke dobijaju punu moć i volumen. Upravo u tome se i krije odgovor na pitanje zbog čega se njihova magija smatra jednom od najopasnijih.

Stare Ciganke i danas odlučno tvrde kako se sa soli koja je zamotana u neki papir prenoćila u ustima mrtvaca može na smrt omađijati bilo koji čovjek. Posebno je poznata praksa čaranja za ljubav kada bi se guranjem male slike u usta mrtvaca određena osoba doslovno dovela u stanje da umire od ljubavi za onom osobom za koju je ciganska vračara radila tu mađiju.

Traženje pomoći od mrtvih predaka je praksa i bosanskih Roma koji u pojedinim teškim situacijama, poput izbjegavanja suda i zatvora, mole se na grobu nekog svog umrlog člana familije sa zahtjevom da ih izbavi iz nevolje. Koliko su predani komunikaciji sa mrtvima dokazuju mnogi primjeri magijske manipulacije sa duhovima. Još i danas se među Ciganima može čuti kako se duh mrtve osobe može vratiti nazad u kuću ako neki dušmanin na sahrani otkine komadić križa i tajno ga gurne u džep ili torbu nekog od ukućana. Navodno, to svetogrđe će toliko razljutiti duha da će se vratiti u kuću i uznemiravati nekog od članova familije sve dok se taj komadić ne vrati nazad.

Nema ljubavi bez šišmiša

Ciganske vračare tvrde da postoji 99 načina da se zarobi nečije srce ljubavnim čarkama. Neki od njih su jednostavniji a drugi komplikovaniji za izvedbu. Najčešći rekviziti su za njihovu izradu su šišmiš, ljubavno bilje, konac, katanac, voda sa izvora, itd.

U romskoj ljubavnoj magiji važno mjesto zauzima šišmiš od čijeg krila se radi tilsum za opčiniti i primamiti. Nakon što se odsječe srebrnim novčićem krilo se omota crvenom vunom ali tako da se ostavi maleni krug na sredini, kako bi se kroz njega mogla progledati tri puta željena osoba. Ni krv šišmiša nije ništa manje bitna. Ciganke običavaju prodavati kocke šećera na kojima je krv ove životinje uz riječi:" Daj to mužu u kafi da popije, pa ćeš mu biti slatka kao šećer a skupa kao krv!"

Muškarac koji želi da ga neka žena zavoli po savjetu ciganske vračare ulovit će šišmiša, spalit ga u vatri sve do ugljenisanja, a onda malo tog pepela umutiti u čaši vode i ponuditi onoj čiju ljubav priželjkuje. Isti rezultat postići će i sa koščicom uzetom iz desnog krila ove životinje.

U nemogućnosti da se dođe do ovog rekvizita Ciganke upute one željne ljubavi da nabave djetelinu sa četiri lista i da je u crkvi posvete na oltaru a onda tajno stave u odjeću onog koga vole.

Sve muke „zavezanog“ muškarca

Javna je tajna da su mnoge žene u prošlosti obilazile ciganske gatare i vračare u želji da im otkriju sudbinu ili kod njih kupe sihire za ljubav. Kada dođe neka bijela žena kod Ciganke po ljubavni savjet i pomoć kako da zauzda ljubavnika ili muža ona joj obično kaže da potajno uzme malo njegovog izmeta i skuha ga sa jednim kokošijim jajetom i malo šećera. Poslije mu taj napitak sipa u maloj količini u hranu i kaže:" Kao što guzica ne može da priča, tako ni ti NN ne mogao pričati sa drugim ženama, jedino sa mnom!"

No, treba naglasiti i činjenicu kako potražnja za magičnim rješenjima ne jenjava ni u današnje vrijeme. Obraćanje ciganskim vračarama, posebno onima koje potiču sa rumunjskog govornog područja, iako diskretno zaštićeno od pogleda javnosti, bez svake sumnje jedan je od obrazaca rješavanja diskutabilnih životinih situacija na našim prostorima.

Ako neka žena ili djevojka želi osigurati da momak ili muž bude samo njen, a kako bi mogla bezbjedno švrljati i sa strane, onda ona po savjetu neke stare Ciganke, pažljivo prikupi muškarčeve sperme, nakon spolnog odnosa, te je potom izlije u nov katanac, koji kada se kupuje ne pogađa se u cijenu, i zaključa ga. Osim toga, kako bi bila sigurna da će ove jednostavne čarke biti djelotvorne, vračara nalaže da žena dok muškarac spava, posebno ako je pritom i pijan, diskretno ga izmjeri koncem duž cijelog tijela; od čela do usta, od usta do srca, od srca do pupka, od pupka do testisa, od testisa do koljena i od koljena do stopala. Konac se potom savije u kanuru ili svitak, one dužine koliki je mužev penis. Tako posložen konac ona čuva u svojoj kući kao garanciju da će magija odraditi svoju zadaću.

Ako bi na taj način omađijani muškarac nakon nekog vremena zaista i počeo gubiti potenciju kod nekih drugih žena, ali i želju za njima, počeo bi sumnjati da je žrtva vezivanja te se i on obraća vračarama za pomoć. Ukoliko ne bi pogodio onu koja stoji iza samog vezivanja, za koju se vjeruje da može istog trena poništiti mađiju, onda bi mu ta „pogrešna“ bajala i djelila različite savjete kako pronaći lijeka svojoj muci. Najčešći savjet bi bio da „zavezani“ proguta živu ribicu, ili da izbije čvor na plotu ograde nekog groblja i pomokri se kroz njega. Isto tako, preporučivala bi da ona žena sa kojom on želi voditi ljubav opere kosu a da on tu vodu popije. Ne pomogne li ništa od navedenog vračara se upućivala u dom nesretnog muškarca i ispod kreveta mu zakucala čekićem pet eksera, po jedan u četiri ćoska a peti u sredinu, bajući: „“ Kako ovi klinci ulaze u pod, tako i ti NN da probiješ NN!“.

www.anzotika.forumbo.net

04.12.2016.

Čudesna moć hamajlije

Hamajlije se izrađuju od prapovijesti i kao takve vjeran su pratilac čovjeka u svim njegovim epohama postojanja. Ideja da neki poseban predmet može da zaštiti od zla stara je koliko i sam čovjek te je sasvim sigurno opravdalo svoju svrhu jer u protivnom ta bi se praksa napustila već odavno.

No, pogrešno je misliti da hamajlija samo štiti od uroka i magije, iako je to njena elementarna namjena, već ona ima daleko veću moć. Zaštita od hladnog i vatrenog oružja, napada zlih duhova, energetskih vampira, bolesti, ali i ogovaranja tojest negativne propagande, su samo neke od kvalifikacija koje posjeduje ovaj čarobni rekvizit.

Zašto nam treba hamajlija

Iz iskustva pouzdano znam da mnogo puta ljudima u rješavanju njihovih problema nije potrebna magijska usluga. Naime, često su pojedinci sami sebi najveći dušmani i svojim nezrelim ponašanjem uzrokuju si stalne probleme na poslu, u kući ili ljubavi. Dedukcijom došao sam do saznanja kako im je najbolje saliti olovo, kako bi se što lakše i brže oslobodili unutrašnjih blokada i straha, te otvoreno porazgovarati s njima, zapravo, osvjetliti im srž problema.

Najbolja stvar koja se svakom od nas može desiti jeste ta da sami sa svojim urođenim potencijalima i sposobnostima kročimo kroz život, jer tada ćemo zračiti samopouzdanjem i zadovoljstvom.

Naša životna sreća i smisao ne smiju ovisiti od talismana, partnera, prijatelja, materijalnih vrijednosti jer - sve su to stvari i osobe koje se lako mogu izgubiti. Razvijati svoje od Boga date sposobnosti, i na kraju krajeva, držati uzde života u svojim rukama, jedini su ispravni put za kvalitetan i kreativan život.

No, kako većini ljudi nije lako spoznati te važne životne mudrosti i usvojiti ih za početak im je potreba određena pomoć. A ona se upravo bazira na zaštiti od negativnih upliva kojima smo svakodnevno izloženi. Treba napomenuti kako hamajlija osim svoje apotropejske uloge ima i impresivan psihički uticaj na svog nosioca, naime, i sama spoznaja da uza se imamo nešto takvo ulijeva nam određenu dozu samopouzdanja. Što je, na kraju krajeva, jako dobro, pošto na takav način postižemo veću koncentraciju pozitivne energije u sebi i oko sebe.

Sa druge strane svrha hamajlije, po mom mišljenju, jeste da nas zaštiti od svega onoga što nije od Boga, a to su neprijateljski raspoložene osobe, negativna mjesta i događaji, koji slučajno ili namjerno, mogu u većem ili manjem intenzitetu nepovoljno uticati na naše psiho-fizičko stanje i sudbinu. Tu najviše mislim na urokljive oči (zavist ili divljenje) te nagaze svih oblika.

Pravila za uspješan rad

Moć odnosno profilaktička efikasnost hamajlije ovisi od nekoliko faktora. Prvi od njih svakako je upućenost u spiritualnu nauku onog ko je izrađuje. Postoji na stotine verzija onoga što se treba unijeti u sadržaj nekog amuleta, što prvenstveno ovisi o potrebi njenog budućeg vlasnika ali i određenim preferencama do kojih se dolazi analizom ličnih podataka naručitelja zaštite.

Odmah iza toga dolazi ono što se u Bosni naziva "nafakali ruka" a kod Arapa i Perzijanaca - baraka. Pod ovim pojmom misli se na božiji blagoslov koji posjeduju sveci no to je najkraća definicija. U širem smislu baraka je moć koja se može prenijeti na potomstvo ili čak biti nasljeđena od nekog pretka. Nju posjeduju i neki prirodni objekti i mjesta. Naime, poznato je kako je na pojedinim mjestima zemljin magnetizam intenzivniji nego uoubičajeno i ta su područja poznata po svojoj pozitivnoj energiji. Na njima su sagrađena neka najpoznatija sveta takozvana čudotvorna mjesta poput Lurda u Francuskoj itd.

Još jedan neophodan segment uspješnog sastavljanja hamajlija jeste direktna ili indirektna komunikacijama sa višim silama, posebno sa poznatim alimima (evlijama), koji se nalaze na jednoj od sedam nebeskih sfera i bez čije zaštite i pomoći nema ni uspješnog rada.

Zaključavanje hamajlije

Za izradu moćne i učinkovite hamajlije, osim osnovnih podataka poput imena i prezimena, datuma rođenja te imena roditelja, onaj ko naručuje amulet treba se izmjeriti, ili da mu to neko učini, koncem od vrha glave do pete i tu mjeru donese ili pošalje. Ukoliko nije u prilici ni prvo ni drugo onda se naznači visina. Nakon što se hamajlija završi i posebnom dovom "zaključa", sa tim koncem-mjerom omota se hamajlija i sveže u čvor. Time je njena izrada komplentirana.

U hamajlijskom tekstu vrlo često se susreću pojedina kur'anska poglavlja koja se tradicionalno smatraju profilaktičkim: 112, 113, 114 i Ajet-ul Kursi, no pored njih postoji i naglašena upotreba magijskih kvadrata tzv.vefkova u čijem sadržaju je neko od 99 Allahovih imena, te razni ezoterični znakovi poput sedam simbola magije, od kojih je jedan pentagram ili petokraka zvijezda, heksagram itd.

Osim na papiru sadržaj amuleta se može urezati i na srebrnu pločicu te nositi kao privjesak oko vrata. Potrebno je znati kako postoje i takozvane "kućne hamajlije" koje se specijalno izrađuju za zaštitu materijalne nekretnine. Kućna hamajlija standardno se postavlja iznad ulaznih vrata kako bi štitila dom i familiju od zla.

Jednom kada se završi sa ispisivanjem sadržaja, te nakon "zaključavanja", hamajlija se mora omotati selotepom kako bi se na takav način spriječio bilo kakav dodir sa vlagom, znojem ili bilo nekom drugom nečistoćom. To je jako bitno pošto bi prljavština ili voda mogla deformisati izgled pojedinih slova ili znakova i time u potpunosti uništiti cjelokupni smisao.

U tradicionalnom životu naroda BiH hamajlija se nekada nosila u malenoj metalnoj ili drvenoj kutiji obješenoj oko vrata, preko ramena, ruke ili struka. Vremenom takvu praksu zamjenile su kožne kesice koje su puno jednostavnije i praktičnije za upotrebu.

Ukoliko se hamajlija radi u cilju da nosioca zaštiti od ozljeda koje uzrokuje hladno ili vatreno oružja tada se mora zamotati u životinjsku kožu, na našim prostorima koristi se ovčija koža ili mušema, dok je u arapskom svijetu jako popularno zamotati je u kožu kameleona.

I u prvom i drugom slučaju ono čega se svaki vlasnik hamajlije mora striktno pridržavati jeste pravilo da je nikada ne smije otvoriti i gledati u njen sadržaj. U protivnom hamajlija će postati neučinkovita.

Protjerivanje kućnih džina

Iskreno govoreći vrlo često proces izrade hamajlije zna biti dosadan, naročito ako se taj posao oduži na mjesec ili dva. Kako je više manje poznato ona se nikad ne izrađuje u toku dana već uvijek noću, iza ponoći, i već samim time dovoljno je jasno da traži i određenu psiho-fizičku snagu, volju i koncentraciju. Svaki put iz prostorije u kojoj se piše moraju se protjerati amiri - kućni džini, nevidljivi stanovnici koje ima svaka kuća. Amiri imaju sklonost da pokvare svaki magijski rad jer ne trpe ulazak drugih nevidljivih sila na njihovo područje.

Vladanje odnosno manipulacija sa spiritualnim snagama obavezan je segment uspješnog rada u bilo kojoj sferi magije. Upravo zbog toga često u svojim tekstovima ali i razgovorima sa drugima naglašavam da magija nije niti jednostavna niti uopće vještina za svakog nego samo određene pojedince.

I za kraj, htio bi reći ponešto i o cijeni izrade zaštite. Prema načelima duhovne nauke cijena hamajlije nije jasno utvrđena i ona ponajviše ovisi o reputaciji onog ko je sastavlja i piše. Uz to treba dodati i cijenu pojedinih sastojaka poput šafrana, mošusa ili ružine vodice, koji čine važne komponente mastila. No, nije uvijek potrebno pisati takvom tintom već pojedini slučajevi zahtjevaju pisanje crvenom ili crnom olovkom i slično. Sve u svemu, izrada ovog jedinstvenog profilaktičkog predmeta nije niti jednostavna niti jeftina te se zbog toga treba prije naručivanja hamajlije dobro informisati o svemu vezanom za nju.

Zaštita firme

Danas kada je ekonomska situacija generalno svugdje loša pojedinci ali i firme bore se za svoj opstanak, služeći se svim i svačim, a posebno crnom magijom, da unište konkurenciju. Stoga, nemali je broj nekad uspješnih poslovnih ljudi koji su doslovno preko noći propali i zatvorili svoje firme.

Opisi onih koji su doživjeli ovakav scenario su uglavnom vrlo slični: nagli pad klijenata, pa sve do toga da nema niti jednog, blokiranost u svakom pogledu, završeni poslovi bez isplate, nesloga na radnom mjestu, itd.

Zbog toga, vjerovali ili ne u crnu magiju, svaka firma bi trebala biti zaštićena određenom vrstom hamajlije te, s vremena na vrijeme, "očišćena" nekim magijskim egzorcističkim ritualom, posebno mjesta kroz koja prolazi svakodnevno mnogo ljudi. Pod zaštitom ne mislim na one klasične religijske simbole i suvenire, poput krsta, ikona, tespiha/brojanica, slika Kabe i sličnog, jer to ne može pružiti adekvatnu zaštitu, pošto se svaka zaštita od zla radi na poseban način i uz upotrebu podataka i određenih molitvi.

Za više informacija/narudžbu hamajlije pisati na: ezotericar@gmail.com

26.11.2016.

Buđenje Ilira - stećci i naša prava povijest

Kontinuitet našeg naroda na ovom prostoru od prapovijesti do današnjih dana nije bio sporan i bio je dio naučnog diskursa sve do XlX.vijeka. Dakle, sve do tada svakome je bilo jasno da su Južni Slaveni zapravo Iliri. U ovom članku ćemo pokazati kako su propagandnom „alkemijom“ osvajača prapovijesni stećci odjednom postali srednjovijekovni spomenici, što je važno pitanje jer stećci i pitanje našeg kontinuiteta su neraskidivo vezani.

Sredinom augusta ove godine, obilazeći nekropolu Gvozno polje na obroncima planine Treskavice, na jednom od stećaka naišli smo na neobičan prikaz ratnika – konjokrote s kacigom. Budući da je Homer u Ilijadi Trojance nazivao konjokrotima, radi se o vrlo važnoj indiciji za objašnjenje porijekla stećaka. Naime, kaciga je oblikom slična onima kakve su nađene na 54 različita arheološka nalazišta u bivšoj Jugoslaviji – koja se datiraju u brončano i željezno doba – a najbrojnija su u Dalmatinskoj zagori te Bosni i Hercegovini. Iz toga slijedi da prikaz na stećku također ukazuje na porijeklo iz trojanskog doba.

Budući da u akademskoj zajednici i dalje preovladava stav da su stećci srednjovijekovni spomenici, to nas vraća na raspravu o porijeklu stećaka koja se vodila potkraj 19. i početkom 20. vijeka. Naime, sve do kraja devetnaestog stoljeća preovladavalo je mišljenje da steći potječu iz prapovijesti, jednako kao i grobni humci – obredne gomile na kojima se u većini slučajeva nalaze. To ustvari ne bi trebalo biti sporno jer na nekropolama stećaka i gomilama postoji kontinuitet ukapanja od prapovijesti, preko antike, srednjeg vijeka pa skoro sve do danas. Naime, najstarije sahrane u gomile potječu iz eneolita (XX. – XVIII.st.pr.n.e.), a najveći broj pripada kasnom brončanom dobu (XIII.-VIII.st.pr.n.e.) i željeznom dobu (XIII – V.st.pr.n.e.). Posljednji pokop u gomilu zabilježio je don Ante Škobalj 50-tih godina prošlog vijeka. Iz činjenice da postoji obredni kontinuitet koji traje hiljadama godina bilo bi logično zaključiti da se radi o istom narodu, jer je teško vjerovati da bi neki osvajački narod, istrijebivši starosjedioce, nastavio koristiti starosjedilačke obrede i običaje.

Južni Slaveni su Iliri

Kontinuitet našeg naroda na ovom prostoru od prapovijesti do današnjih dana nije bio sporan i bio je dio naučnog diskursa sve do kraja XIX.stoljeća. Dakle, sve do tada svakome je bilo jasno da su Južni Slaveni zapravo Iliri. Međutim, nakon što su ilirsko ime, grb s polumjesecom i trobojnica zabranjeni carskim dekretima, germansko-mađarskom političkom odlukom potomcima drevnih Ilira proglašeni su Albanci, a Južni Slaveni odjednom postaju „doseljenici sa Karpata“. U ovom članku ćemo pokazati da su „alkemijom“ prapovijesni stećci odjednom postali srednjovijekovni spomenici, što znači da su stećci i pitanje našeg kontinuiteta neraskidivo povezani. Namjera nam je također pokazati da ni danas ne postoji konsenzus oko pitanja naše autohtonosti, da narativ o doseljavanju ne može izdržati ozbiljne kritičke testove i da se utjeruje političkim diktatom.

Dakle, u čemu je bit političke podvale o našem dolasku? Bit je u tome da, kada se jednom usvoji temeljna pogrešna premisa, nakon toga postaje gotovo nemoguće doći do istine. Drugim riječima, radi se o specijalnom ratu propagandne naravi: koliko god montirane ideje bile neutemeljene i nakaradne, njihovim upornim ponavljanjem proizvodi se konsenzus i, kad se jednom ovjere pečatom znanstvene istine, izazivaju nesagledivo štetne političke posljedice. Ne radi se o tome da su mnogi naši naučnici u razdoblju poslije ilirskog pokreta namjerno pravili štetu ili da to namjerno rade danas, već je riječ o tome da su instrumentalizirani: internalizirali su štetne ideje i potom ih automatski razvijaju do krajnjih posljedica.

A kakve su posljedice krivih ideja? Usudili bismo se reći da sve naše nedaće, ratovi, porazi i nesreće iz njih izviru. Jer, pristanemo li na to da smo uljezi bez kontinuiteta i kulture i k tome nismo jedan narod nego više njih, onda nas je lako porobiti. Posljedica toga je da je naš zajednički prostor podijeljen na male zavađene državice koje se međusobno uništavaju i trve. Pristajući na tu podvalu pristajemo i na to da obitavamo na zemlji na koju nemamo historijsko pravo i čak, budući da tu zemlju nismo junački osvojili, već navodno „došepesali“ za repovima avarskih konja, trebamo biti sretni što nam je dopušteno da na njoj boravimo, da na to plaćamo porez, da prihvatimo stranu vlast i da se, kada dođe vrijeme, pristojno sklonimo i prepustimo zemlju „pravim vlasnicima“. Krajnje posljedice štetočinstva su asimilacija i uništenje.

26.11.2016.

Dogma o dolasku

Teorija o velikom doseljavanju, dakle, nije se ozbiljno razmatrala sve do propasti ilirskog pokreta, a o tome nam najbolje govori povjesničar Bogoslav Šulek (1816.-1895.). Po njegovom mišljenju, prvo, doseljeni narod bijaše istog slavenskog roda kao i Iliri, te, drugo, doseljenici nipošto nisu mogli brojčano preplaviti ilirske starosjedioce koji su nastanjivali čitav jugoslovenski prostor, pa i veći. Da se u VI.i VII. stoljeću nije radilo o seobi stotina hiljada već o svega nekoliko desetaka hiljada ljudi također je ustvrdio srpski povjesničar novije generacije dr. Tibor Živković (1966. – 2013.) koji je procjenio da u potonjem razdoblju udio doseljenog stanovništva među starosjediocima nije prešao 3 posto.

Hrvatski povjesničar dr.Neven Budak na sličan način zaključuje da je starija historiografija pogrešno vjerovala da su drevni starosjedioci protjerani i istrebljeni u velikoj većini, uz rijetke ostatke u visokom gorju, priobalju i na otocima. Prema njegovim riječima, suvremena istraživanja na raznim područjima dokazala su da su starosjedioci preživjeli u mnogo većem broju no što se ranije pretpostavljalo.

I bosanski povjesničar Đuro Besler zastupa slično stanovište, ustvrdivši da je u zemlji ostalo najmanje 85 posto starog stanovništva. I Vladimir Dvorniković u svom magnum opusu „Karakterologija Jugoslovena“ u čovjeku na dinarskom kršu prepoznaje „prastarog Ilira“. To je ustvrdio i Kerubin Šegvić, povjesničar, svećenik i filolog koji uopće nije bio jugoslovenski nastrojen, ustvrdivši da na ovom prostoru nije bilo masovne invazije niti jezične asimilacije. Pa čak je i ustaški ministar Mladen Lorković u svojoj doktorskoj disertaciji u Beču zaključio da je čitava starija povijest razumljiva samo uz pretpostavku da su izvorni Hrvati bili neslavenska manjina koja je na neki način zavladala slavenskim masama. O našoj autohtonosti pisala je i Nada Klaić, govoreći da su Hrvati i Srbi napuštali svoja stara balkanska sjedišta  i selili se k Srednjoj Europi.

Unatoč tome što se dogma o dolasku, premda neutemeljena, ustrajava, ovakva mišljenja suvremenih znanstvenika nipošto nisu rjetka, jer su isto ili slično mišljenje zastupali slavist Matej Bor (1913. – 1993.), arheolog i antropolog Živko Mikić (1946.- 2016.), antropolog Slavoljub Živanović, etnologinja Olga Oštrić (1922. – 2012.), etno-muzikolog Cvjetko Rihtman (1902.-1989.) i arheolozi Irma Čremošnik (1916.-1990.) i Šime Batovič. U najnovije vrijeme slične stavove po pitanju naše autohtonosti zastupa i rusko-američki genetičar Anatolij Kljosov.

Važno je, dakle, primjetiti da su do istog zaključka došli naučnici različitog porijekla, ideološkog opredjeljenja, generacija i disciplina. Mirne duše možemo kazati da dogma o dolasku nipošto nije monolitna i da ne postoji niko ko je na ozbiljan i nepristan način istraživao ova pitanja, a da je zaključio da je teorija o doseljavanju vjerodostojna.

Međutim, pored svih tih dokaza koji, promatrani sa raznih stanovišta, ukazuju na jednu te istu istinu, službena verzija i dalje naš narod smatra doseljeničkim, budući da je taj simulakrum duboko ukorijenjen u ideološko i institucionalno tkivo ovdašnjih pseudodržavica.

26.11.2016.

Autohtonost i stećci - lice i naličje iste priče

Shodno tome i svim dokazima usprkos, službena dogmatika ne smatra da se u antici i ranije na Balkanu dogodilo išta posebice bitno izuzev rimskog osvajanja, pa stećke automatski promatra kao spomenike iz kasnog srednjeg vijeka. Naime, budući da, prema službenoj verziji, na našem prostoru u antici i ranije nije postojao niko osim nepoznatih primitivaca koji su većinom istrebljeni, a manjim dijelom kultivirani kristijanizacijom, ne postoji nijedan raniji kontekst u koji se stećci mogu smjestiti. Dakle, autohtonost i stećci su lice i naličje iste priče.

Kako je stvoren taj simulakrum? Dogma o srednjovjekovnom porijeklu stećaka ustanovljena je u vrijeme kad je 1878. Austrougarska okupirala Bosnu i Hercegovinu i kada se cijeloj Europi otkrio jedan posve novi i neistražen svijet. Budući da najveću pažnju brojnih istraživača privlače izuzetno brojne i velebne megalitske nekropole, stvar najednom postaje jasna; prostor Dalmacije, Bosne, Hercegovine, Srbije i Crne Gore jedinstven je kulturni, antropološki i nacionalni prostor koji posjeduje najimpozantniju i najstariju megalitsku kulturu u cijeloj Europi.

Osvajačima ova spoznaja predstavlja golemi problem: veličina i drevnost naše kulture čini Zapadnu Europu inferiornom, a nihovu civilizacijsku misiju apsurdnom. I u političkom smislu nacionalno ujedinjeni Balkan predstavlja golem, prevelik izazov Austrougarskom carstvu. Implikacija otkrića stećaka u XIX.vijeku  jest da europski korijen i kontinuitet postojanja pripada našoj kulturi, što je uostalom posve logično: ko god je otvorio atlas antike zna da u njemu nigdje ne piše da se europska kultura začela u Berlinu, Londonu, Beču ili Parizu. Da bi se spriječile dalje političke i geopolitičke implikacije tih spoznaja istinu je valjalo zatrpati pod naslagama iskrivljenog narativa.

Početak lažne istorije

Priču o srednjovjekovnom porijeklu stećaka započinje austrijski arheolog i povjesničar Moritz Hoernes (1852.-1917.) čija istraživanja ignoriraju dotadašnje spoznaje domaćih naučnih izvora koji listom tvrde suprotno. Naši pioniri arheologije poput Šime Ljubića opisali su Hoernesovu nauku kao smiješnu. No, Hoernes je, kao pravi Nijemac, na svojoj teoriji ustrajao te je, uz obilnu političku podršku, doveo na visoku razinu prividne akademske ozbiljnosti i na kraju uspio zavesti našu akademsku zajednicu.

Hoernesovom uspjehu vjerovatno je nehotice pridonio britanski povjesničar i novinar Sir Arthur J. Evans  koji je 1875.godine proputovao Bosnu i Hercegovinu. Evans je u svojim prvim susretima sa stećcima i prvim istraživanjima zaključio da se radi o prapovijesnim ilirskim spomenicima, sličnim onima koji se u Velikoj Britaniji nazivaju druidskim, da bi ih kasnije pripisao „bosanskim Bogumilima“, najvjerovatnije pod uticajem Franje Račkog. Naime, Rački je formulirao pogrešnu teoriju o bogumilskom porijeklu Crkve bosanske i povezao stećke sa tim razdobljem. Osim što je teorija o Crkvi bosanskoj kao bogomilskoj neutemeljena, stećci se ne mogu poistoivjetiti s bogumilima jer se teritorijalna rasprostranjenost stećaka ne poklapa s onom bogumila. Naime, kad bi stećci bili bogumilski spomenici najviše bi ih trebalo biti u Bugarskoj, a ondje ih uopće nema.

Treća, još važnija i odmah uočljiva napuklina u narativu Franje Račkog sadržana je u činjenici da su Crkvu bosansku sa svih strana opsjedali katolički i pravoslavni križari, a u XV. stoljeću Osmanlije već uveliko „vršljaju“ po Bosni. Kao takva, ona nikako nije mogla u relativno kratkom vremenu od svega dva- tri stoljeća izraditi više od stotinu hiljada stećaka, većinom megalitskih dimenzija do 32 tone, i još pritom ukrasiti njih oko 6.000 i to na području mnogo širem nego je zauzimala, da bi zatim ta praksa iznenada prestala. Zdrava logika govori da je to jednostavno nemoguće.

Jedan od pionira zablude o srednjovjekovnom porijeklu bio je i arheolog Ćiro Truhelka (1865.-1942.) koji je također usvojio austrijsku dogmu po kojoj su Albanci Iliri. Tada je za potrebe istraživanja Ilira naučio albanski i turski jezik, ali mu to, naravno, nije puno pomoglo jer tim jezicima i predajama neće naći gotovo ništa.

26.11.2016.

Zagovornici istine i njihova kolebanja

Onoj drugoj, pravoj strani na kojoj stoje istraživači stećaka koji zastupaju njihovo prapovijesno porijeklo pripadaju dalmatinski arheolozi i istoričari Šime Ljubić (1822.-1896.), osnivač hrvatskog arheološkog društva, Antun Josip Fosco (1826.-1894.), šibenski biskup i povjesničar, don Petar Kaer (1848.-1919.), svećenik koji je objavio prvu studiju o dalmatinskim stećcima u francuskom antropološkom društvu, fra Lujo Marun (1857.-1939.), još jedan svećenik koji se smatra utemeljiteljem hrvatske arheologije, te austrougarski oficir Heinrich Sterneck koji se svojim tvrdnjama časno odmetnuo od službenih austrougarskih podmetanja. Budući da se radi o izuzetno uglednim, ozbiljnim i učenim stručnjacima koji su terenski istražili brojne nekropole i narodne predaje, utvrdili razne etnološke i antropološke spone, ne bi bilo pametno danas zatvarati oči pred njihovim tumačenjima.

Šime Ljubić, teolog, istoričar, arheolog, filolog i biograf, prvi je počeo ozbiljno terenski istraživati nekropole stećaka u Dalmaciji te prikupljati informacije o onima šire. No, valja naglasiti da Ljubić također predstavlja vrlo zanimljiv primjer intelektualnog kolebanja. Djelovao je u vrijeme procvata i uništenja ilirskog pokreta kojem je i sam pripadao, a kad je ilirizam propao i on je promjenio mišljenje. No, svojim počecima, dok je radio kao župnik u Dalmaciji, pisao je o našem narodu kao o Ilirima – potomcima Pelazga, a teorija o masovnom doseljavanju nije mu bila prihvatljiva. Ali, nakon studija povijesti u Beču 1850-ih godina poslan je u Veneciju na prijedlog zloglasnog apsolutističkog ministra za režim Alexandra Bacha  da istražuje povijesne izvore o naravi mletačko-slavenskih odnosa.  U to vrijeme, a naročito kada je dobio stalno namještenje kod Khuena Hedervarya i Ise Kršnjavoga kao ravnatelj Narodnog zemaljskog muzeja (danas Arheološkog muzeja) u Zagrebu kod njega je prevagnula dogma o doseljavanju Slavena.

Pod istim uticajem počeo se kolebati i po pitanju datacije stećaka, stavljajući ih prvo u prapovijest, a onda u srednji vijek. Kako god, njegova dvoumljenja okončala je studija o dalmatinskim stećcima iz pera makarskog arheologa don Petra Kaera koji je zastupao tezu o njihovom prapovijesnom porijeklu, premda ih ni jedan ni drugi ne pripisuju našim precima nego nekom nepoznatom, nestalom narodu. Još je jedan domaći povijesničar, etnolog i istraživač stećaka, Dubrovčanin Vid Vuletić Vukasović  (1853.-1933.), promjenio mišljenje pod uticajem austrijskog arheologa Hoernesa. Na početku svojih istraživanja stećke je smatrao predgrčkim i predrimskim, da bi ih kasnije počeo smatrati srednjovjekovnim spomenicima. Zanimljivo je da su radovi Vuletića Vukasovića u kojima negativno ocjenjuje rad don Petra Kaera, a hvali Hoernesve stavove o srednjovjekovnom porijeklu stećaka odbijeni za štampanje u Viestniku Arkeologičkog družtva 1887.godine u Zagrebu. Urednik Viestnika bio je – Šime Ljubić.

26.11.2016.

Stariji nego što jesu

Don Petar Kaer, svećenik, povjesničar i arheolog, napisao je naučnu raspravu na francuskom jeziku o dalmatinskim stećcima „Pierres sepulcrales Dalmates“ koju je 1887.izdalo Francusko antropološko društvo u Lyonu. Stećke je pripisao nekim nepoznatim predrimskim narodima koji nastanjivahu naš prostor. I Kaerova mutna pretpostavka o „nepoznatim narodima“ nastaje pod uticajem tada već uveliko moderne podvale o doseljavanju koja implicira da od prapovijesti do VI.stoljeća na našem prostoru ne obitavamo mi već neki nepoznati narod. No, na stranu te zablude, za nas je važno da Kaer stećke ne gleda kao srednjovjekovne spomenike.

Kaerovo mišljenje dijeli Antun Josip Fosco, biskup i istoričar iz Šibenika, grada iz kojeg potiču mnogi srednjovjekovni kroničari i istoričari koji, poput onih iz Dubrovnika, Splita i Zadra nikad nisu spomenuli podizanje megalitskih stećaka na nekropoloma Dalmacije. On u svom djelu na talijanskom jeziku „Le necropolo Fenicie in Dalmazia, Sebenico 1890.“ Izražava mišljenje da su stećci spomenici Feničana koji su u davna vremena živjeli u Dalmaciji. To je, dakako, moguće kao što je moguće da su „Feničani“ (od grčke riječi phoinik, navodno nepoznate etimologije, a u stvari naše riječi vojnik) zapravo „Vojničani“, dakle ratnički slavenski narod, o čemu je već ranije pisano. Mišljenje o prapovijesnom porijeklu stećaka dijelio je i austrijski geolog i istraživač Heinrich Sterneck koji je kao austrougarski oficir-geolog istraživao rudna bogastva Bosne i Hercegovine i na terenu nailazio na brojne nekropole. Smatrao je da stećci sasvim sigurno pripadaju predrimskom vremenu, s obzirom na to da ih često nalazimo na ilirskim gomilama ili u njihovoj neposrednoj blizini te da su stari koliko i ilirski grobni humci.

Njegov naučni rad o stećcima „Staro nadgrobno kamenje u Bosni i Hercegovini“ objavljen je 1878.godine u kulturnom časopisu Vienac iz Zagreba, uglednoj tiskovini koja je objavljivala kvalitetne naučne i književne radove ih Hrvatske, Dalmacije, Slavonije i šire. Još jedan stranac po imenu Eynar Dyggve, danski arheolog koji je više od 20 godina istraživao Salonu i bio arhitekt konzervator Arheološkog muzeja u Splitu (1929.-1932.) opisao je stećke doslovno „starijim nego što jesu“.

26.11.2016.

Korijen u prapovijesti

Najbolje argumentirano mišljenje o stećcima nalazimo kod dalmatinskog arheologa fra Luje Maruna koji u svom djelu „Ruševine crkve sv.Luke na Uzdolju kod Knina“ piše da u unutrašnjosti Dalmacije gotovo nigdje ne nalazimo crkve bez stećaka, ali da ima stećaka bez crkava, pa je posve logično zaključio da takva svetišta potiču iz predkršćanskog doba. On smatra da stećci svoj korijen imaju u prapovijesti, u vremenu kada su se ukapanja obavljala pod gomilama ili humcima, ali da postoji kontinuitet na način da su se kršćanske nekropole sa stećcima također gradile i kasnije uz crkve. Napomenuo je kako je opazio da na prapovijesnim gomilama nastaju jednostavni stećci koji se postupno ukrašavaju do vrhunskih umjetničkih djela.

Poljski istraživač Alexandar Sapieha govori o stećcima kao vrlo starim spomenicima koji podsjećaju na egipatske i partske. Dalmatinski oficir i istoričar Ivan Katalinić u svojoj knjizi „Povijest Dalmacije“ na talijanskom jeziku kratko piše o prastarim nekropolama Imotske krajine. U istom djelu opisuje dalmatinske pogrebne običaje poput spaljivanja mrtvih, pokapanja pod gomile i kamene ploče. Austrijski geolog Ami Boue smjestio ih je u period Rimskog carstva odnosno u vrijeme prvog širenja kršćanstva na našim prostorima.

Stećci u predajama

Analizirajući, dakle, navedene tvrdnje naših i stranih naučnika, uviđamo također da oni nemaju spoznaje da je iko u starim dokumentima ili predajama spomenuo da su megalitski stećci podizani u srednjem vijeku. Spomen o stećcima, doduše, postoji u predajama, ali u posve drugom kontekstu: narod nekropole naziva grčkim, rimskim, kaurskim ili mađarskim grobljima, što su nedvojbeno različita imena za inovjerce. Uostalom, i sami smo tokom brojnih terenskih istraživanja nailazili na iste predaje koje se, što je posebno zanimljivo, na identičan način prepričavaju u raznim krajevima i među pripadnicima različitih tzv.etničkih skupina.

Predaje govore da su stećci izrađivani u pradavna vremena, u narodu divova koji ih je izrađivao pripisuju i neka nadnaravna svojstva: stećke su, po predajama, na glavama nosile žene koje su živjele 900 godina („300 divovala, 300 nevovala, 300 udovala“). Spominju se i stećci koje je vuklo stotinu volova, ali nema spomena nekog plemića koji je na grob navalio gromadu od 15 ili 30 tona. Osim toga, kakva bi logika bila da neko u srednjem vijeku izradi stećak od 17 tona poput onog u Cetini i na njemu ne ostavi ni slike, ni godine, ni imena?“

26.11.2016.

Dimenzije i težina - najbolji dokaz

Da sumiramo: ne postoje stari dokumenti o podizanju stećaka u srednjem vijeku, iako dalmatinski gradovi imaju vrlo kvalitetne arhive i mnoštvo stećaka u svojoj okolici. Nedavno je bečka naučnica našeg porijekla dr. Zlata Duraković, koja je doktorirala na Bečkom sveučilištu baš na stećcima, boravila u Dubrovniku sa specifičnom namjerom da nađe bilo kakav dokument u Dubrovačkom arhivu koji bi spominjao bilo što o srednjovjekovnoj praksi izrade stećaka: nekog majstora, način prijevoza, cijenu izrade, bilo šta. Nije našla ništa, što već dovoljno govori samo po sebi.

Ipak, najbolji dokaz da stećci nisu rađeni u srednjem vijeku same su dimenzije i težina ogromnog broja stećaka. Ne postoji tehnološki kontekst u koji bi se smjestila praksa odvaljivanja megalita do 32 tone i njihov prijevoz na velike udaljenosti u srednjem vijeku. Uostalom, zašto bi se iko time bavio, a da istu tehnologiju ne upotrebi u bilo kojoj drugoj gradnji.

Naš saradnik Kemal Čolak iz Sarajeva izračunao je da bi za izgradnju takvog megalita kakav se nalazi u Pavlovcu kod Sarajeva bilo potrebno odvaliti kvadar od najmanje 40 tona. Nameće se pitanje gdje se nalazi takav kamenolom i kojim je to alatom izrađeno. Posebno je zanimljivo da se, prema svjedočenju mještana, stećak nalazi na bivšem poligonu JNA te da je vojska izmjestila sve stećke s te nekropole osim ovog zato što nisu imali dizalicu kojom bi ga uklonili. Čime ga je onda donio srednjovjekovni čovjek?

K tome, u mračnom srednjem vijeku, u vremenima ratova, bratoubilaštva te križarskih progona krstjana arijanaca, u vremenima gladi, neimaštine i preživljavanja nije bilo vremena za podizanje sto hiljada stećaka, a još manje za njihove dugotrajne i mukotrpne transporte i velika ukrašavanja. Da je to rađeno u srednjem vijeku, jedna tako moćna i tehnički napredna civilizacija lako bi se odbranila od napadača i osvojila cijelu Europu.

Ideološke smicalice

Još jedna od bizarnih ideoloških smicalica kojom se pokušava očuvati dogma o srednjovjekovnom porijeklu stećaka drži da su stećci postavljani na prapovijesne gomile. Zapitajmo se koliko su ove tvrdnje logički održive:“srednjovjekovna nekropola stećaka na prapovijesnoj gomili“. Budući da se radi o zdravim i školovanim ljudima, struka ne obmanjuje slučajno, već se radi o pomno razrađenom sistemu ideoloških smicalica i klopki koji svakoga ko u njega uđe automatski zavede i obmane.

Istina je ovo: na mjestima gdje se nalaze nekropole stećaka često nalazimo kontinuitet od prapovijesti pa do srednjeg vijeka (vidi npr. Nekropolu Krekovi kod Nevesinja), a na nekima sve do modernih vremena kao što o tome piše don Ante Škobalj. Na nekropolama nalazimo različite načine ukapanja, a nalazimo i posmrtne ostatke u kontinuitetu od XX.stoljeća prije nove ere pa ponegdje sve do XIX.i XX.stoljeća nove ere kao što iz svog iskustva svjedoči dugogodišnji arheolog-istraživač Mate Puljak.

Takvi dokazi sklanjaju se izvan okvira dozvoljene rasprave jer predstavljaju nepremostiv problem za ideološku dogmu čijem je pisanju odavno mjesto u ropotarnici povijesti. A kad dokaze nije moguće sakriti jednostavno se upotrebi već rečenu sintagmu „srednjovjekovna nekropola na prapovijesnom tumulusu“ kao što to, primjerice, stoji na natpisu koji opisuje nekropolu u Crljivici u Imotskoj krajini. Identična stvar je i sa tumačenjem simbolike na stećcima za koju čak i poznati promicatelji srednjovjekovnog porijekla stećaka Ćiro Truhelka, Šefik Bašlagić, Marian Wenzel i drugi, ustvrdili da velikim dijelom potječu iz prapovijesti i antike.

Međutim, izgleda da se istina stidljivo probija na površinu. Na primjer, njemački arheolog Georg Wild tvrdi da stećci u Bosni predstavljaju staro europsko kulturno dobro, da neki simboli poput ljiljana (koji je postao simbolom Dominikanskog reda i inkvizicije, protivnika katara) potječu iz antike i to često kao nadgrobni spomenik smrti, kao i da su razni oblici križa pretkršćanski i poznati u antičkoj kulturi, a kršćanstvo ih je naknadno posvojilo, pridavši im kršćansko tumačenje.

I naš domaći znanstvenik Zdenko Chavrak piše da lovne scene na stećcima prikazuju predantički i antički to jest ilirsko-keltski način lova. Po njemu, ne radi o srednjovjekovnim scenama jer je Zapad već od 9.stoljeća lovio uz zvukove lovačkog roga, dok na stećcima nema takvog prikaza. Također navodi da se srednjovjekovno bosansko koplje ne razlikuje mnogo od rimskih i prethistorijskih. I mačevi su u Bosni posve različiti od drugih srednjovjekovnih mačeva u Europi.

Osim toga, svaki istinoljubivi istraživač stećaka primjetit će na tvz.srednjovjekovnim stećcima neobične simboličke prikaze, antičkih stupova hrama, kojih u srednjovjekovnoj Bosni i Hercegovini nije bilo.

26.11.2016.

20 glavnih argumenata

Vratimo se pri kraju ovog osvrta na početak naše priče: budući da dogma o srednjovjekovnom porijeklu stećaka mora opstati, tom kontekstu se prilagođava svaki sadržaj, pa je tako u knjigama na crtežu pogrešno prikazan ratnik sa aureolom umjesto sa s ilirskom kacigom sa stećka iz Nekropole Gvozno Polje. No, kad se ode na teren i uživo provjeri dokazi su neumoljivi: jasno je vidljivo da na reljefu nema oštećenja i da je prikazan ratnik konjokrota s kacigom, a ne svetac s mačem.

Kao i uvijek, uvjerenja kontroliraju percepciju, vidi se samo ono što se želi vidjeti, a ostalo se ignorira i prilagođava. I to nije jedini prikaz ilirske kacige jer imamo još prikaz na stećku iz nekropole Banja Stijena kod Rogatice i onaj iz Hoćevlja kod Vareša. Slične stećke iz nekropole Ubosko kod Ljubinja, Radmilovića Dubrava kod Bileće i Vrelja kod Pljevlja treba dodatno istražiti. K tomu, imamo brojne prikaze vojnika u odorama koje podsjećaju na rimske iz nekropola Radimlja, Rotimlja i Ljubljenica kod Stoca, a slične nalazimo i drugdje, na primjer, u Mostaru i Ulogu kod Kalinovika.

Usto su konjenici na stećcima najčešće prikazani s kopljem i malim štitom ili bez štita, što odgovara načinu na koji su prikazivani rimski konjanici, a nebrojeni su prikazi vojnika, konjanika i plesača sa pokrivalima za glavu koja su nevjerovatno nalik brigijskim kapama. Imamo još i neke čije kape podsjećaju na Parte ili Kaldejce iz nekropole Zijemlje Polje kod Mostara i već spomenutih Crvljivica, Gvozno Polje i Radimlja.

I na samom kraju ovog osvrta nabrojit ćemo 20 glavnih argumenata zašto stećci ne mogu biti srednjovjekovni, premda su u srednjem vijeku korišteni, djelomično ispisivani i ukrašavani.

1. Službena nauka sve do kraja 19.vijeka stećke smatra prapovijesnim spomenicima.

2. Ni prije nije postojao, a ni danas ne postoji konsenzus da stećci potječu iz srednjeg vijeka.

3. Evidentno je da su simboli na stećcima povezani s drevnim civilizacijama, napose egipatskom i partskom.

4. Nisu poznate narodne predaje koje govore o izradi stećaka u srednjem vijeku. Brojne su, međutim, one koje ih smještaju daleko u prapovijest.

5. Ne postoji nijedan zapiis o izradi stećaka kod starih Dubrovčana, a poznato je da su dubrovački agenti bilježili sve što je bilo i od najmanjeg interesa. Takvi zapisi nisu poznati ni u drugim arhivima Dalmacije i Italije.

6. U gomilama pod stećcima bilježimo kontinuitet ukapanja najmanje od XX.stoljeća prije nove ere pa sve do XX.stoljeća nove ere.

7. Srednjovjekovni grobovi na nekropolama stećaka nalaze se pored stećaka ili pod kamenim preklopnicama, odnosno stećcima manjih dimenzija, što dokazuje kontinuitet pokapanja od prapovijesti, ali ne i njihovo srednjovjekovno porijeklo.

8. U srednjem vijeku ne postoji tehnologija, razlog ni kontekst za podizanje megalitskih stećaka težine do 32 tone.

9. Ne postoji valjan razlog da bi se megaliti u srednjem vijeku uopće izrađivali, a kamoli oni bez simbola i natpisa kakvih je većina. Najveći stećak iz Pavlovca nema nikakvog ukrasa, a nema ni najveći stećak na nekropoli Cetina kraj Vrlike. Taj, doduše, ima uklesanu godinu 1925. Znači li to da bi ga trebalo datirati u XX.stoljeće?

10. Od oko 100.000 stećaka, a nekad ih je bilo još i više, svega njih oko 6000 je ukrašeno, a manji dio sadrži raznovrsne vrste križeva koji su prekršćanski i poznati u antici. Ako pak ustrajemo da su to kršćanski simboli, radi se o manje od jedan posto od ukupnog broja. Misao da bi kršćani u ornamentici mahom izbjegavali križ je apsurdna.

11. Tek nešto više od 300 stećaka nosi srednjovjekovne natpise. Natpisi su usječeni, dok su ukrasi velikom većinom isječeni iz stećaka. Tako gdje su ukrasi usječeni vidi se da su mnogo primitivniji, kasniji i većinom kršćanske simbolike (vidi npr.Rašćane kod Imotskog). Iako mlađi, radi svoje (ne)kvalitete slabije odoljevaju zubu vremena.

12. Vidljiva prastarost, odnosno prevelik zub vremena, uočljiv na mnogim stećcima dokazuje da nisu rađeni u srednjem vijeku. Čak i kad uspoređujemo stećke s rimskim nadgrobnim spomenicima – stelama uviđamo da su mnogo drevniji.

13. U srednjem vijeku kada su na prostorima Dalmacije, Bosne i Srbije vođeni bratoubilački ratovi, a najviše križarski progoni arijanskih krstjana, nisu postojali društveno-ekonomski uvjeti za podizanje megalitskih nekropola.

14. Na ukrašenim stećcima ima premalo srednjovjekovne simbolike. Naime, većina simbola je starodrevna. Nalazimo također prikaze ratnika u antičkim odorama (npr.Radimlja), a tu su i već spomenute ilirske kacige na stećku.

15. Budući da stećke nalazimo u brdsko-planinskim zabitima i na visinskim nenastanjenim pustarama do 1800 metara nadmorske visine, bez vidljivih tragova ljudske habitacije, to je indicija da su oni plod neke drevne civilizacije koju tek treba izučiti.

16. Imamo i ogromne stećke pod podovima crkava koje su građene malim neotesanim kamenjem i sedrom (npr.Cetina kod Vrlike). Tu se jasno vidi da su stećci stariji od ranog srednjeg vijeka.

17. Prikazi antičkih stupova hrama na brojnim megalitskim stećcima dodatno potvrđuje prapovijesno porijeklo stećaka.

18. Slojevi humusa na stećcima koji su danas pod zemljom otprilike su između 30 i 80 cm debljine, dok su na rimskim spomenicima između 15 i 30 cm, što prije ukazuje na brončano doba negoli na srednji vijek.

19 .Da je pokapanje pod stećcima i pod gomilom običaj iz brončanog doba kazuju nam stihovi iz Ilijade i Odiseje u kojima se spominju ukopi paljevinskih ostataka tijela pod gomilu na koju je postavljen stećak.

20. Stećci se spominju i u Starom zavjetu, što također ukazuje na brončano i željezno doba.

Dokaze bismo mogli nastaviti nabrajati u nedogled, ali dogmaticima dokazi ionako ništa ne predstavljaju. Ko hoće znati njemu ne treba, a ko neće, njemu ionako ne vrijedi govoriti.

15.10.2015.

Illyrian religion

By its natural wealth Bosnia and Herzegovina was always full of forests and numerous water streams, which by itself, in a very logical manner, predetermined the religious system of the Illyrians, this system was entirely dedicated to worshiping natural forces. This is why Tana and Vidasus became symbols, but also personifications of the human environment, and as such they signified the strength of nature and everything that nature offers to mankind. With them, of course, comes an entire pantheon of other gods and goddesses such as Bindu, Tur, Anzotik, or the divine serpent Boa, whose roles in the religious system were not negligible. But, as a starting point for further observation when researching ways of healing by our forefathers the most important are Vidasus, Tana, Tur and Bind.

What we need to stress at the beginning is the fact that thanks to these deities of our forefathers, today we can be proud that we have a durable cult of healing, which has a deep reach in the ancient times. Documented data from the National Museum in Sarajevo present examples of continued ritual practice of visiting streams and washing the diseased, which ends in leaving a piece of clothing or food next to the stream or even throwing a coin inside of it, which is without a doubt a preserved tradition of respecting and seeking help from god Bind, which our forefathers the Illyrians worshiped as a deity of streams. In pagan Bosnia he was offered animal sacrifices, usually of smaller animals such as goats, which was latter exchanged by symbolic gifts. Cult of Bind was especially dominant in the part of Bosnia, which was dominated by Japod's, as well as boarder parts of the Croatia at that time, especially in Lika, where it was practiced until the middle of the previous century. Belief that spring water, especially the one taken before sunrise, medicinal and suitable for healing is another segment of the mentioned cult.

15.10.2015.

Tana and Vidasus

Sculptures which depict god Vidasus, sometimes accompanied by Tana, show him encircled by girls dancing or in the form of nymphs, water faeries. Beside the data which confirm that the Bosnian folk were familiar with faeries from ancient times, this information is extremely important for further study about correlation with persons which came into direct contact with faeries and gained healing powers as well as texts of spells. From Bosnian tradition we know that faeries are skilled in healing with medicinal herbs and spring water in which, according to legends, they would bathe.

What was especially interesting to notice when gathering materials for this research are individual ways of initiation of certain persons into the world of magic and healing and for which it is impossible not to find a direct link with Tan, Vidasus or even a snake, holly totem of our forefathers.

-"Bosnian folk believes that spells are a gift from spirits, especially faeries, which is evidenced by numerous testimonies about initiation. A large part of older women in the past that used to work with spells were illiterate and they used to live in villages. Their initiation into supernatural was always based on weird dreams in which young and beautiful girls used to appear, usually three, they would teach the chosen woman healing formulas in the dream. There are different examples. According to sayings of a well-known witch from Velika Kladuša called Ćanka, an unknown man and woman appeared in her dream, clad in white clothes. They pulled her by her large toe and "woke her". Then they told her that they chose her to heal and help people. Another woman received her initiation into the world of magic by a snake bite. Namely, at one time while she was out working in the field she got tired and she laid down to rest. Without realising she fell asleep and when she woke up she felt pain in her lips. As soon as she came home she saw that her lips were swollen and dark. She quickly went to a doctor who determined that she was bitten by a snake. It wouldn't have been a sensational event if she hadn't felt that she "knew" strange things and that suddenly she knew how to perform love magic and cure people of it."

15.10.2015.

Cult of god Tur

In folk religion of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is based on Illyrian traditional beliefs, some segments of the Bosnian god Tur were preserved thanks to the cult of spells (magical formulas); in Bosnian mythology it was believed that Tur was a gigantic black bull who held earth on his back. The name Tur itself probably comes from poturiti, onaj koji potura, drži nešto ili pridržava (plant, someone who places under, upholds or holds something) which fully corresponds to the function which is ascribed to this mythological being. Though according to the writings of ethnologists the belief about the gigantic bull who is holding up earth is only found among the Bosnian people, some segments of that cult are present in the magical practice of all three people in our country. We are talking about healing rituals of cattle where women or men who perform these rituals preform a spring ritual of transmission of divine power of Tur in order to gain his blessing or power of healing.

Namely, in folk religion of Bosnia the snail is a miniature representation of the bull Tur since it possesses attributes which symbolise the bull: horns and house on his body which symbolises earth. It is no less interesting to mention that for the ritual of touching, a dark coloured snail is often sought, since the bull Tur was described as being of a black skin or hair, therefore the Bosnian people in the northwest part of Bosnia call him Garonja (black). Significance of touching the snail is the magical connection with earth, in which Tur lives, otherwise in Bosnian mythology is the only culprit for causing earthquakes, and calming Tur, personification of the earth's strength, which is clearly visible in the formula which follows ritual touching of the snails horns: "Ustuk biče, moje biče jače!" (stand down bull, my strength is bigger than the bull's)

When a woman from the surrounding area of Mostar would gain the power of healing livestock, she would use her index finger of her right hand to touch the horns of a dark snail three times, pulling her finger down his body, backwards, uttering the following spell: "Stu na se! Stu natrag, ne znalo ti se za trag. Stu na se. Od Boga derman a od mog iladž!" (Go back, go back, may your origin be unknown, go back! From God the cure and my labour recovery). As we can see from the examples, touching the horns of the snail is nothing but a magical imitation of touching horns of Tur, whose entire strength rests in them, and using that force to heal, since that is the energy of earth or Grand Mother. It is believed that after such a transfer of power from the snail onto a woman or man, a person can use their acquired powers to cure throughout the entire year. A diseased animal is brought to a rock which is firmly fixed into the ground, i.e. it never moved from that place, which is alluding to a tombstone, then the woman which is performing the healing ritual uses her index finger to make three circles around the diseased part of the body and utters: "stu natrag!" (an abbreviation of "come, tread, move"). She then spits on her index finger uttering: "Ptuj, u živac, u kamen, stu natrag!" she repeats this three times.

Right index finger in folk medicine is the finger of healing and is brought into connection with the finger of Hazrat Alija, who is always depicted with a raised index finger as a symbol of god's wisdom but also blessing. This is no coincidence since Hazrat Fatima and her husband Hazrat Ali in folk medicine, especially in Iran and Turkey, are regarded as a couple who have ascribed mystic properties to them, among which are healing properties. In north-western part of Bosnia, in Velika Kladuša and Cazin, right index finger is represented in the prayer to the new moon which is pointed towards the moon after uttering five short (smaller) surah, then a spell is uttered with which one aims to renew vitality and beauty of the body. According to traditional belief for this magical transmission one would chose the period from the beginning of May until the middle of the month which is no coincidence, namely, it was a custom in the past to slaughter a bull (once people used to say: "We'll slaughter a bull for the first of the May!"), which was a symbol in the former Yugoslav republic of labour day, however, that practice of slaughtering animals, i.e. sacrificing a bull on our territory is an ancient practice and stems directly from Illyrians. All of this of course has its roots on the cult of Tur and mother earth or goddess Grand Mother.

Actually, today's holiday St. George's day, which is observed on May 6th among the Bosnian orthodox Christians, is not a Christian holiday at all, nor any other, it has been taken over from paganism. In this data we can find an answer as to why Bosnian people, former members of the Church of Bosnia before the advent of Christianity, were pagans, therefore it is normal and logical to conclude that they, like other people, did not fully renounce their old religion. Instead they continued under the veil of Christianity and later Islam to celebrate the holidays of their pagan forefathers. That's why among the Bosnian folk some so called "Christian" holidays were marked (observed) but not in a religious but magical way i.e. the original pagan way, during which destiny was foretold, spells uttered and livestock protected from evil spirits and diseases.

12.08.2015.

How homosexualism was created in the Balkans

It is known from history that the ancient Greeks were a people which valued bisexuality and anal sex, which was later adopted by the Romans. This resulted in a large number of Greeks enjoying in same sex relationships openly and without prejudice. It is interesting that Herodotus in his public address in the Athenian Agora, where he openly spoke about the hatred towards the Mesopotamia's civilization, skilfully avoided to mention that the Greeks offered their young for sexual services to the Persians" Greek people did not find this act humiliating for their national pride, in fact, they represented it as their civilizations reach?! This trend was taken over by the Romans, and during the time of the Roman Empire there was a rule that every prominent and married Roman which cared about himself and his reputation, had a young lover.

Serbs because of the made up stories and thesis about their national origin, which range from them being direct descendants of Jesus Christ all to the theories of them coming from Atlantis or even space, made them a target of laughter and mockery by the neighbouring countries for decades. But, there are interesting details about this people which they are trying to hide or which they do not want to be presented to the wider public since, allegedly, seriously damages their reputation?! When we take into consideration that they are the people that committed genocide and lead the aggression on four neighbouring countries in the last decade of the twentieth century and performed ethnic cleansing, it is difficult to speak of any sort of reputation. But, lets return to a historical and documented fact which reveals how Serbs, along with the Greek and the Romans, are originators of homosexualism in this part of Europe.

Serbian historian and ethnologist Milenko F. Filipović about the traditional habits of the Serbs towards homosexualism writes the following: "Particular part of male dress among the orthodox members (for the others I couldn't gather information) until about 1800 was "nakurnjak" (loin cloth). There was a custom that the bride among her items brings a loin cloth for the groom. Loin cloths were woven and worn when people went from Visoko to work as hired coachmen. It was worn to protect the scrotum and penis from the cold. If someone would have urine frozen in his penis because he was not wearing a loin cloth, from that accident, which was followed by great pain, one would be saved if someone would suck his penis or in Serbian - "izdoji" ledenicu (suckling icicle). From the book "Life and folk customs in Visočka nahija" page 60.

23.06.2015.

Curing fear in folk medicine

According to folk medicine in Bosnia and Herzegovina, fear is classified as a difficult disease which can result in an extremely bad epilogue i.e. it can cause the frightened man's entire organism to die.

Fear, i.e. stress, is especially negative for the human heart and stomach which, according to folk belief, because of shock can move or even change its place and in such a manner cause a series of diseases. We are all familiar with the feeling when out of fear or shock we feel that our lungs are suddenly left without air and that our heart suddenly jumped i.e. started beating with a higher intensity. Similarly the stomach reacts to shock and is moved out of its place. Then it starts to negatively affect the entire organism. Namely, as folk healers (called stravari and želudičari) in Bosnia claim, the stomach should be in the height of the belly button, and when it is moved due to some event then it goes in the direction of the ribs, spine, neck or back.

Though the stomach often moves due to shock or fear there are other reasons; due to lifting heavy burden, in case of a diet, sleeping with hands above the head, improper diet or falling. Sometimes, the cause can be a cold where due to strong coughs the stomach springs out of place.

Fear causes a series of unpleasant states from insomnia, depression, anxiety attacks, hysteria, sudden obesity or anorexia, heart issues, etc. It's effect is deadly for the entire organism and psyche, this is why traditionally in Bosnia it is recommended to a person which after going for a surgery or heaving a traffic accident, receiving shocking news, to visit a stravarka in the next 40 days so she can perform the ritual with lead melting so that the accumulated fear wouldn't "spring to life" i.e. started to negatively affect the psyche and physical health. The ritual itself is pretty simple and that's why its effect impresses. Combination of prayer and lead has nothing to do with autosuggestion and the best proof of this is curing small children which cry incessantly, jerk in their sleep and the like. Suggestion has no effect on them since they cannot be aware of the things that happen around them. A similar situation is in the opportunities when the water used during the lead melting ritual is secretly poured to the husband or wife i.e. that person which would never accept to practicing the ritual, and after a very short time one can notice a positive change in them.

23.06.2015.

Procedure with lead

A piece of lead is placed on the forehead and it is circled around the head, clockwise, there times. The same procedure is done around the hands, which the diseased holds folded on his chest, and lastly around the legs. From the first pouring of molten lead above the head one usually discovers the reason for fear. In one or numerous smaller or larger pieces the lead forms a figure of a man, woman or some animal. According to statements of numerous stravarke it often happens that the diseased is afraid of his/her marital partner without even being aware of it. After the analysis or "reading" of the lead figures is done, all pieces are gathered, placed back into the spoon and dissolved on fire again. In the second pouring of molten lead in the vessel with water which is held above the diseased' chest one detects how strong the negative effect is. Finally, the fear is removed during the third and final ritual when the molten lead is poured into a vessel with water next to the diseased' legs.

While the lead is being poured into the water, if a piece of the lead is poured onto the floor it is considered to be a happy sign and is commented with the following statement: "It spreads well!", because of the belief that small pieces prophesy good health i.e. that the diseased will be cured and will be free of fear. But, if there are many forms that resemble needles, which Bosnian stravarke call "heavenly arrows", then the fear is dominant with the diseased and the procedure will have to be repeated.

23.06.2015.

When the stomach moves

As we said fear negatively affects the stomach which reacts unfavourably to shock and slowly creates complications in the human body. The first health issue is the one that is largely connected to the stomach; obstipation, sudden obesity or anorexia, diarrhoea, stomach bloating, etc.

Therefore if you have stomach cramps, suffer from the feeling of flabbiness, your face is yellowish, lips dry, you have sore eyes, suffer from fever or lack of appetite, feel queasy, then you undoubtedly have issues with stomach dislocation. Another frequent symptom of a dislocated stomach is long term diarrhoea. Since fear and stomach are connected it often happens that a child gets diarrhoea out of fear, and this can happen to an adult as well. Therefore it is very useful to know and recognise symptoms which fear causes, shock or stress, especially on small children, in order to intervene on time. In that case children cry, but without tears, mumble, become sad and seldom puke.

Bosnian folk medicine is familiar with certain techniques, including massages, with which the stomach is "returned" back to its place, i.e. the functioning of the entire body is normalised. Each technique is harmless and cannot lead to unintended consequences.

26.04.2015.

Bosnian love magic (divination)

For a girl to find out for whom she will be married, she performs some of the love divinations:

If it happens that a girl spends a night for the first time in someone's house she will use that opportunity to divine in order to find out how her future husband will look like, she will count all the beams in the room with her right leg. The man she dreams of that night will become her husband.

When the new moon appears on the sky the girl goes outside, stands on the key and turns her face towards the moon uttering: "O moon, by your youth, tell me the name of my future husband". After this ritual, it is believed, that the first male name which the girl hears will be the name of the man she will marry.

At night the girl looks towards Štapima (assemblage of three stars in the sky) and utters:

Illuminate me Žarinko Nasiba,

set me on fire Planinko Nasiba,

so I can see my future husband.

To see him tonight in my dream as in real life,

or to see his face,

or to hear his name.

Until I see him he shouldn't walk nor work!

After that the girl goes to sleep. That night she will dream of her future husband or she will hear his name the next day.

14.03.2015.

Magia bosniaca - amuleto

Nella magia bosniaca tradizionale esistono molti modi per proteggersi dalle energie negative ( per esempio dalla magia nera, incantesimi vari, demoni ecc.). Il modo considerato più efficace e l'utilizzo dei amuleti.

Possedere l'amuleto, eccetto gli effeti che esso ha sul corpo fisico e sull'aura, comporta anche dei effetti psicologici perché offre all'uomo una dose di ulteriore sicurezza e fiducia in se stesso. Secondo le credenze tradizionali è consigliabile per ogni uomo di avere un amuleto per proteggersi dalle energie negative che incontra quotidianamente, in particolare quelle che si riscontrano nel contatto con altra gente. Ogni uomo ha un destino predefinito il quale però viene influenzato dalla fortuna. Purtroppo, questa fortuna viene spesso bloccata dalle energie negative di altre persone (specialmente dalla gelosia o dalla magia nera). In questo caso, pure l'energia vitale dell'uomo viene bloccata e di seguito l'uomo agisce con solo 50% delle sue capacità e per questo non riesce a raggiungiere risultati rilevanti e soddisfacenti in nessun aspetto della sua vita. Continuamente gli riaccadono le stesse situazioni negative e fallimenti. La persona non riesce a trovare un amore adatto, non prospera nel lavoro e spesso si avvertono anche delle malattie. Queste situazioni hanno l'influenza diretta sulla psiche umana creando insicurezza, depressione, ansietà e incremento del stress, ecc. L'importanza particolare dell'uso degli amuleti stà nel fatto che esso ha gli stessi effetti sia sui credenti sia sugli scettici.

Il contenuto degli amuleti è diverso e dipende dalla conoscenza del suo creatore. Per questo di solito incontriamo gli amuleti con una o più preghiere, amuleti con i quadrati magici e citazioni da Kur'an, amuleti che contengono figure umane, di spade, di serpenti. Si può trovare anche un amuleto che contiene tutto ciò che è stato elencato precedentemente.

La funzione dell'amuleto é stata spiegata perfettamente in uno dei testi che un certo l'amuleto conteneva:

"Per la protezion e contro i demoni, diavoli, maghi, mostri, contro gli attacchi, il dolore, mal di testa , debolezze, febbre e ogni altra malattia. Allah è la protezione più affidabile . Lui perdona sempre. Non vi è alcun potere o forza oltre quella di Dio, il Grande e Onnipotente ! "

Anche se gli amuletti hanno potere in tutti gli aspetti ora elencati, nella maggior parte vengono utilizzati da gente che é già stata vittima di un incantesimo nero oppure da coloro che hanno la sensazione che ciò sta per accadere. A causa di ciò gli amuleti vengono creati appena dopo la richiesta esplicita della persona la quale desidera raggiungere l'imunità contro le energie negative opurre dopo l'eliminazione dei incantesimi neri per prevenire la loro ripetizione.

Contrariamente all'opinione che gli amuleti possano essere fatti in qualsiasi ora del giorno o della notte, i maghi bosniaci hanno delle preferenze. Cioè una volta che l'amuleto viene ordinato, c'è un'attesa dai 15 ai 30 giorni prima che esso viene prontato. Il motivo è che in Bosnia e Herzegovina la creazione degli amuleti avviene nella seconda metà del ciclo lunare, gli ultimi 14 giorni prima del cambiamento lunare e sempre dopo mezzanotte. In questo modo l'amuleto ottiene un potere di protezione particolarmente forte e elimina tutte le influenze negative.

27.02.2015.

Old legend about the grave of the Turkish soldier

On the territory of Sanski Most there is no place that so many myths, legends and folk tales are related to it like the place Kamengrad, a tame Bosnian village located next to the motorway which connects Sanski Most with Bosanska Krupa. On a steep ridge which rises above the village are the remnants of a medieval fort. At first sight one can see that the builders took care where to build the fort. The place where the fort is located is accessible only from one side, which states that Kamengrad was difficult to occupy. It was built by the Hungarian princes Babonić which lived on the mouth of rivers Sana into Una, on the place which is today called Bosanski Novi.

540 years ago, this area was a scene of bloody battles. In the valley underneath the fort in Kamengrad was a large army camp of the Turkish sultan Mehmed Fatih. Some time before that, Ključ was occupied, the last city of medieval Bosnia. That's when the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević was executed. An old legend claims that the battle lasted shortly, but it was bloody. Hungarian crew which defended the fort was cut down until the last person. The Turkish army also suffered losses. The old Shahid (martyr) cemetery bellow the fort. Grave stones are still standing which were built more than five centuries ago.

The attention of visitors is drawn by the stone sarcophagus. Folk tales say that this is the resting place of a Turkish soldier - carrier of the flag (bajraktar - flag carrier) which showed great courage. He obtained over fifty wounds during the battle, but he still boldly charged the Hungarian fort. In the heat of the battle the soldier's head was cut off. Legend says that he descended the hill carrying his severed head under his arm. Only when a woman saw him and screamed in terror did the soldier fall to the ground. That's where he was buried.

Bad luck for evil doers

Inhabitants of Kamengrad always paid special attention to this grave. Close to this sarcophagus a Bajraktar's (flag carrier's) mosque was built which was destroyed by the Serbian army during the aggression onto BiH. It is considered that this place was blessed by special mercy by God, since the man in the sarcophagus died on the road of Allah's faith. That's why since the old days Bajraktar's graveyard is a place of pilgrimage. From this place in the last hundred years countless prayers were sent. The diseased prayed to be cured, soldiers to return alive from the war, parents for their children to be happy in life, agricultural workers for a fruitful year...

Legend claims that everyone who tried to destroy the soldier's grave was struck by god's wrath. In WWII the grave was desecrated two times. Both men which committed this died soon. And at the time of aggression on Bosnia (1992-1995) the Serbian army placed explosives into the stone sarcophagus which failed to explode. The man who was placing it, was struck by a stroke the next day. The grave of the Turkish soldier remained untouched.

The older inhabitants claim that the ghost of the soldier appeared a couple of times. It always happened during the night. The apparition, holding its head under its arm, radiated with a weird glow climbing the hill towards the old fort - it happened the inhabitants claimed, always before large wars. That's what happened prior to the aggression onto Bosnia in 1992.

17.01.2015.

Fatimina ruka

Fatimina ruka je poznata pustinjska biljka koju donose mnoge hadžije iz Mekke zbog vjerovanja da ona donosi sreću u novcu (vraćanju dugova), pronalasku posla, ali i omekšavanju ljudskih srca i drugoga. Korjen ove biljke u Bosni se tradicionalno stavlja u čašu vode, kako bi njen korjen upio vodu u sebe i raširio se, te se iznad vode prouči po sto puta sura Ihlas ili sura Fatiha te se daje ženi da popije kako bi se što lakše porodila.

Fatimina ruka je isto tako biljka za koju se vjeruje da može pomoći u liječenju raka, blažeg moždanog udara i visokog krvnog tlaka. Koristi se topla slankasta voda u koji se stavi korjen a iznad nje se minimalno ponovi po 200 puta sura Fatiha i Ayetul Kursi. Nakon toga bolesnik pije tri puta dnevno po čašu vode do izlječenja.

06.01.2015.

Naša ilirska tradicija: četvrtak, sveti dan Vidasusa - Jupitera

"U jajačkom kotaru, u općini Sipovac, selu Vražići, postoji jedan narodni običaj, koji se drži za veliku svetinju. Taj se običaj sastoji u ovom: stanovnici sela Vražića, bez razlike vjeroispovijesti, muslimani i kršćani, drže četvrtak kao najveći praznik. Oni, kada nastupi proljeće, pa sve dok se žito ne požanje, neće da rade četvrtkom nikakvih poljskih poslova, a taj običaj zovu „uvjet“. Kada i kojim je povodom narodni praznik posta, nijesam mogao doći u kraj, samo znam to, kako su mi Jajčani pričali, da narod misli, kada bi u taj dan radio u polju, onda neka se ne nada da će išta sa njive u kuću unijeti; dakle oni to čine u ime spasa zemaljskih proizvoda. Ta svetkovina traje od proljeća do žetve, a čim se žito požnje, prestaje i „uvjet“, pa onda narod radi kao i obično. Nije mi za čudo, što se kršćani drže tog običaja, jer u njih ima i drugih svetkovina, da im je zabranjeno raditi ma kakav posao, ali jest za muslimane, kojima je slobodno raditi i na sami Bajram, najveću njihovu svetkovinu, svakovrsne poslove. Kažu, da je bilo hodža, koji su nastojali iskorijeniti taj običaj. Ali sve zaludu jer „utamani prvo selo, pa onda običaje“. Jedan hodža, koji je prilično bio upoznat sa vjerom, znajući da se to nikako ne slaže sa šerijatom, upotrijebi sva sredstva, da to jednoć ukine, ali umalo ne nastrada, jer se na njega diže kuka i motika, pače bilo ih je i taki, koji odoše u Travnik tražiti fetvu od muftije, da im se taj običaj ne ukida. Pa zbilja i isposlovaše Vražićani takovu fetvu, po kojoj smiju i nadalje obdržavati taj svoj običaj. Od tada imaju seljaci sela Vražića mir i svetkuju svoj četvrtak.“

Četvrtak - dan boga Jupitera i Vidasusa

Opisani običaj "uvjet" predstavlja savršeno dobro očuvan segment naše ilirske tradicije, koja se sudeći po svemu, održala dugo, čak i nakon dolaska Osmanlije u BiH i pojavom islama. Ovaj ali i drugi slični tekstovi veoma dobro predočavaju kako se stanovništvo Bosne i Hercegovine, unatoč kršćanstvu i islamu, nikada u potpunosti nije odreklo svoje antičke religijske prakse i vjerovanja.

Zahvaljujući običaju "uvjet" ali i nekim drugim segmentima ilirske tradicije sačuvane do današnjih dana relativno je lako analizom rimsko-ilirske tradicija na prostoru BiH dokučiti povijesne činjenice i povezati ih u jednu cjelinu, kao u slučaju poštivanja četvrtka, dana posvećenog Jupiteru, te tako na što bolji način upoznati se sa našim precima. Ali, krenimo od početka.

Vrhovni ilirski bog bilo je šumsko božanstvo koga su poštivali kao zaštitnika pastira, stada i šuma. Opisivan je kao muško stvorenje obraslo u gustu dlaku sa kozijim nogama i rogovima. Na natpisima uvijek nosi naziv Silvan, pošto je bio poistovjećivan s rimskim Silvanom, odnosno grčkim Panom, koji su imali isti izgled i funkciju. U Topuskom je pronađen jedan spomenik u kojem se ovaj bog naziva Vidasus, a njegova pratilja Thana. Njihovih spomenika se najviše pronašlo na području Glamočkog, Livanjskog i Duvanjskog polja, te u srednjoj Bosni. Vidasus se kod Ilira poštovao pod nekoliko imena: Magla, Cor, Messor, etc. Zanimljivo je da se isti skraćeni oblik (Cor...) dolazi jednom na spomenicima iz naših krajeva i uz Jupiterovo ime.

Kada su Iliri pali pod okupaciju Rimskog Carstva došlo je do romanizacije stanovništva što se odrazilo i na ilirsku religiju i nazive božanstava. Arheološka iskopavanja poduzeta u prošlosti, naročito tokom prošlog vijeka, otkrila su ostatke rimskih hramova i spomenike bogova za koje se smatra da su od kraja prvog stoljeća n.e.postali sve češći i prisutniji na teritoriju Bosne i Hercegovine, posebno Jupiteru, Neptunu, Liberu, Dijani, Asklipeju, etc.

Vidasus, koji je prema mišljenju nekih istraživača prvo ilirsko božanstvo, preimenovan je u Silvan. No, njegova omiljenost među Ilirima, koju nisu ni Rimljani mogli uništiti, rezultiralo je relativno brzo time da je Vidasus/Silvan izjednačen sa Jupiterom, čime mu se priznalo neosporno pravo na ulogu vrhovnog božanstva. Ovime se još jednom dokazalo da je Vidasus bio božanstvo plodnosti ali i kiše, pošto bez vode ne može biti niti sjetve niti uroda.

Zanimljiv je natpis iz Kartage koji sadrži popis jednog kolegija, a posvećen je božanstvu koje nosi natpis: „Jupiter Hammon Barbarus Silvanus“. To bi značilo da se ovdje Silvan izjednačen sa vrhovnim libijskim bogom Amonom, a ovaj, pak, s rimskim Jupiterom. Potvrdu da se Silvan izjednačuje sa Jupiter Amonom imamo također na jednom natpisu iz Rima koji se završava sa: „Sacerdos dei Barbari Silvani“, pa se uzima da je to njegov epitet.

Jupiter je kod Rimljana bio vrhovno božanstvo, on je bog munja, groma i kiše. Kao Iuppiter Pluvius šalje kišu, koja oplođuje polja, te biva davateljem plodnosti /Liber/, a štiti posebno poljioprivredu, stočarstvo i mladež. Posvećen mu je četvrtak.

Bijeli četvrtak

Da nije riječ o izoliranom običaju dovoljno govori i podatak kako i u Cazinskoj krajini nailazimo tragove o takozvanom kultu četvrtka koji je, kako vidimo, još iz ilirsko-rimskog perioda bio posvećen rimskom bogu oluja, groma i munja, sa čime korenspodira vjerovanje iz Velike Kladuše i Cazina da se četvrtak od proljeća nazivao "bijeli četvrtak" i u tom danu je bilo zabranjeno prati rublje, posebno ono bijele boje, sve dok ne započne košnja trave, a sve u strahu da nevrijeme ne uništi pšenicu i druge poljoprivredne kulture. Iza epiteta bijeli četvrtak krije se simbolika bijele boje koja označava sveto ili svetost, tako da je "bijeli četvrtak" isto što i "sveti četvrtak".

05.01.2015.

Iliri – najveća misterija Europe

Da su naši preci Iliri bili ratnički narod mističnih, šamanskih, kultova poznato je bez obzira na relativno malo podataka o njima. No, ono što je još zanimljivije od toga jeste činjenica kako je ostalo zapisano od pojedinih rimskih povjesničara, poput Plinija, da je među Ilirima bilo mnogo čarobnjaka, iscjelitelja i vidovnjaka na glasu, poznatih po cijelom Rimskom Carstvu.

Ilirska religija činila je mnoštvo šamanističkih kultova gdje su među najvažnijim božanstvima bili oni koji su predstavljali simbole kulta plodnosti – bog Vidasus (Cernunnos, Pan) i Tana (Diana, Aradia). Isto tako, među mnoštvom duhova i bogova zemlje (prirode) i neba, dominantno mjesto je zauzimala zmija, inkarnacija Velike Majke, kojoj je bilo posvećeno kućno ognjište ali i prag. Još i danas u Bosni tradicionalno vjerovanje tvrdi kako svaka kuća ima svoju zmiju zaštitnicu, koja štiti dom i obitelj od zla i nesreće. Da to vjerovanje nije tek jedno od mnogih već izuzetno bitno, ali i sveto, sasvim precizno potvrđuje njegov tabu - ako se zmija slučajno ili namjerno ubije smrt će zadesiti i vlasnika kuće.

Prema legendi zmija nije samo čuvar kuće nego i planete Zemlje. Naime, u bosanskoj mitologiji se navodi kako iznad Zemlje postoji velika gigantska zmija koja je svojim tijelom oblikovala krug (zagrizla svoj rep) oko planete i na taj način je štiti od svake opasnosti i nesreće, što dodatno opravdava njen naziv zaštitnice ljudi.

Iliri su podjednako bili skloni štovanju kako zemaljskih duhova i bogova prirode tako i oni nebeskih, među kojima se izdvajaju Sunce i Mjesec te zvijezde. Vjerovanje Ilira da su zvijezde sjedišta ljudskih duša otkriva intrigantnu činjenicu da su naši preci smatrali da potječu sa neke druge planete odnosno iz svemira.

Tradicionalno vjerovanje u Bosni tvrdi kako čovjek ne bi trebao gledati noću u zvijezde zbog bojazni da u tom trenutku neka od njih ne „padne“, jer desi li se slučajno da to bude zvijezda te osobe, ona će istog trena umrijeti?! Analizirajući još neke pojedine segmente ilirskih legendi i vjerovanja, poput one o crnom zmaju, bogu zla, koji napada na Sunce i Mjesec pokušavajući ih progutati (pomračenje), nadziru se dijelovi drevnog mita o propasti jedne civilizacije ili čak planete sa koje su pobjegli preci samih Ilira.

Predstava zmije kao Velike Majke, simbola života, i zaštitnika ljudi sa jedne strane i crnog zmaja, boga zla, koji stalno nasrće na Sunce i Mjesec, pokušavajući ih progutati i tako uzrokovati kraj života na Zemlji, a time i samih ljudi, drevni je mit o vječnom sukobu Dobra i Zla. No, iza svega toga krije se nešto mnogo dublje i mističnije. Ovdje bi se mogli referirati na teoriju Davida Ickea o reptilskoj rasi na Zemlji, koja je prisutna još iz vremena drevnog Sumera i Babilona, a čiji su simboli predstavljeni u različitim segmentima vladarskih familija kroz povijest.

Ako rezoniramo povijest religije odmah na samom početku doći ćemo do svima nama očitog podatka da je današnji monoteistički Bog bar duplo mlađi nego svi paganski bogovi te da učenje monoteizma nikako i ne možemo ozbiljno razmatrati u pokušajima da proniknemo u povijest ljudi i njihov postanak, bez obzira što je monoteizam, posebno kršćanstvo, preuzelo mnoge segmente paganske religije. Najstariji religijski pokret koji nam je poznat jeste neolitski kult Velike Majke, koja se zbog toga i naziva prvim i najstarijim božanstvom u ljudskoj povijesti. A upravo je Velika Majka ono što povezuje Ilire sa reptilima (zmija, zmaj, salamander) i njihovim vanzemaljskim porijeklom ili drevnom rasom iz koje su oni potekli.

Šta povezuje Bosnu i Indiju?

Postoji velika mogućnost da su Iliri imali neku povezanost ili čak zajedničko porijeklo sa narodom Indije, što se može dokučiti ako analiziramo pojedine legende iz bosanske mitologije. Najzanimljivija je predaja o tajanstvenim bićima zvanim utve zlatokrile - polu ljudima polu pticama, koji nisu imali spolno obilježje. Za njih se tvrdi da su pobjegli u Bosnu iz Indije „te proklete zemlje“.

Još jedan raritet bosanskog naroda ali i poveznica sa Indijom nalazi se u tradiciji vjerovanja u seobu duše iz čovjeka u životinju i obratno (reinkarnacija), što je uostalom bio temeljni koncept Bogumila u Bosni tokom srednjeg vijeka. Koliko je to vjerovanje bilo rašireno i prihvaćeno od naroda možda najbolje svjedoči podatak da čak i danas, u 21.vijeku, postoje starci koji kroz priče prolongiraju vjerovanje o selidbi duše. Tako u Velikoj Kladuši još uvijek postoje starice od kojih se može čuti tvrdnja kako se zli ljudi, posebno ubice i lopovi, nakon smrti pretvaraju u krave, konje, svinje, etc kako bi u novom životu otplatili svoje grijehe, služeći drugim ljudima. Ovo tradicijsko vjerovanje, koje se nalazi u potpunoj opoziciji klasičnoj monoteističkoj predstavi o odlasku duše u raj ili pakao, dovoljno jasno upućuje na duboko ukorjenjeno vjerovanje o reinkarnaciji među Bošnjacima.

Treće oko ili zvijezda

Za kraj, vratit ćemo se na sam početak teksta koji govori o Ilirima vrsnim čarobnjacima i vidovnjacima te dio o vjerovanju u povezanost čovjeka i zvijezda na nebu te sve to uporediti sa hinduističkim učenjem o čakrama. Ajna ili šesta čakra nalazi se na sredini čela, iznad obrva, i povezana je sa pinealnom žlijezdom koja je kod većine ljudi neaktivna, a misticima omogućava sposobnost telepatije, vidovitosti, astralne projekcije, etc. Ova šesta čakra se najčešće naziva treće oko i može se vidjeti na drevnim crtežima mnogih božanstava. U ilirsko-bosanskoj tradiciji treće oko se naziva „zvijezda“ koja ima funkciju da povezuje čovjeka na zemlji sa njegovom zvijezdom na nebu, sjedištem duše. U praksi ovo vjerovanje najzastupljenije je kod stravarki koje dok izvode ritual anuliranja negativne energije upotrebljavajući rastopljeno olovo pokrivaju rukom čelo odnosno „zvijezdu“ zbog straha da im negativna energija ne zablokira nevidljivu povezanost sa zvijezdom na nebu. Kako tvrdi svaka od njih, kada bi se to desilo, onda bi se vrlo lako moglo desiti da izgube zdrav razum i psihički obole.

I ovaj ritualni postupak na direktan način ide u prilog pretpostavci da su Iliri vjerovali da potječu sa neke druge planete, sa kojom su ostali povezani preko „zvijezde“ na čelu ili trećeg oka. Ili da su se njihova astralna tijela spustila na Zemlju i nastanila u tijelima nekih pradavnih ljudskih bića. Od tog događaja za pretpostaviti je da su se kroz nizove generacija izgubili precizni detalji iz kojeg dijela svemira i sa koje planete dolaze pa su sve zvijezde smatrali sjedištem duše i svog postanka.

autor teksta: Raif Esmerović

27.12.2014.

„VJERA BOSANSKA“ BAŠTINA BOŠNJAČKA

U povijesti srednjevjekovne Bosne nema veće posebnosti nego što je takozvana „Crkva bosanska“. Nije bila ni katolička ni pravoslavna, već narodna i bosanska. U historijskim izvorima poznata je pod više različitih imena. U izvorima se definira i kao „vjera bosanska“ (fides bosniaca). To je najvažnije povijesno znamenje srednjevjekovnog bosanskog kulturnog i duhovnog identiteta. Najveći je i najljepši biser srednjevjekovne Bosne. Iako izložena žestokim progonima katoličke crkve, posebno za vrijeme krvavih krstaških pohoda koje su protiv bosanskih „heretika“, „krstjana“ „patarena“, „šizmatika“ ili „arijana“ poduzimale rimske pape, ipak se održala sve do sredine 15. vijeka i dolaska Osmanlija u Bosnu. Tada se najveći broj njenih pripadnika, kako piše Ivan Franjo Jukić, „isturčio“ i prešao na islam.

Zanimanje običnog i prosječno obrazovanog Bošnjaka za srednjevjekovnu „vjeru bosansku“, ili za bosansko bogumilstvo kako se ista vjera popularno naziva, vjerovatno nadilazi sve druge bosanske povijesne teme. Nema Bošnjaka koji nije čuo za bosanske bogumile, svaki od njih o tom bosanskom bogumilstvu u stanju je izreći desetine svojih riječi. Bogumilska „vjera bosanska“ od iskona je Bošnjaku prirasla za srce, on je intuitivno osjeća i doživljava kao nešto svoje i izrazito svoje.

Naime, sve što je u vezi s Bosnom, od imena Bosna preko bosanskog stećka do „vjere bosanske“, u historiografiji naših susjeda Srba i Hrvata ciljano se problematizira i definira kao „neriješen historiografski problem”.

Pritom, uzaludne su stotine i stotine pseudoznanstvenih knjiga, koje se pišu od vremena Božidara Petranovića do Dubravka Lovrenovića, u kojima se iz vjerskih i političkih razloga nastoji osporiti bosanski karakter „vjere bosanske“ na račun pravoslavne ili katoličke vjere. Iako je logički apsurdno tvrditi da „vjera bosanska“ nije bosanska iz razloga što ona to i svojom definicijom jeste, i pored posve precizne definicije koja ukazuje na državnu i narodnu vjeru srednjevjekovne zemlje i države Bosne, u dosadašnjoj srpskohrvatskoj historiografiji iskonstruisan je mit o takozvanom „neriješenom historijskom problemu“. Naime, sve što je u vezi s Bosnom, od imena Bosna preko bosanskog stećka do „vjere bosanske“, u historiografiji naših susjeda Srba i Hrvata ciljano se problematizira i definira kao „neriješen historiografski problem“. Ne treba velika mudrost da bi se zaključilo zašto je to tako. Od vremena nastanka velikodržavnih projekata Srbije i Hrvatske, u glavama srpskih i hrvatskih velikodržavnih ideologa i njihovih epigona Petranovića i Lovrenovića, Bosna i Hercegovina postala je „neriješen politički problem“. A najveći problem tog „nerješenog problema“ su Bošnjaci, kojima se svojata i otima njihova domovina Bosna i Hercegovina. Razumije se, u svemu tome otima se i bošnjačka povijest, bosanski stećak, bosanska vjera, i sve drugo što dokazuje da je Bosna „po svemu samostalna zemlja“, kako je još u 12. stoljeću zabilježio bizantijski historičar Kinamos.

Pored definicije o „vjeri bosanskoj“, još neki vrlo važni i do sada bošnjačkim historičarima nepoznati historijski izvori, pokazuju da je došlo je vrijeme da se definitivno kaže: „vjera bosanska“ ili Crkva bosanska samo je bosanska, isključivo bosanska i ekskluzivno bosanska. Hrvati iz Hrvatske i Srbi iz Srbije u „vjeri bosanskoj“ nemaju šta tražiti, jer im ta vjera nikako ne pripada.

Bazelski koncil katoličke crkve dogodio se u Bazelu 10. 6. 1434. godine. Na tom saboru učestvovao je i dubrovački dominikanac Ivan Stojković, u navedeno vrijeme osoba koja je pripadala najvišim krugovima katoličke crkve. Rođen i odrastao u najbližem bosanskom susjedstvu, dobro je poznavao vjerske prilike u srednjevjekovnoj Bosni. Na tom Saboru Stojković je izjavio da se „milošću božijom napokon ukazala iznimna prilika za obraćanje svega bosanskog kraljevstva, koje je preko tri stotine godina i više bilo zaraženo manihejskim krivovjerstvom i arijanstvom“. Razumije se, misli se na obraćanje Bosne s „manihejstva“, „hereze“, „arijanstva“, „bogumilstva“ ili krivovjerja – na katoličku vjeru. Ono što je od posebne važnosti, i što se u historiografiji o Crkvi bosanskoj tendenciozno prešućuje, jeste to što se pripadnici „vjere bosanske“, odnosno bosanski heretici, na Bazelkom koncilu nazivaju drugim imenom „Bošnjani“ (Bosnenses).

„Bošnjani“ (Bosnenses) je drugo ime, ili sinonim, za bosanske heretike ili bogumile, i to se u najvažnijim radovima o Crkvi bosanskoj prešućuje i krije.

„Vjera bosanska“ nekadašnja je vjera Bošnjana koji će se, s dolaskom Osmanlija u Bosnu, početi zvati Bošnjacima.

Savremeni Bošnjaci – a s njima i određen broj autohtonih bosanskih katolika i pravoslavaca, koji su usljed prevjeravanja svojevremeno iznevjerili svoju „vjeru bosansku“ – isključivi su baštinici srednjevjekovne „vjere bosanske“.

Nigdje u svijetu, kao u srednjevjekovnoj Bosni, nije poznato da se narod jedne zemlje, u političkom i vjerskom smislu, kolektivno i zajednički, definira kroz jednu jedinu riječ, a ona je „Bošnjani“. U srednjevjekovnoj Francuskoj vjernici se nikad ne zovu imenom „Francuzi“, u Engleskoj „Englezi“, u Španiji „Španci“, u Rusiji „Rusi“, zato što su katolici ili pravoslavci. Samo zemlja i država Bosna ima svoje stanovnike i vjernike što se zovu zajedničkim imenom „Bošnjani“, a to je zbog toga što nisu bili katolici ili pravoslavci.

Da u definicije „vjere bosanske“ i „Bošnjana“, pripadnika te vjere, ne može biti nikakve sumnje, pokazuju srednjevjekovni izvori o trgovini bosanskim robljem. Naime, katolička crkva zabranjivala je prodaju katolika; na trgovima u Dubrovniku, i diljem Mediterana, prodavalo se bosansko heretičko roblje, prethodno uhvaćeno u Bosni.

Uz imena bosanskoga roblja, u notarskim knjigama gdje je zabilježena njegova prodaja, između ostalog, stoji: „Bossina patarena et de genere servorum“, odnosno „bosanska patarena roda ropskog“. Za robinju Radoslavu, kčer Bosanca Dragoja, stoji da je „de genere Bossinensium et conditione servorum“. Sličnih primjera u izvorima ima desetine. „Rod bosanski i ropski“ – a on je „ropski“ zbog toga što nije bio ni katolički ni pravoslavni – historijski izvori bilježe i u Sandžaku, na području današnjega Pljevlja.

Na žalost, bošnjački historičari ne istražuju izvore o kojima je riječ, a srpski i hrvatski ignoriraju ih i prešućuju. Navedene izvore, i informacije koje iz njih proizlaze, uzalud ćete tražiti u studijama Mustafe i Envera Imamovića, Muhameda Filipovića, Saliha Jalimama, itd. Na drugoj strani, ime „Bošnjanin“ kao drugo ime za bosanske heretike, u najnovije vrijeme hrvatski historičar Pejo Ćošković perfidno prešućuje, u svojoj „Crkvi bosanskoj u 15. stoljeću“ (recenzent Dubravko Lovrenović), iako raspravlja o bazelskom koncilu i o svim drugim nazivima bosanskih heretika! Da paradoks bude još veći; Ćoškovićevu studiju izdao je Institut za istoriju u Sarajevu! Štaviše, bošnjački historičari s katedre za historiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Sarajevu – a među njima i tadašnji šef katedre koji se legitimira kao „veliki Bošnjak“ – Peju Ćoškovića iz Zagreba doveli su u Sarajevo, za predavača sarajevskim studentima historije. O tempora, o mores!

Pitanja krucijalnih tema iz Bosanske povijesti pitanja su nacionalnog i kulturnog identiteta Bošnjaka. U kojoj mjeri smo, kao historičari, svjesni tog identiteta i odgovorni za taj identitet. Neznanje određenih historijskih činjenica nije sramota, nikad nije kasno da se nešto novo i nepoznato nauči, posebno kod Bošnjaka čije je zanimanje za predislamsku povijest novijega datuma. Međutim, pored vlastitog naučnoga kadra, sramotno je dovoditi učitelje sa strane da nas „podučavaju“ o sebi, što je, u vezi s dovođenjem Peje Ćoškovića u Sarajevo, javno prigovorio profesor Muhamed Nezirović. Ko se još sjeća Muhameda Nezirovića; Bošnjaka poput Muhameda Nezirovića sve je manje.

17.12.2014.

Let him be healthy, clean and bright like the stars

According to folk belief spellbound eyes (curse) are a demonic being which exerts negative influence through one human onto another. However, in order for this definition not to be ambiguous we need to stress that this belief stems from the Bogomil religion (Bosnian church) according to which human souls are demon's trapped in bodies. That's why every man has the ability to harm another person with his gaze. However, belief in the destructive power of the eyes is older than the middle ages and dates from the Illyrian period when our ancestors fostered a great fear from the devastating effect of a gaze. That's why even the Romans were scared if the Illyrians believing that among them there are persons of extremely dangerous and unlucky eyes. The word itself urok (curse) which is used as a term for spellbound eyes stems from the Illyrian forefathers and means to fascinate, enchant.

It is believed among the Bosnian people that there are a few ways in which spellbound eyes manifest, the most common being zazor (when one shy's away from something) i.e. negative influence spurned by envy and malice, as well as začud - negative influence of another person through amazement or awe at someone's beauty, health, etc. Due to destructive influence of spellbound eyes a person can fall ill, become unhappy or even die. That's why people were scared of gazes from specific people, especially in the presence of small children which are the ones most susceptible to the effect of someone's evil eyes.

Stravarka Šerife M. (68 years old) from Velika Kladuša neutralises the negative effect of spellbound eyes, fear but also black magic with rhythmical chant of a magical formula. According to her saying the mentioned negative effects can cause mental but also physical issues and therefore they should be treated in time. Among small children, according to her opinion, disease is manifested after three days from immediate contact or touch with the source of negativity and among adults through three Tuesday's or 21 days. Šerife repeats a formula three times over the vessel with the spring water and every time she throws three coals from the fire into the water. When she utters the formula she yawns, stops for a moment and again mechanically repeats the exorcist procedure:

From nine spellbound eyes and nine diseases on N (name of diseased) eight, out of eight, seven, out of seven - six, out of six - five, out of five - four, out of four - three out of three - two, out of two - one, out of one - none! On N there is no longer any magical attacks, no more spellbound eyes, no more disease, no more fear, with my oath and god's will!

In the end, after the formula has been repeated three times, stravarka Šerife places her right hand on the vessel, spreads her fingers and blows through them in the direction of the water uttering: "I'm not opening my hand (not spreading my fingers), I'm opening N star so that he (or she) can be healthy, clean and bright as a star when it appears in the sky!"

She then dips the tips of her fingers into the water and strokes he diseased across the forehead where according to ancient Bosnian belief the human star is located. It is interesting to note how many segments of Illyrian tradition have been kept in the magical practice among the Bosnian folk, especially if we analyse the above described ritual in which the star is mentioned. Namely, Illyrians believed that every human has his own star in the sky with which he is connected via the middle of his forehead which is why that place is considered extremely sensitive to negative influence and is always protected with a piece of clothing or hand.

In certain exorcist formulas aimed at annulling the effect of spellbound eyes Did (grandfather), the priest of Bosnian Bogomils is mentioned, which is also called Bilobrk, white moustache or white beard, which was usually the main characteristic of the priests in the church of Bosnia. Namely, they were described as people in white clothes with long white beards, symbol of wisdom:

Bilobrk crosses the blue see to dear god, from dear god he brings N (name of diseased) health and happiness and takes away začud and zazor, veledalin amin.

Besides Bilobrk in a few versions of another formula Serma or Sijerma is mentioned, female demon of disease and her nine children which are neutralised in the first part of the formula while in the continuation of the text Sijerma is mentioned by another name i.e. Uročica and through exorcism she banishes from the human body and directs into the high mountains where there is a wasteland and no fertility. This place is known under the name "dark Hawaii":

Sijerma has nine children; out of nine - eight, out of eight - seven, out of seven - six, out of six - five, out of five - four, out of four - three, out of three - two, out of two - one, out of one - none. Go, Uročice, from the grease into bones, from bones into flesh, from flesh into skin, from skin into hair, from hair into the high mountain where the rooster doesn't sing, where the Imam's call can't be heard, where the sheep doesn't give birth, where the cow doesn't give birth, where the mare doesn't give birth. Go disease across the world like bees on the flowers, brake and disintegrate.

Three eye colours

Among the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina it is believed since the old days that a man can only have three eye colours: blue, black and green and that's why three coals are thrown into the water from the fire. Besides the classic healing of spellbound eyes among stravarke and Imam's there is a way in which the diseased can be cured by himself. In the vessel with spring water one places a few leaves of rue (ruta) and at dawn, when the roosters first crow, the vessel is taken into the hands and the diseased scales a ladder while carrying it. On every step he takes a sip of water. The procedure of climbing is repeated three times in total. With the rest of the water the diseased washes his face at the end of the ritual. With that it is considered that he has completely freed himself from the negative effect of spellbound eyes.

24.11.2014.

Short history of Bogomils in Bosnia

Pope Pius II (1458-1464) in his work "Cosmografia" wrote while describing the Adriatic countries: "Behind Albania come the Illyrian people towards the west and north. This people were called the Slaves in our time and they call themselves Bosniaks, other Dalmatians, third Croats, Istrians and Carniolans".

Bosnia - land of the Bogomils

The first mention of heresy in Bosnia stems from the first half of the 10th century. In the letter of Pope Ivan X, sent to an archbishop from Split and the local clergy in 925, a complaint is mentioned that in the neighbouring diocese or land (referring to Bosnia), there is a science "located in holly books". The Pope rebukes them for not paying attention and "tacitly approving it". Though here there is no direct mention of who the heretics were, nor is there mention of the character of their teachings, but there is mention that it is not "in the holly books", this clearly implies that the Pope saw it as heresy. That it refers to Bosnia and its heretics is quite clear since in the later period Bosnia was the only country in this part of Europe where heresy developed and where it, so to speak, gained the status of state religion. (Source: F. Šišić, Manual on Croatian history, I/1 Zagreb 1914., p.215.)

Another important document confirms that the Bogomils were present in Bosnia in the 10th century. Anselmo Canterburyjski (San Anselmo) from Alexandria in Italy, which lived and worked in the 13th century, in one of his documents mentions that "the heretics were initially in Bosnia from where they spread their teachings to Lombardy, and from there towards France, from where it arrived to Orleans in 1022 and into Arras in 1025." (Source: A. Dondaine, Le Tractatus de hereticis d'Alexandrie, Arch. Fr. Praedic, XX, Rome 1950., p. 308-324).

Letter of the Roman Pope Gregory IX about Bosnia as a nest of heretics

"In his letters from 1232 to 1239 (pope Gregory IX) mentions heretics in Bosnia several times. Thus on May 30th 1233 he wrote to the cardinal Jakov Prenestinsky his legate in Bosnia, that with sorrow he discerned from his report, that the Bosnian bishop fell "into the bitterness of the crazy heresy ". That's why he ordered to place two, three or four bishops?! (though he has no support in Bosnia).

About the Bosniaks he says: "About the inhabitants of that country he says, that they are poor in estate, and rich in wickedness, since in most part they are infected with wickedness of heresy". (Pope doesn't hide his hatred towards the Bosniaks and confirms that Bosnia is mostly heretic but despite that he plans to place bishops in Bosnia?!)

In the second letter from February 13th 1234 Gregory IX wrote: "such is the multitude of infidels in Bosnia and surrounding areas, that the entire country (Bosnia) weeps and aches, barren and impassable". On August 8th 1236 the pope wrote to Sibislav, the duke of Usora, son of the former king of Bosnia Stephen (Stepan Kulinić), that "he received with joy the news that he is among the dukes of the Bosnian diocese?! (which never existed), which are infected by the taint of heretic wickedness, like a lily among thorns".

From this letter one can clearly conclude that the pope clearly wrote to one catholic among the Bosnian nobility, commending him for not falling into heresy like all the other Bosnian nobility. He mentions that in the letters, which he wrote to Ancila, the mother of Sibislav and to Hungarian bishops (since there are no Bosnian bishops), to whom he recommends Sibislav and his mother". (Source: Dominik Mandić "Bosnia and Herzegovina volume II: Bogomil church of Bosnian Christians" p. 33-34).

Letter of Pope Ivan XII 1319 to Croatian liege Mladin Šubić

"They are learning disastrous heretical fallacies. Every believer has to stand up against such people and destroy them in order to up root their poisonous anger to prevent contamination of other believers. We often, with great sorrow, listened, from credible sources, that the land of the Bosniaks is the home to heretics, that churches are being abandoned, the clergy has been up rooted, Christian sanctities are being trudged on, the cross is not being respected, moreover, there is no sacrament of christening".

Bosniaks - dualists

"Dialogus contra manichaeos in Bosna" translated "Dialogue against Manichaeism in Bosnia" is the work of Jakob de Marchia who was placed as the vicar of Bosnia and main inquisitor by the Roman curia. This work which was written on the ground of Bosnia describes the Bosniaks as Manichaeists and as bi-fundamental heretics (dualists). In the dialogue it is mentioned that they baptize themselves with the book, and not water, similarly to the western Cathars, which is the original spiritual, dualistic baptism called consolamentum. The work "Dialogus contra manichaeos in Bosnia" was in the hands of church censors in 1697 when the issue was canonization of Jakov (Jakob) Markijski (de Marchia). Since then the work has been lost. Censors Johannes Bapt. Lucini and Jochannes Bapt. Barberio exhausted the content of the work and incorporated it into their analysis which is contained in a collective work called "Monumenta canonizationis B. Jacobi de Marchia" which is in Rome.

Jakob de Marchia who was labelled a saint was a doctor of canonical law and a great fighter against heresy. Senate of Dubrovnik called him "the most elegant sower of the Lords word". His lack of success in converting Bosnian Patarens he justified to the pope by claiming that he lacked support from the royal couple Tvrtko II and Dorothea. Dorothea and Tvrtko became very unpopular among the Franciscans, which called Dorothea an "evil woman".

They would rather die than accept orthodoxy

One of the four grand inquisitors which were labelled saints by the Roman church is inquisitor Capistran (Giovanni de Capistrano) which was also known as the expert on heresy. In his letter to pope Kalisto III 4/7/1455 wrote: "Bosnian Christians are not members of the Eastern church, nay they would rather die in disbelief, than accept the religion of the Rašan (Serbs)." (Ref: Franjo Šanjek Phenomenon "krstjani (Christians)" in medieval Bosnia and Hum, collection of works.)

How much hatred and revolt there was against the Pope, and the eastern church - which at one moment had a competition who will commit greater genocide over the Bogomils - is best confirmed by this letter according to which the Bogomils inclined towards the Ottomans as protectors against Christian evil (inquisition) and murdering. At the end of 1456 pope's legate Ivan Karahal sent Nikola Barbucini to king Tomaš in order to talk him into declaring war against the Ottomans in unison with Hungary. After the stay and discussion with the Bosnian king, Barbucini sent a report to the pope's. legate that Tomaš is willing to go to war against the Ottomans but that "he can't because of the Manichaeists which are still a majority in Bosnia, and which love the Ottomans more than the Christians..". The statement that the Bosnian king gave to Barbuicini was repeated literally, three years later in 1459 in his letter to pope Pius II.

24.11.2014.

Fifty Manichean fallacies in Bosnia according to Torquemada

Theological structure of Bosnian heresy according to inquisitor Torquemada:

Cardinal Juan Torquemada, uncle of the infamous Spanish grand inquisitor Tomas Torquemada, in 1461 compiled a list "fifty Manichean fallacies in Bosnia". Namely, that year three Bosnian nobles were brought in chains to Rome ("three champions of heresy, influential in the king's court"). Cardinal Torquemada questioned them and studied their religion for a whole year and found 50 fallacies. He had Croatian priests at his side, and especially Luka de Talentis, archdeacon from Korčula, who was at the time serving among the pope's curia. In the end he interpreted to the three Bogomil's the list of cardinal Torquemada and based on that list on May 14th 1461 they renounced all 50 "Manichean fallacies" and promised that they will try to persuade their countrymen to change their opinion and renounce them as well. After the ceremonial renunciation the three Bosnian Christians returned to Bosnia. The two of them kept their promises, and one of them reclaimed and escaped into the parts where Stepan Kosača ruled "his friend in unbelief".

Fifty Manichean fallacies in Bosnia according to Torquemada:

1. There are two gods, one of which they call supreme good, and the other supreme evil.

2. There are two principles. The first they call god of light and the other god of darkness.

3. Some angels have an evil nature and they couldn't stop sinning.

4. Lucifer ascended into the sky and fought god and he brought many angels from there.

5. Human souls are demon's trapped inside bodies.

6. Evil angels, trapped in bodies, will return into heaven with the help of baptism, cleansing and repentance.

7. They condemn and reject the Old Testament. They say it stems from the god of darkness.

8. For the angel that spoke to Moses on the hill Sinai, they claim he was evil.

9. They accept the New Testament only partially. They deny that Jesus was born by a woman and they don't accept his genealogy.

10. They renounce the patriarchs and prophets of the Old Testament.

11. They condemn the blessed John the Baptist and claim that there is no greater devil in hell than him.

12. The tree of knowledge (of good and evil) was a woman, and Adam sinned for having sex with her and that's why he was cast out of heaven.

13. Blessed Marry was not a woman nor female being but an angel.

14. Son of god took a pseudo-body and not a real one.

15. Christ didn't truly suffer nor died, nor did he go to heaven or hell, but all that he did was illusory.

16. They believe that their church was God's.

17. They are successors of the apostles, and their heresy is the bishop of the church and the deputy and successor of Peter.

18. The Roman church was condemned and cast out.

19. Everyone is a pope, from Saint Peter to Saint Sylvester, whether their religion or not, and saint Sylvester was the first one who went rogue.

20. They condemn brick churches and called them synagogues, and for those that pray inside them, they say they are performing idolatry.

21. Use of pictures inside churches is idolatry.

22. Sign of the cross is the devil's symbol.

23. They despise the service of the lord, laude and hymns, they say it's all contrary to Christ's gospel and his teachings.

24. They make fun of and condemn worship of holly relics.

25. All reverence of saints which is done in churches is condemned and made fun of and they say one should only pray to god and worship him.

26. Their elders allow the people to pray to them, saying that they are without sin and that they carry the holy ghost in them (Parakletos).

27. They condemn church sacraments.

28. They renounce baptism which is done in the water and they say that it is John's baptism and that it cannot save anyone.

29. They claim that's Christ's baptism is done without water, by placing a book of the gospel on the chest and imposition of hands.

30. With their baptism everyone achieves forgiveness of sins and becomes as holly as Peter himself.

31. A child cannot be saved before it reaches the age of reason.

32. Full worth and power of baptism comes to the baptised from merit of the baptist.

33. The number of times the baptist sins, that's how many souls, though they be in heaven, will fall into hell.

34. The number of times the baptist sins, that's the number of baptisms those that he baptised will need.

35. They renounce the sacrament of confirmation.

36. They say that the Christ's body cannot turn into bread, and if it is turned, we cannot eat it.

37. They renounce the sacrament of penance, they say that sins are forgiven by their repeat baptism.

38. They renounce the sacrament of the last ointment.

39. They renounce the sacrament of the (holy) order.

40. Bodily marriage is adultery.

41. Every sin is a death sin.

42. Renouncing every church authority, they say that no one must be excommunicated.

43. They renounce enjoyment of meet, they say that no one who eats meet or cheese or dairy products can be saved if they are not baptised again.

44. They deny resurrection and say that the body that dies now will never resurrect but the spirit will.

45. They claim that there is no purgatory. They say that there is no middle way between heaven and hell. 46. They renounce prayers which are used for the deceased inside the church.

47. It's a death sin to kill animals or birds, also to smash eggs.

48. They condemn blood justice which is done by worldly leaders.

49. They condemn all oaths.

50. They forbid giving charity, they reject and rebuff acts of mercy.

13.08.2014.

Bosnian ritual with four elements and a pentagram

Lead melting is an old ritual of neutralising negative energy known from Bosnia and Herzegovina all the way to Palestine. But, while in Turkey and throughout the Middle East the ritual was exclusively practiced to nullify spellbound eyes, or, in Romanian and Bulgaria for removing effects of fear, in Bosnia this ritual cures the consequences of spellbound eyes, fear, black magic, influence of demons, certain skin diseases and different blockages such as the inability for someone to get married or a pupil to achieve success in school. Also, only in Bosnia and Herzegovina stravarke and stravari know how to use this ritual to help people which are far away from them, without physical contact, even on another continent. That's why it is known that Bosnian stravari are the best ones in this area.

In support of all the above the claim that the lead melting ritual originated in Bosnia is very popular, namely the Ottomans spread it across the lands they conquered in their campaigns i.e. from the Balkans to Palestine and Syria. In support of the originality of the ritual the data that lead melting was familiar in Bosnia since the old days and that there is no data in any ethnographic chapter which would disprove these claims. According to individual anthropologists lead melting is an ancient ritual of the Illyrians which knew how to use metals and how to shape them but also to use them for purposes of magic.

As I have written before on the ritual practice this time I will pay more attention to the theory and detailed explanation of the magical background of this ritual. To begin with we should stress that the ritual of lead melting itself is actually a combination of four elements, since a human is also made out of them. Namely, the human body is divided in the following way; from the foot to the waist rules the element of earth, from the waist to the chest is the element water, around the lungs, rules the element of air, while the head belongs to the element of fire.

In what way are the 4 elements present in the ritual? In the bowl with water, in which you melt lead, you place a hollow rock which is considered to be hardened earth. It's function is that all negative energy passes through it and goes into the ground. The water in the bowl is the second element which is combined with the element of air i.e. the stravarka blows into the water while chanting various formulas. The lead is melted with fire, with which we come to the last of the four elements. Namely, lead melting is an ancient ritual which is used to bring all four elements inside a human into balance and harmony and in such a way it enables a normal flow of energy and healing.

Another symbol, which is very important in the ritual of lead melting is what I would call "unification of the elements" and that is the pentagram or star with five points, which represents the human. Each point represents a part of the body: head, arms and legs. According to the procedure after the ritual the diseased washes his face with water which was used for lead melting and chanting of prayers and in such a way as to follow the pentagram; first wash the face, then the right arm and left leg and then the left arm and right leg. In such a manner one symbolically forms a star since according to ancient Bosnian tradition, successors of Illyrian cults, each man has his own star in the sky with which he is connected over his forehead, i.e. the place between the eyebrows. For that reason the stravar or stravarka every time after the last lead pouring dips his/her fingers into the bowl with the water and passes the fingers over the forehead of the diseased. With that ritual she "cleans" the star of that man or better yet neutralises all blockages which disrupted the connection of the man and his star.

Power of words

Uttering prayers above the surface of the water which is located in the bowl is an imitation of the mythological creation of the world which was, according to Bosnian mythology, created by a supernatural being (God) or more of them (gods) uttering a magical formula i.e. basma above the sea and then blew into the water out of which then came life. Still today there is a belief, that there is a secret and universal basma, the one that created life, the one which if found out by humans and uttered, would allow him to become the master of the entire planet earth. Bosnian stravarke believe that earth "stands" or exists on the power of the basma and the surface of the earth, on which people walk and from which they get food, rests on the strength of the prayer Ihlas from the Qur'an.

In magical practice prayer Ihlas is often combined with a basma in order to produce a magical effect. It is always repeated in the beginning three, five or seven times and then the basma is repeated three times. With that, through the ritual, one connects into a whole things which are theoretically inconceivable - basma as a pagan element with Islam i.e. prayer Ihlas whose content is the most important message of monotheism - There is only one God. Symbiosis of magic and religion doesn't stop there instead it culminates in the formula which is called "Backwards Ihlas", whose content has a few versions of the text, but every one of them starts with the identical words of the basma: "ćuhum ćuti, lehum leti." and ends with the first words of the prayer Ihlas: "kulhuvelahu". Power of this basma is extremely large which confirms folk belief according to which all those that know the text of this basma can rule over the forces of magic and can cast spells.

Lead, herbs, water

It is interesting to mention that there are a few versions of this ritual only in Bosnia, which are absolutely unknown in other countries where the practice of lead melting is present. Namely, besides the use of lead the ritual is performed with certain herbs such as stravna herb (glechoma hederecea) or kukurijeka (Helleborus niger L.var.macranthus Freyn). From the root of kukurijeka one would boil a tea and in it lead would be poured. After that the diseased would drink the tea.

The second way is even more interesting. The ritual is performed with the help of hot water which is poured from the vessel into a saucer, then the vessel is turned upside down and placed in the middle of the saucer with the water and one would utter prayers over it. When, because of the heat, the vacuum sucks the air from the upturned vessel, the water would also be sucked into the vessel. After that has occurred the vessel is raised and the diseased washes his face with the water and drinks some of it.

08.08.2014.

Genocide of our time - Srebrenica and Gaza

While on July 11th, 19 years from the genocide on Bosniaks in Srebrenica was marked, in Gaza, another genocide continued. It is a horrible feeling to arrive at the place of the lagest crime in Europe since WWII and listen at the same time how Jews are killing the Palestinian civilians at the same time. Watching the dismembered bodies of children, blood, listening to agonizing shouts... all of that was already seen in Bosnia.

And exactly in those days of the Israeli military aggression on Gaza, the same fear and desperation, blood and death connected two distant places in the same pain. And two nations - Palestinians and Bosnians.

While this year we buried 175 bodies, victims of genocide, in the memorial centre Potočari, the Jews in the meantime killed over 200 Palestinians, mostly women and children. How many did the Jews actually killed in these 66 years of systematic ethnical cleansing it is difficult to say - a million, two million, three or even more? And so far they haven't been punished for any of those killings. They are very thankful to the USA which is a direct partner and participant of the genocide. USA participates very actively in that genocide and is trying very hard to protect the criminals, always vetoing any condemnation of the crimes. Similarly the USA abundantly help Israel financially and militarily in order for the Jews to continue their plan of ethnic cleansing. History has thought us that every time the USA vetoes against some resolution, condemnation or possible sanction on Israel because of their war crimes, at least a thousand Palestinians will be killed. Yes, it is the same USA that always acts as the police of the world, claims to be protecting human rights, and promotes democracy across the globe. Of course, it's all lies and a worn out phrase for the international public. Instead, the USA constantly injure human rights, participates in genocide, perform military invasion on other countries, robs natural resources of every country they attack, finances terrorism and organizes directed coups on all countries which are not obedient. That's why none of us should be surprised that the USA is on Israel's side and that it is actively engaged in genocide. What can connect two countries besides common interests?!

Gaza - blood, death and hope

For some time Gaza bears the name of the largest concentration camp in the history, whose existence the world has turned a blind eye. And all those doing that are becoming accomplices of the crime. Ethnical cleansing which the Jews undertook in Palestine in order to form an artificial structure which is today called Israel is the most gruesome example of the continuation of the Nazi ideology about a super race - one people which is better than others and which has the sole right to live.

Attacks on Gaza serve Israel as a military training ground where they always test a new weapon, on the bodies of Palestinian children. In the last attack the Jews used a new weapon which causes melting of the skin and human flesh. In the previous ones they used chemical weapons... Doesn't this remind you of the Nazi concentration camps and experiments that they performed on humans?! Remember - Nazism never disappeared, it only moved from Germany to the USA, Israel, Serbia... They are the people that have taken the right for themselves to perform ethnic cleansing and genocide and go unpunished. Those people consider themselves to be special, unique, they are very "religious", they are the oldest, most powerful... in short, they are everything and the rest of us are no one and nothing.

While rockets fall on Gaza the Jews applaud euphorically

Every time the Israeli army commits a massacre on Gaza according to an established programme which has been perfected in Israel but also in the west, a group of ten Jews or some Jewish organization protests the attacks on Gaza, in order to fool the international audience and suggest: "Not all Jews support the genocide over Palestine!". This is accompanied by the media and delivered to the world in order to fool the world that one day in Israel cool heads shall prevail. However, if that day ever comes in Palestine and Gaza not a single Palestinian will be left - all will be dead or exiled. The real truth is that 95% of Jews gives support to all military actions and continuation of the ethnic cleansing since it enables the construction of new neighbourhoods and expansion of territory.

And that such is the case is confirmed by this, namely, a few days after the start of another continuation of the long-term genocide, pictures of Jews sitting outside and euphorically chanting each rocket that fell on Gaza appeared?! Yes, you read correctly - those people enjoyed in each new kill, each new destruction and each new horror. Yes, say it out loud - they are not people, they are monsters! For a long time now there are no people in Israel only monsters, vampires and oafs. And the pinnacle of this horror is the statement of the war criminal Benjamin Netyanahu which claimed that "Israel is the only democracy in the Middle East!" Yes, you also read this correctly - the only democracy???!!! If democracy is undertaking ethnic cleansing and genocide, celebrate killing of children and civilians then they thought us wrong what the term actually means. That's why I will correct the statement of the war criminal since he actually meant to say that: "Israel is the only demonocraty in the Middle East". Since there is no difference between demons, those that hate people and the Jews.

Voice against Israel and against genocide!

Avigodr Liberman in the midst of the continuation of the genocide on the Palestinians, when the death toll crossed the horrific number of 700 killed, called UNHCR "council for terrorism", clearly stating that ethnic cleansing in Gaza will be continued?! In such a manner Israel once again told the world that it has no intention for peace with Palestine, even though the western media try to portray it otherwise.

When we analyze the chronology of the events in the Middle East we come to a conclusion that terrorism was born in Israel, when a genocide creation was born on the foundations of ethnic cleansing, terrorism and crimes. Palestinians, who have been struggling against this for centuries, are being called terrorists by the western media while the criminals have been presented as victims?! To the Jews, terrorism was a starting point from which they would begin to exile and kill the Palestinian people.

Because of such policy of the western countries, especially USA, the Jews without any type of prosecution, undertook war crimes for centuries over the Palestinian people in order to fulfil the plan of systematic destruction of Palestine.

Today we all know that Jews are the Nazi's of the Middle East, a monstrous and primitive people which raise their children to hate and kill. The Jews are a threat to world peace, international legal order, their policy of genocide sends a clear message to all other military regimes of the world that genocide can be performed without any consequences. That is a dangerous message and was an inspiration to many war criminals and genocide, such as the one in Bosnia, and there will be more. That's why all nations of the world must isolate Israel, sanction it, cease diplomatic relations and force that monstrous people to be punished for war crimes and deaths of over a million of Palestinians. Remember, who ever helps Israel in any way to perform attacks and massacres in Gaza is a direct participant of the genocide over this people. I think that no sane person in this world would like to do that. That's why we need to raise our voice against Israel and against genocide!

21.07.2014.

Bosnian prophets and prophecies

Since the times of Bosnian forefathers the Illyrians, who were regarded by the Roman empire as people adept in magic and divination, in Bosnia and Herzegovina there were special people with mystical abilities who have been, through the long and turbulent history, called by various names such as stuhe, zduhači, faladžije, gledaoci. Some of them were recorded with the help of certain ethnographers while most of them were remembered by oral traditions which were transferred into various legends.

Thanks to the fact that the communist system in Yugoslavia wasn't as rigorous as in the SSSR the people were allowed to practice their religion, go to mosques and churches, but with a "punishment" that such individuals could not be members of the party or government. There is some information that even Tito visited some Imam's in Bosnia in order to seek help and advice from them and perhaps that was a reason why the attitude towards the spiritual was relatively relaxed. This is a well-known fact in Bulgaria whose customs agents stopped buses of pilgrims from Bosnia each year, who were headed towards Turkey towards Saudi Arabia, in order to find out which one of them knew how to augur with beans. They were aware that Bosnia was famous for Imam's who were healers and soothsayers and they wanted to use the opportunity and consult with them about life issues.

Two most famous soothsayers of former Yugoslavia were clairvoyant Vava and clairvoyant Semiza from Miljevina near Foča. Clairvoyant Vava was born in 1925 in Bosanski Novi as one of twelve children of mother Sultanija and father Murat. She had 8 sisters and 4 brothers out of which none males survived their twelfth year. She stemmed from a very religious and educated Bosnian family, which was a combination of two richest families of that region, namely Cerić and Kapetanović.

Her clients were almost all members of the elite of former Yugoslavia but also politicians both local and international. One of her brilliant moments was when the president of Gabon sent an airplane so she could be the guest of honour for two weeks. From Gabon Vava returned from Africa with numerous African figurines which she received as present from the president's family. During the 90's of the previous century and until her death, Vava lived in Belgrade and she couldn't avoid contacts with the members of the Serbian political and military elite. The same ones that supported and celebrated the destruction of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the killing of Vava's countrymen. Her prophecies will be remembered and especially the ones given about public figures, thus Vava foretold a violent death to Serbian war criminal Željko Ražnatović Arkan, the wife of Slobodan Milošević, also known as the Balkan Hitler, Miri Marković she foretold the fall of the regime and an infamous end, etc.

Clairvoyant Semiza gained her popularity in the 80's of the previous century when she suddenly gained the power of divination. She claimed that her dead brother appeared and told her that he will help her uncover peoples destinies. According to testimonies of various people that had the opportunity to visit her, every one of them were impressed by the woman they described as "petite with a gentle gaze" behind which calmness was hidden. As soon as a person would sit in front of her Semiza used a calm tone to tell that person why she actually came, what was her problem and how it can be solved.

Besides Vava and Semiza, the Sarajevo based soothsayer Mevludin Duvančić was also famous, also known as the Balkan Nostradamus, whose numerous prophecies came true. However, he was the only one that correctly predicted the wars in North Africa and he claimed that the USA won't attack Iran.

Bosnian prophet - sleeper

Omer Titorić from Višegrad is another example of a prophet who gets his visions through his sleep. Magazine Aura from Sarajevo wrote in a few instances about his prophecies. In an interview published in 2006, Omer announced that in 2011 the world will be met with a calvary of atomic centrals and deaths of numerous people. In the following interview published in December 2007, Omer said the following: "Europe will be struck by such floods which were not remembered by human minds. All towns that have rivers or are located on river beds will be flooded." His prophecy came true in May of this year when unheard of floods struck Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia.

Omer claims that he is infallible in his divinations which are often not positive. However, there are such - Palestine shall become an independent state despite the fact that Israel has performed genocide for centuries over the Palestinian people and has been managing the world's largest concentration camp in the world, Gaza.

According to his prophecies another pyramid shall be discovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina which holds a secret that is thousands of years old which will make the pyramids in Visoko seem miniscule and irrelevant.

USA shall be punished by god

From those negative prognosis the ones that deal with Holland and France are especially bad. Namely, Holland will completely disappear underwater until 2024 and a large part of France will be flooded. In 2044 an even greater catastrophe will occur and it will hit the USA as a sign of god's punishment for killing Muslims in the Middle East. Let's remember that USA with its war aggression on Iraq killed over half a million of Iraqis, and if we add all the wars it financed from Libya, Afghanistan, Syria, Palestine, we come to an even larger number of murdered Muslims. That's why, according to clairvoyant Omer, in 2044 god's wrath will reach the USA - half of the USA will disappear completely due to a large cataclysm. When asked by a journalist of the magazine Aura if something nice will happen to us in the next thirty years, Omer replied: "Well, at one time the world shall be peaceful and blissful. My dreams tell me that it shall happen when Qur'an is translated to all world languages."

Destruction of disbelievers

Besides gifted individuals and their visions, among the Bosnian people there are a lot of prophecies for which the author is unknown but they are present in the tradition. According to one of them there is a gigantic rock above Saudi Arabia which is stationed high in the sky which will in the future fall onto earth and destroy it. Today this prophecy is interpreted as a punishment for perversity and evil which is spread by the royal family Saud and financing Al-Qaida and terrorist which are killing Muslims in Syria and Iraq. Even god's messenger Muhammad announced that at one time the centre of Islam (Mecca and Medina) will give way to evil and viciousness so much that it will cooperate with the enemies of Islam (Israel, USA, France, Britain, Qatar, Turkey) and that it will have to be destroyed in order to cleanse the holly place from disbelievers and murderers.

13.07.2014.

BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA HITNO MORA PRIZNATI PALESTINU!

Dok se u Srebrenici 11.jula obilježavalo 19 godina od genocida nad Bošnjacima u Gazi se dešava nastavak još jedan u nizu genocida. Strašan je to osjećaj doći na mejsto najvećeg zločina u Europi nakon Drugog svjetskog rata i istovremeno slušati kako Židovi ubijaju u tim trenutcima palestinske civile. Gledati tijela raskomadane djece, krv, slušati bolne povike... Sve je to već viđeno u Bosni.

Gaza je postala najveći konc logor u povijesti na čije postojanje cio svijet zatvara oči. I svi oni koji to rade postaju sudionici zločina. Etničko čišćenje koje su Židovi proveli u Palestini kako bi oformili umjetnu tvorevinu koja se danas naziva Izrael najstrašniji je primjer nastavka nacističke ideologije o super rasi – jednom narodu koji je bolji od drugih i koji jedini zaslužuje pravo da živi.

Istu situaciju imamo i mi u BiH. Genocidna tvorevina R.Srpska koja je postala tumor države Bosne i Hercegovine postala je sudionikom zločina nad Palestincima. Rezidenti veleposlanik Izraela za Bosnu i Hercegovinu David Cohen zahvalio se predsjedniku RS-a Miloradu Dodiku kojeg osobno smatra zaslužnim što BiH nikada nije glasala protiv Izraela. – „Država Izrael vam je zahvalna predsjedniče RS-a na vašem doprinosu da BiH nikada ne glasa protiv Izraela u UN-u ili bilo kojem drugom međunarodnom forumu protiv države Izrael“, izjavio je Cohen.

Ovo je nedopustivo i ovo je velika uvreda za bosanski narod koji je poput palestinskog bio žrtva etničkog čiščenja i genocida, i upravo zbog toga Bosna i Hercegovina mora dići glas protiv Izraela i ubijanja Palestinaca.

Suradnja Židova i Srba bila je aktualna još u vrijeme agresije na Bosnu i Hercegovinu, što se posebno jasno vidjelo u komisiji koja je bila nadležna za istraživanja masakra na sarajevskoj tržnici Markale 1994.godine koju su činili Židovi i Amerikanci i prema čijem su izvještaju masakr počinili pripadnici Armije BiH, unatoč tome što je Sarajevo bilo okruženo srpskom vojskom i granatirano tokom cijelog rata?! Naravno da je to bila laž ali Židovi su iz povijesne mržnje prema muslimanima stali na stranu Srba zločinaca koji će nakon godinu dana počiniti još veći ratni zločin od Markala – genocid u Srebrenici.

Nakon agresije na Bosnu i Hercegovinu genocidna tvorevina R.Srpska otvara svoj ured u Izraelu i time se još jasnije uviđa suradnja dva naroda koja imaju nekoliko istovjetnih karakteristika – oba naroda žive u umjetnim i genocidnim tvorevinama i oba naroda počinila su genocid na drugim narodom. Pošto je u Bosni tokom devedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća izvršeno etničko čiščenje kojim se htio uništiti bošnjački narod mi, žrtve genocida, ne smijemo tolerisati takvo ponašanje. To nam je moralna i povijesna obaveza. Zbog toga Vlada BiH treba donijeti odluku o priznavanju samostalne države Palestine i svaki put glasati za svaku rezoluciju i osudu izraelskih napada na nevinih palestinski narod. To je dužnost Bosne i Hercegovine i nikakakv Dodik ili bilo ko drugi nema pravo da odlučuje umjesto nas. Naposljetku, Dodik javno ističe da ne priznaje Bosnu i Hercegovinu kao državu te u skladu sa tim nema nikakvo pravo da odlučuje bilo što u ime naše zemlje.

Podignimo svoj glas protiv zločina i protiv genocida. Naša nedavna prošlost, pokušaj uništenja bošnjačkog naroda, genocidi koji su se odvijali po Foči, Višegradu, Sarajevu, Žepi, Srebrenici, Prijedoru .... nam daju apsolutno pravo da branimo sebe i sve one kojima prijeti genocid. Europa i USA nas moraju čuti! Bosna se ne smije ponoviti u Gazi i Palestini! Naša Vlada ima obavezu i dužnost braniti nas i Palestinu od genocida!

Zbog toga priznanje Palestine kao države treba biti jedno od važnijih pitanja koja se odmah moraju rješiti. Svaki dan čekanja znači nove žrtve genocida koji je i ovako previše.

10.07.2014.

GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA - SREBRENICA

09.07.2014.

Gaza Under Attack!!! Share to let the world know!!!!

Share to let the world know!!!! Share to let the world know!!!! Share to let the world know!!!! Share to let the world know!!!! Share to let the world know!!!!

09.07.2014.

Opet će bosanski ljiljan prestati da miriše...

Još jednom na 11.jul bolni uzvik bosanske majke „Sineeeeeee!!!!“ zaorit će se cijelom Bosnom i Hercegovinom. Još jednom će iz bosanskog ljiljana kanuti krv na tvrdu zemlju bosansku i još jednom krenut će duga kolona ljudi ka Srebrenici, u Potočare.

Teško je to sve gledati i hladno razmišljati. Svako ko krene na to ogromno stratište ne može ostati ravnodušan na tu enormnu količinu zla, neljudskosti, brutalnosti koja je u ravnini sa nacističkom Njemačkom. I svi se pitaju isto „ZAŠTO?“. Zbog čega ste bili tolike zvijeri, zbog čega ste bili tako krvoločni, bezdušni, otrovni, poremećeni..... Zbog čega? Šta je to u prokletoj srpskoj duši, koje to ludilo vlada nad vašim poremećinim umovima? Pa jeste li vi ikako normalni?

Ali više i od toga, svi se često pitamo koliki je prag boli bosanske majke koja je izgubila svoje najmilije, koliko je to majčino srce da može i mora izdržati svaku bol i tugu? To niko ne zna, osim njih samih. Put ka Srebrenici je put ka samima sebi – upozorenje da neki ljudi ne zaslužuju da se zovu ljudi, znak koliko je zla i mržnje u Srbima prema svima drugima, poruka da nikad ne smijemo zaboraviti niti oprostiti!

I kako to zaboraviti???? Nikako i nikada!

Nema oprosta za to! Bosanska duša i srce jesu veliki, ali baš toliko ipak nisu.

Zašto bi mi opraštali nekome ko to ne zaslužuje, nekom ko se ni danas, nakon toliko vremena, ne kaje niti zbog jednog ubijenog Bošnjaka?! Time nam samo poručuju da su i dalje isti – egositičan, primitivan i krvoločan narod. Oni nisu prijatelji nikome, oni ne misle nikom dobro, to je upozorenje koje moramo svi imati u sebi. Moramo učiti svoju djecu i sva naredna pokoljenja da su nam Srbi najveći neprijatelji i da u četniku nema duše. Četnik je krvolok i ubojica.

JEDAN ĆE NAROD NESTATI

Sjećam se kada je ratni zločinac Radovan Karadžić pred održavanje referenduma o neovisnosti Bosne i Hercegovine 1992.godine najavio u Skupštini BiH da će jedan narod nestati aludirajući time na Bošnjake. Tada je već svima moglo biti jasno da se plan o genocidu nad Bošnjacima već razradio u Beogradu i samo čeka svoju realizaciju. A ona je počela vrlo brzo nakon govora tog bezdušnika i krvoloka.

I onda su počeli pristizati preko Drine četnici i udruživati se sa domaćim, istim onima sa kojima smo bili kumovi, prijatelji, ženili se i udavali. Da, isti ti su nas izdali i udruženi sa JNA, i paravnojnim formacijama počeli pokolj po Bosni. Srebrenica, Sarajevo, Foča, Višegrad, Žepa, Prijedor......spisak je dug, pun leševa, krvi, unakaženih, spaljenih...

Opet je Europa, nakon toliko godina, bila svjedokom nacizma. Ovaj put on se događao na prostoru bivše Jugoslavije na čijem je čelu stajao balkanski Hitler Slobodan Milošević dok su njegovi srbo-nacisti palili i ubijali, odvodili, zatočavali, unakazivali, silovali, klali...

Nacistička ideologija Velike Srbije i danas je prisutna. Dovoljno vam je da prelistate nekoliko brojeva bilo kojih njihovih novina i odmah ćete uočiti stravične naslove iza kojih se krije nacistička ideja o super rasi; oni su najstariji narod na svijetu, svi ovi narodi bivše Jugoslavije su zapravo Srbi, oni vode direktno porijeklo od Isusa Krista, oni su Skiti, oni su bogovi itd. Ma, vi ste samo otpad i smeće, vrlo jasno i kratko! Jedan iskompleksirani narod ubojica i zlotvora koji je izuzetno sebičan, ohol i bezdušan. Tražite svoje porijeklo u životinjskom izmetu i okanite se sviju drugi. Vjerovatno potječete od onih muha koje se izlegu iz konjskog izmeta. E, tu su vaši geni. PROKLETI BILI!!!

23.05.2014.

Božanstva bosanske mitologije: Bind, Tana, Vidasus...

Arheološki spomenici otkrivaju, a antički istoriografski izvori potvrđuju prisustvo Ilira na Balkanu od samih početaka prvog milenija stare ere. Prema tome Iliri se pojavljuju na povijesnoj pozornici jugoistočne Europe uporedo sa Grcima. Pravo na postavljanje ove historijske paralele pruža najranije Homer, koji u Ilijadi na desetak mjesta pominje ilirsko pleme Pajonaca, saveznika Trojanaca.

Iliri, kao i drugi narodi, dugo su poštovali bezlične duhove u obliku prirodnih pojava poput oblaka, kiše, šume, mjeseca, drveta, šume, izvora...Varon je zabilježio za Rimljane da su bogove poštovali bez kipova i da su ih počeli antropomorfizirati tek u doba etrurskih kraljeva.

Pod rimskom okupacijom Iliri su zajedno sa jezikom i kulturom postepeno prihvatili i neke segmente rimske religije, ali su i novoj formi i dalje obožavali svoja drevna božanstva, kao što su Vidasus i Tana. Osim Rimljana na Ilire su imali jak uticaj Kelti i donekle Grci.

Iako prema dostupnim podacima nikada nisu uspjeli uspostaviti jedinstvenu religiju na cijelom području gdje su živjeli (Ilirikuma) sva plemena su pored svojih tradicionalnih božanstava štovala sunce, mjesec, zmiju - inkarnaciju Velike Majke, šume, drveće i vodu.

Božanstva naših predaka Bind, Tana, Vidas, Anzotika, Ika, Jutosika, Eja, Melesokus, Borija, Irija, Medaur, Crni nebeski zmaj samo su neka iz ilirskog panteona kojima su se molili i klanjali. Pored ilirskih autohtoni božanstava na tlu Bosne i Hercegovine pojavljuju se rimski i perzijski bogovi i boginje, naročito je prodoran uticaj astralnih božanstava, prvenstveno solarnog boga Mitre i Tira, boga kiše i plodnosti.

BIND

Bind ili Bindus (staroindijski bindu,h - kaplja) je stari bosanski bog izvora i općenito vode a predstavljen je kao nag muškarac, sa veslom ili trozubcem u desnoj ruci. Njegov kult je bio posebno raširen na području sjeverozapadne Bosne i dijelu Hrvatske (Lika) gdje su bili dominantni Japodi, moćno ilirsko pleme sa jakim keltskim primjesama.

U okolici Bihaća, na izvoru Privilice, pronađeni su mnogi arheološki i epigrafski nalazi koji potvrđuju dominantan uticaj njegovog kulta u životu bosanskih predaka. Smatra se da naziv Bihać ima svoj korijen u imenu ovog velikog božanstva.

Na kultnim mjestima gdje se on štovao pronađeno je dosta rogova od jarca, što dokazuje kako su Japodi božanstvu, između ostalog, prinosili i životinjske žrtve. Tako je na ari, posvećenoj Bindu, kod Privilice iznad votivnog natpisa urezana slika žrtvenika između dvije divokoze koje su digle desne prednje noge; treća divokoza prikazana je ispod natpisa.

Koliko su naši preci bili vezani za kult ovog božanstva dokazuje vijekovna praksa bosanskog naroda hodočašća u ranu zoru, obično u vremenu mladog mjeseca, ka pojedinim izvorima, koji su se smatrali ljekovitim, i ostavljanjem poklona u vidu novca, hrane ili odjeće ovom božanstvu kao žrtve za izlječenje i pomoć.

THANA

Thana ili Tana, boginja šuma i lova, kod Ilira se zvala i Šumska Majka i za nju se vezivalo niz magijski i ritualnih vjerovanja, koja još uvijek možemo pronaći u bosanskim magijskim vjerovanjima o Gorskoj vili koju žene u basmama nazivaju "sestrom, majkom" a opisuju kao prelijepu mladu ženu u bijeloj odjeći i sa dugom kosom.

Na jednom reljefu prikazana je sa raspletenom kosom, odjevena u kratku opasanu tuniku, koja zapravo izgleda dvodjelno, jer je samo suknja izražena naborima, dok je gornji dio odjeće, sa ušivenim rukavima posve gladak. Tana ima napola raskriljene ruke te u jednoj ruci drži lisnatu granu a u drugoj granu jele.

Thana se često povezuje sa bogom Vidasusom (Vidas). Njima su posvećene četiri zavjetne are što su otkrivene u Topuskom, u blizini jednog toplog izvora. U Topuskom su otkriveni ostaci hramova i brojni natpisi posvećeni rimskom bogu šuma, pašnjak i izvora, pa je na osnovu toga zaključeno da se ilirski Vidasus po svojim atributima podudara sa tim rimskim božanstvom i da, prema tome, njegova pratilja Thana odgovara rimskoj Diani.

Zanimljivo je kazati kako se kod Bošnjaka sreće ime Tanija.

VIDASUS

Vidasus je bog šuma i prirode, a zajedno sa boginjom Tanom božanstvo plodnosti. Štovao se pod različitim imenima, negdje kao Vidasus, drugdje kao Magla (enus?), ili pak Cor.., Messor i slično. Ovo ime Cor neobično podsjeća na keltskog boga Cernunnosa koji je imao identičan opis. Isto tako, pretpostavlja se da je sa ovim ilirskim božanstvom u vezi i poznato ime Grabovius (otkud potječe i naša ilirska riječ grab), koje se javlja na takozvanim iguvinskim pločama iz Umbrije u Italiji. S obzirom što se na istom spomeniku navodi i Japuzkum (Japudiscum) nomen - kao neprijatelj Umbra - zaključuje se da bi Umbri preuzeli ime Grabovius (ovaj epitet dolazi uz ime Jupiter, kao i uz ono Marsa i Vovionusa) od Japoda.

Smatra se da je Vidasus, ili romanizirani Silvan, bio vrhovni ilirski bog u predrimsko doba, a tu funkciju je zadržao i nakon toga. Rimljani su ga prihvatili i izjednačili sa grčkim Panom zaštitnikom šuma, stada i prirode i pratiocem u lovu. Likovne predstave ilirskog Vidasusa prikazuju ga kao biće koje je pola jarac a pola čovjek. Vidasus je slavljen početkom svjetle polovine godine, krajem aprila i početkom maja.

O Redonu - bogu zaštitniku pomoraca i skitnica, Medaurosu ili Armatosu - bogu rata, Anzotiki - boginji ljubavi, Perendi ili Šundi - bogu groma i munje, njegovoj supruzi Prendi, Latri, Sentonu i drugim ilirskim božanstvima pisat ću nekom drugom prilikom.

Bosanska mitologija

01.05.2014.

Bosnian horoscop

Bosnian horoscope or Bosnian circle of destiny is based on an old division of the year into two parts summer and winter. That is why there is in the horoscope a dualistic division into six signs of light and six signs of darkness which together represent two principles i.e. good and evil and male and female sex. That's why every sign begins within a middle of one and ends in the middle of another month. The length of one sign begins and ends on the 15th of a month at noon exactly.

 

Sun and moon have a dominant influence over the Bosnian circle of destiny, and they also impact life on our planet the most. Signs over which the moon presides are usually family oriented, more prone to expressing feelings and in an extent more responsible. But we shouldn’t forget in this case the influence of earth itself which can sometimes have a more pronounced influence on people during winter times, even more so than the moon, because during the winter the sky is often covered with thick clouds and the sun and moon are distant i.e. hidden.

 

Light signs are the complete opposite to the dark ones and that difference is especially evident in their action, inclination to risk, changes and adventures. Strengthening of the sun’s rays, acceleration of the natural rhythm, constant weather changes, or even summer storms, perfectly describe the nature of people born during one of the six light signs. Because of it they are more prone to stress, annoyance, possessiveness, abrupt mood swings.

 

The names of the signs in the horoscope are not coincidental, they stem from Bosnian mythology arising from the ancient cult of the Grand Mother, whose worship dates from the Neolithic all the way to the Illyrians and until today. Even though the cult influence is not pronounced like during the ancient times it is still present in numerous segments of folk belief and mythological phenomena. The main signs of the horoscope are, the snake and dragon which represent two opposing sides which are at the same time permeate one another but also divide and they signify beginning and the end. They are the alpha and omega of the circle of destiny. In the middle of the circle the position has been taken by Granddad (Did, Djed) and Grandma or Baba, priest of the Bogomils and his wife, which can also be referred to as Illyrian divine couple Vidasus and Thana or solar god and lunar goddess.

 

In accordance to the dualistic teachings of the Bogomils the Bosnian circle of destiny dealt with both material and spiritual life of individuals, helping them to know themselves and their role in life, and it transformed all that was negative into the positive. That’s why the circle of destiny is nothing more than a Bogomil wheel of reincarnation through which the human soul passes through in order to reach final liberation. On that journey the soul takes both human and animal forms, but also vegetative forms, trying to teach us empathy and need to help one another, no matter what our physical form looks like nor where we come from. From the aspect of Bogomil philosophy each human being seeks liberation from negative elements of their karma in order to experience enlightenment in the end. The main mover of the circle of destiny are human ego, malice, greed, jealousy but also man as a dualistic being has the potential to perceive evil and to cleanse and purify himself of it through specific cycles, and achieve enlightenment. Illustration and the search through signs of the circle of destiny is best explained if we compare it to searching for gold, when the diggers would dig tons and tons of sand in order to find after exhausting work a few pebbles of gold.

 

Every man carries in himself the characteristics of all signs of the circle of destiny but the most dominant ones are from the sign during whose rain he was born. Also every sign has his own energy, vibration, which forms an individual and introduces into the new cycle. That’s why in the Bosnian horoscope the sign in which one is born represents his starting position from which the soul begins its journey further in the circle of destiny. That circle is physical and spiritual. We can follow it in the material and spiritual level from birth to death – we are born and we grow, we change constantly both physically and mentally, in order for that process to stop on one level and continue on another.

01.05.2014.

Snake - Zmija

 

The snake is a sign with which the circle of destiny begins. Among the Illyrians this animal represents one of the most important deities and protectors of the family. Her reign lasts from 15.10. until 15.11. Persons born in the sign of the snake are traditionalists, they are faithful to their home and family. They don’t like changes, sometimes because of laziness and sometimes because they are not prone to taking on responsibility. They can be stimulated to action only by a person more dominant than themselves, but who is also friendly. Otherwise, they feel insecurity and they become stubborn.

 

People “snakes” often leave a wrong impression in their environment, even though they are not complicated people. “The blame” for this is located in symbology of their sign – a snake signifies something exotic, mystical, magical and even eccentric. Because of these virtues “the snake” tends to daydream, studying mysterious appearances or phenomena. They possess a hidden strength inside of themselves which is often not properly channelled and has no practical value. Accumulated and unutilized it becomes a source of general discontent and leads to tendency for frustrations.

 

When we talk about emotions persons of this sign go from one extreme to another: they are either too open when it comes to showing emotions or too closed. In both cases “the snake” often experiences disappointments and recedes. We can equate this to a snake’s escape into the hole in the ground. A lot of members of this sign spend a part of their life, or even their entire life, with the wrong partner. If they manage to find a corresponding partner, which has to be gentle and full of understanding but at the same time passionate and truculent, then we have a perfect relationship. “Snakes” love sex and they know how to enjoy it, perhaps more so than other symbols. If you want to experience real passion in bed always choose a person from this sign as a partner.

 

“A snake” as a person can often be emphatically distrustful or even naïve. In both cases you risk having her disappointed in you so if you want her as a friend or partner you have to show a lot of patience and seriousness in order to gain her trust. Even though they are not a sign which can boast itself with speed, at work they are persistent and persevering. They love money but as we mentioned they avoid authority therefore in life they always try their business luck individually, by either starting a company or engages in a hobby which will bring them money.

 

As autumn is the period of welfare, when we can eat almost all fruits of nature, “snakes” are rightfully gourmets because above all else they enjoy in food and drink. Because of that they have health issues and are prone to obesity. Besides that they are prone to issues with circulation, spine, kidneys. If they are born in the phase of the new moon they will keep their youthful look in their middle years.

 

The thing that people of this sign need to learn and utilise through life is to face themselves, their fears which stems from lack of self-confidence. Learn how to love themselves and then other. Find harmony and balance between emotions and real needs. Turn stubbornness into a strength, action and activity, mysticism into creativity and suspiciousness into flexibility.

01.05.2014.

Swallow - Lastavica

 

The swallow is the second sign in the Bosnian horoscope which lasts from 15.11. to 15.12. Persons born in this period usually lead an interesting life and they have a hard time coping with monotony. The swallow in Bosnian mythology is a sign of luck and wellbeing, therefore we can conclude that persons born under this sign have an opportunity to succeed in life, most often, with the help of family or marital partner.

 

Since their symbol is a bird they possess a natural tendency towards the beautiful which is expressed in home decoration, but also passion towards fashion, jewellery. Besides that, they can be practical – they love creating inventories but sometimes that frugality can lead them into the extreme and they can become stingy. The swallow is also a sign of the artists and if they haven’t reached their potential in this area, members of this sign channel it in a completely different way – through socialising, parties and celebrations. Generally, they want to present themselves to the public in the best possible way and get noticed that way. They love to travel. Many members of this sign spend a part of their life abroad.

 

In love life “swallows” like to prove themselves, they have a specific level of insecurity which is manifested through jealousy towards the partner or infidelity, in order to prove to themselves that they are attractive and interesting to others. It often leads them to experience failures in love, especially marriage. They rarely have one marriage in life. But, still, “swallows” are people who possess a lot of love and that is the reason they love tenderness. Their flaw is naivety and stubbornness.

 

Through work the “swallows” usually gain self-confidence and besides the existential aspect, work helps them build character. There is a possibility within them to achieve great business success but most of them tend to go for security when it comes to material things and they stay average workers.

 

“Swallow” has a chronic issue of lack of energy because of the way of life they lead and they are prone to headaches, issues with nerves, stomach.

 

Life lesson for people born under this sign is to learn to accept themselves, to comprehend their strengths and weaknesses. Cease the need for exposure and utilise the artistic, creative part of their personality towards building that what truly makes them happy. Learn to be patient, and learn to share. Stubbornness should be substituted with the ability to face the truth. Having the possibility to help others, make them happy and in that way bring their life to perfection.

01.05.2014.

Cherry - Trešnja

 

The cherry is the third sign in the circle of destiny which rules over the period from December 15th to January 15th. In Bosnian tradition the cherry is a tree which takes a special place in the cult of the dead since her fruits are often consumed by birds. Since a bird is a symbol of a soul in the past there was a custom of planting cherry trees in the graveyard. It was believed that a cherry tree growing next to a grave helps the soul of the deceased to free himself of the sins every time when a bird eats the cherries fruits.

 

Since every winter symbol is a sign of the internal world, people of this sign are very susceptible to everything that it represents, either positive or negative phenomena - dissatisfaction, stress, self-deception, psychic tension, sensuality, empathy, imagination.

 

A person of this sign will be easily recognised by one characteristic which is characteristic of them - arrogance. Cherries don't possess tactfulness and often, even though it is not their purpose, they cause negative reactions with their statements among their interlocutors. They are very traditional, at least when it comes to marriage, but they are also great fighters. Along the lines of the symbol which represents them in the circle of destiny persons born in the sign of the cherry like to give gifts with which they show their devotion towards people they care about. They are prone to sacrificing themselves, their dreams and ambitions, for the family. Peace inside the house is very important to them since that gives them the strength and motivation.

 

In love relations they are usually prone to harmony and that's why they are even ready to tolerate infidelity to their partner. But, as they are able to tolerate their partner's infidelity they are also ready to be unfaithful themselves. A cherry is like a swallow a sign of pronounced sexual energy. Tendency to nudism, wearing provocative clothes, or as less clothes as possible, is one of the manifestations and the desire to be free.

 

As we said person(s) born in this sign are hardworking and usually honest and that's why they are an ideal choice for a business partner or associate. Like all other dark signs the cherry too is characterised by natural emotions which in positive action make them favourite people and that's why they are revered among their colleagues. Even though they don't show great ambition their advantage lies in the fact that one can always rely on them, when it is needed. Because of this they are sometimes victims of others' interests. They are not prone to arguing.

 

They have a tendency for depression, insomnia, stomach issues, and urinary tract. They often have issues with their eyes.

 

People born in the sign of a cherry are born with a special mission which they need to fulfil during their life. In order to accomplish it they need to find peace within themselves, accept themselves and learn how to be patient. Otherwise they will have a difficult life.

01.05.2014.

Frog - Žaba

The fourth symbol in the Bosnian horoscope is occupied by the Frog which represented one of the forms of the Grand Mother since ancient times, goddess of fertility and life. Among the Illyrians the frog had an identical function and that's why in Bosnian mythology it is considered to be the protector of livestock, especially cows and milk which fed the entire family and especially young children. The sign of the frog governs from January 15th to February 15th.

 

Person(s) born during the reign of this sign have an interchangeable temperament; while those born in January are however more stable but this cannot be stated for those born in February. That's why they are easily influenced and they need to be more careful not to become a victim of someone's manipulation.

 

Most people born during this period like to live in their own world which can be a reflection of stubbornness, but anyway, usually in life they suffer consequences. It can be stated that a member of this sign is his own worst enemy.

 

Sine a frog is one of six dark signs or winter signs they often tend to warm, intimacy and emotional harmony since all winter signs are under the ownership of the moon and hence they gravitate towards their opposite - Sun. In a love relationship or marriage a Frog is usually a partner that adapts, sacrificing one part of themselves in order to have harmony. Initially it makes him a happy person but through future it reflects negatively on his self-confidence. Since they are a family sign, they usually get married early. Sometimes they try to be dominant with their partner or children, they often quickly give up on their demands since backing down is a character trait of this sign.

 

No matter their individual flaws they strive for perfection, at least when it comes to business. Person(s) of this sign are flexible, they blend easily, and they love to plan. Thanks to those advantages they usually manage to stabilise themselves materially through life.

 

Health wise this sign often has issues with their spine, hands or legs. Issues with sex organs or libido. They are prone to hysteria or depression and they should take up a hobby which would neutralise their stress.

 

People of this sign have a karmic disposition to become victims of their feelings which is why they symbolise a victim. Whoever is born in this sign will be subject to their partner or will be unhappy in love. Learning to control his/her emotions and make a balance between body and soul are the main objectives of person's born in this part of the circle of destiny.

01.05.2014.

Warrior - Ratnik

The fifth sign in the Bosnian horoscope which rules over the period from February 15th to March 15th is the warrior. The sign gained its name after the brave Illyrian warrior but also because the time in which he rules presents an unstable climatic period which indicates a gradual arrival of warmer months in the year. According to Bosnian mythology during this time there is a battle between north and south, cold and warm wind. Because of that the warrior fights evil spirits of the nature and triumphs over them enabling with his struggle and victory the continuation of the cycle of life.

 

In the Bosnian circle of destiny people born in the period of the warrior are unsure of themselves and their behaviour varies but despite of that they are stubborn, energetic and hardworking when they have one of their whims. But, as the warrior belongs into the dark signs, and thus falls under the influence of the moon, its strength is not barbaric but imbued with emotions and that's why people born in this sign are of a mild temper but also often noble people. They represent a battle and therefore throughout their lives a battle between the heart and the mind rages inside of them, fear and courage, love and hate. That battle is noticeable on their exterior especially on their face which often seems confused. Even though they are born as people of potential, among numerous members of this sign that potential stays untapped throughout their lives.

 

All people in the sign of the warrior are amorous. Sometimes they show shyness or confusion which helps them be nice and interesting. Infidelity is an unknown term for them. They sometimes cheat because of their inner insecurity and the desire to prove themselves to others and sometimes because of lack of love and affection in marriage or love relationship. Despite that the warrior rarely decides to take drastic steps and his adventures are often transitory. In the role of a parent they do a good job and give support to their children.

 

Business wise, people born in this sign are followed by good luck. Advantages that a warrior has over the others, besides the positive influence of destiny are communication abilities, indulgence and sweet talk. If they are more intelligent, person(s) of this sign can be adept manipulators and dangerous enemies.

 

When it comes to health person(s) born in the sign of the warrior have issues with their upper body. They are prone to vices.

 

Those born in this part of the circle of destiny carry with them the task of helping others and thus enable them to reach a new level thereby also helping themselves. It is often a person from the family or a spouse. The warrior needs to cultivate generosity all his life, learn how to renounce their desires and fight against egoism.

01.05.2014.

Grandmother - Baba

Grandmother is the sixth sign in the Bosnian horoscope and at the same time the last of the dark or winter signs. It reigns in the period from March 15th until April 15th. Ancient goddess of the moon is behind the name grandmother, the female principle, which is interacting with the grandfather, ancient god of the sun, which makes the backbone of ancient pagan beliefs and cults. In the Bosnian folk calendar the period from March 15th to 21st belongs to the grandmother and they are considered to be the height of unstable weather when snow, rain, wind and sun alternate or sometimes they all mix together in one day. In those seven days the moon goddess gives birth to the sun god, who is at the same time her son and lover, and that's why the nature is restless and all her forces are on the move.

 

Person(s) born in the period during grandmothers rule, but also the following sign the grandfather, carry the blessing of nature and as such symbolise the happiness of new life. Individual members of this sign are capable of doing great things, cause changes, both those in their own lives as well as lives of other people. That's why they should never be underestimated.

 

Grandmother is the classic "female" sign - person(s) born in the period while she reigns are usually passive, they are very emotional, they tend to avoid fights and react only when provoked to extreme measures. Until then they supress anger and dissatisfaction, they tend to suffer in solitude, or to abruptly keep quiet, and this holds them for a while. Mainly, they avoid direct confrontation at all costs, for as long as possible. A partner is very important to them, life together, and if they are alone they can barely function. That's why they consciously stay married or in a relationship even with an unsuitable partner. The old folk adage: "Better something than nothing!" is very valid for them.

 

While they can fall on low branches in love in other areas of life these people can excel since grandmother, next to the grandfather is a sign of wise and intelligent people. At work they are full of ideas and innovations but they don't like to impose themselves and they are rarely ready to take on risks so their creativity is often unutilized. They are hardworking and capable at team work. But they don't like authority and they try in all ways to reach a position in the career or to become owners of their own companies. That's why they prefer running a private business.

 

Health wise the sensitive points on their bodies are the head, heart and lungs and with women also reproductive organs.

 

Those born in this sign wear a karmic task to learn how to stop being victims through life, primarily of their own emotions. From childhood they need to work on communication, diplomatic ability and strengthening their self-confidence. Karma tends to be marked by discord or problematic family life which is a test to free themselves.

01.05.2014.

Grandfather - Did

Grandfather is the seventh sign of the Bosnian horoscope which presides over the period from April 15th to May 15th. It represents a male principle. The name stems from the period which lasts for seven days, immediately after the grandmother, from March 21st to 28th in which, according to folk calendar, it presides over nature. In the middle ages the grandfather in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a title of the Bogomil priest, whose wife was called grandmother, and who, as a married couple represented spiritual leaders among the people. But, both of these names have a deeper, ancient meaning, and represent two of the most important deities of the Illyrians and those are the sun and the moon.

 

It is especially important to emphasize that grandfather and grandmother are actually yin and yang of the Bosnian circle of destiny since with the female and dark principle the winter part of the year is coming to an end, with the light and male principle the summer part of the year begins. Grandfather is a real personification of the solar deity which is suggested by the folk calendar which states that his nature is noble towards humans since it brings fertility. Namely, during the seven days during which he rules over nature, new agricultural works begin. The solar god is born and his light and power grows stronger by the day and give life to earth. That's why it represents childhood, naivety, honesty and generosity.

 

Besides, grandfather is the person whose wisdom runs the circle of destiny, people from this sign perceive events in their lives, but also lives of others, as fatalistic - something predetermined by destiny. This helps them find inner peace, and allows their intuition to lead them. They are readers of destiny and that's why they can reach people's hearts and souls much easier.

 

Person(s) born in the sign of the grandfather are full of energy, physical and mental strength, but they have a noble character and they are prone to play the part of a protector. But, similarly when provoked or offended they react suddenly and fiercely or on the other hand measuredly but they tend to hold grudges and sooner or later they will have their revenge for the grudge.

 

Since this is typically a "male" sign, women born during the reign of this sign show militancy, desire for domination and stubbornness. Since this sign has an increased capacity of energy and if it is not creatively used in life, such as career, it will have a negative effect on that person creating long periods of depression. Wisdom is one of the main characteristics of this sign. They are controversial, they cannot stay unnoticed in their environment, either being a target of someone's gossip or praise.

 

Grandfather is the sign that doesn't have a lot of luck in love and it is ordained by destiny that a longer period of time needs to pass before he finds his soul mate. When it happens it is full of passion but also jealousy which can often end dramatically. This sign doesn't understand the word "moderate", but it goes from one extreme to the other which has a negative effect on their love and social life.

 

Even though they are practical with money, grandfather is not a stingy person and likes to give gifts and help the people they love. That's why they are often the prime mover of a family, of which he takes care of by helping and taking care of the other members. Grandfather is a conscious person, aware of their qualities and peculiarities and person(s) of this sign are first of all offended by ingratitude. They have a hard time forgiving such a flaw with people they care about.

 

Since the person(s) of this sign are born leaders it tends to help them during their careers since it creates a desire for work and advancement in them. If they do a job they love then they achieve great results and accomplishments. At their work they use their intuition and are good judge of other people. Health wise the most sensitive spot on their body is their head, especially nerves, stomach and muscles.

 

Those born under this sign have a karmic debt to take care of others, usually family and those close to them. They must learn how to be patient, tolerant and accepting of others through life.

01.05.2014.

Pigeon - Golub

Pigeon is the eight sign of the Bosnian horoscope which presides over the period from May 15th to June 15th. Person(s) born under this sign are adorned by intelligence and courage, ability to face life's crises. Throughout their life, a large part of the members of this sign begin new cycles, which are usually sudden, and they usually relate to work or love changes.

 

In Bosnian mythology the pigeon is a bird dedicated to sun and is therefore an ideal symbol of the period in which, after winter solstice, the sun gains its strength and power again. For this reason person(s) born under this sign are characterised by the ability of regeneration, persistence and stubbornness. They are aware of themselves and their potential.

 

In their emotional life they are very demanding partners, they try to be dominant but not to impose their will on the partner, but to keep him close by. Pigeon is a person which seeks constant proof of love from their partner, feeling loved grants him enormous amount of strength and optimism. If attention is lacking or is not sufficiently present the pigeon turns into a possessive partner, which is capable of acting in front of others as if it has an ideal relationship and love. Since love gives strength the fact that other people are aware that he doesn't have it in his relationship or marriage would be detrimental to his ego and self-confidence. And when the relationship is bad the pigeon has a hard time deciding to break it off. Besides emotional stability being very important to them the members of this sign don't like solitude. If however the relationship or marriage does come to an end they will quickly find a new partner, regardless if it fulfils the criteria they expect.

 

When it comes to work and money we come across a curiosity with this sign, namely, the pigeon is either hard working or lazy, there is no middle ground with the. If he is hard working then they are capable from the early days to work and make money. They like cooperation and agreements and they are an ideal partner and collaborators. They enjoy team work. If they belong to the lazy people, then they will do anything to get money through other people, either constant loans, marriage based on material interest or something third.

 

Pigeon is a sign which has problems with skin diseases but also stomach while in women issues with ovaries and urinary tract are pronounced.

 

Those born under this sign have a karmic task of accepting themselves and bringing their body and spirit in harmony. They need to defeat the fear of loneliness, strengthen their self-confidence and become generous. Giving is the main feature of the karmic path of these persons. Unselfishness is a virtue which will help them successfully cross from one sign of destiny into another and continue their journey.

01.05.2014.

Linden - Lipa

Linden is the ninth sign in the Bosnian horoscope which presides over the period of June 15th to July 15th. Traditionally linden is a holly tree under which the Bosnian Bogomils performed their religious rituals. After the middle ages linden didn't lose its holly significance and was planted next to numerous mosques, which continued the religious practice for which ethnologists and anthropologists claim that stems from the Illyrians to whom this tree represented a personification of a deity.

 

Person(s) born under the sign of linden are social, communicative and very eloquent. They are flexible and they quickly adapt in a new place or among new people. Even though they enjoy company, fun and travel, which exposes them to the public, person(s) of this sign are hard to fully comprehend and understand. Despite all their virtues they possess many flaws. Namely, as a tree has its bark and leaves so too the person of this sign has two layers of his personality. The outer one which is presented to others, is progressive, dynamic and brave while behind it is hidden the exact opposite. If the person is of a stronger character then a progressive linden dominates but if her character is weaker then that person has pronounced flaws such as stubbornness, insecurity and fear from disappointment. However, until someone gets to know them well both the first and second types of linden have the sense of freedom and possibility for manipulation.

 

Characteristic trait of people born in the sign of trees (cherry and linden) is their slowness, they don't like rush and pressure. When they are forced to do something they become very sensitive and in such circumstances they are prone to fits of rage or tears. In all cases they react turbulently. They feel best when the atmosphere is totally calm and relaxed and often closed in four walls. They carry in them a dose of narcissism.

 

Men of this sign have a need to represent themselves in a macho edition with which they actually try to hide their insecurity. Women of this sign are often very attractive with beautiful eyes. In a love relationship or marriage they want to be equal to men. That's why we need to emphasize that this sign which is not controversial but pretty liberal. They always strive towards freedom and the right to choose.

 

Even though they are prone to sudden rage that feeling leaves them quickly because people of this sign are emotional and therefore the emotions overwhelm their brain. But, they know when they are wrong and as soon as they calm down they try to rectify what they have done. For persons of this sign it is characteristic that in early youth they become independent and that's why they are responsible in business and are ready to help their working colleagues. Either as a worker or boss, linden is a person which will appear direct, mostly because it is aware that it has trust among his co-workers. They are not economical with money.

 

Linden is a sign of a gourmet person, they are picky when it comes to food. A large number of members of this sign is prone to some vice, usually cigarettes. Even though they are of good health the weak points on their body are their back, they are prone to influenza and colds, stomach ailments.

 

Those born under this sign carry certain negative traits which they possessed in their previous lives, among which are especially pronounces insecurity and jealousy. That's why their main task throughout their current life is to accept themselves, face their fears and in the end triumph over these two flaws which prevent them from advancing in the circle of destiny.

01.05.2014.

Salamander - Zviždenjak

Salamander is the tenth sign in the Bosnian horoscope which presides over the period from July 15th to August 15th. In Bosnian mythology it is considered that every man has its own salamander (animal doppelganger) which comes to his grave after death to protect him or eat him, depending if the man was noble or evil throughout his life. It is this feature of connection which is one of the main characteristic of the members of this sign - they connect to others easily, they are social, don't love loneliness or isolation. It is believed that a salamander is a miniature form of a dragon on earth, the same one which according to legend ate two suns. Namely, according to Bosnian mythology some time ago there were three suns in the sky which caused great draughts and famines. One day a giant snake (dragon) climbed the highest mountain in the east and swallowed two suns while the third sun was saved by a swallow, raising it high into the sky. That's when rains started and fertility appeared on earth.

 

Based on this legend the salamander is a classic symbol of sun which is why the members of this sign possess a temperamental character and passion which is manifested through deep emotional but also strong libido. Those characteristics often make them insecure and jealous which is why in a love relationship or marriage they show a desire for manipulation or domination. Those wishing to have a harmonious relationship with the must show a lot of flexibility.

 

Despite that they are graced by nobleness and desire to help others. They tend to be protective towards people which are less successful than they are. For the men of this sign, this makes them desirable among women. Women of this sign have similar characteristics but sometimes they can overdo with it and create a wrong impression of themselves. When they want to win over a man they are very direct in their approach.

 

In the business world, people under the sign of salamander show great potential and possibility to create great success. Their career is very important to them since they like to enjoy in food, clothes, trips and shopping. They don't give up on their goals easily and that's why they are prone to stress. Liver, lungs, head and legs are the most sensitive points on their bodies.

 

Those born under this sign need to learn the correct and productive way to channel and use the enormous energy they are blessed with at birth. Such potential is not random but according to karmic circle it is necessary in order to finish one cycle which was interrupted in the previous life. That's why people of this sign will have to learn how to cope with loss of people towards whom they have emotional connections, in order to overcome blockades which they placed on themselves. They need to learn how to leave the past behind and look into the future.

01.05.2014.

Nacre - Sedefil

Nacre is the eleventh sign in the Bosnian horoscope which dominates in the period from August 15th to September 15th. In the tradition of Bosnia and Herzegovina nacre is connected with the cult of the dead, and that's why this herb is planted on graveyards. Besides, it possesses prophylactic characteristic which is why its leaves are used as an amulet against spellbound eyes and black magic.

 

Since nacre is connected with the cult of the dead, people born under this sign have their dark, hidden, foreign personality which often causes issues in their lives. That's why in youth they are rebels, they have difficulty adjusting to new life situations but in time they bring their life into harmony. They are ruled by doubt and fear which causes them issues in relating to other people. Since they belong to the circle of destiny in the light (temperamental) sign they tend to react aggressively in order to defend themselves from all that which they are not ready to face. Similarly, they often have a complicated relationship with one of their parents.

 

Insecurity is present also in love relationships where they tend to express a certain degree of jealousy and possessiveness. Such behaviour sometimes mixes with the desire for proving themselves so the person of this sign is often flirting and changing partners. But, once in love, nacre is a family person and as a parent they are extremely caring towards their children.

 

In business nacre prefers independence which is an ideal trait for people who like to have their own business. For a good profit they are capable in a short period of changing a few working place. The thing which is a negative characteristic for them is that they don't know how to separate their private life from their business one, especially when they are troubled by a private problem, they have issues functioning at work.

 

Issues with blood circulation, digestive tract, mental diseases, tendency towards injury are some of their weak points.

 

Those born under this sign according to the Bosnian circle of destiny have to at one part of their life triumph over themselves - change key life habits and with that advance on their road of growth and maturation. They are prone to repeating mistakes from their previous lives and therefore changes are welcome wince through them they lower the possibility to return to their old ways.

01.05.2014.

Dragon - Zmaj

Dragon is the twelfth sign in the Bosnian horoscope which presides over the period from September 15th until October 15th. Among the Illyrians the dragon was considered to be a deity and in Bosnian mythology it is described as a large snake with wings which can have a sexual relation with women out of which a dragon sapling is born, also known as snijet. Snake and dragon represent two main principles of universe - good and evil, life and death, creation and destruction and that's why they occupy first and last place in the circle of destiny. 

 

Position of the last sign in the Bosnian horoscope is not a coincidence since in mythology the snake i.e. the real dragon creates a vegetative circle of fertility by exiting the ground through water, flying through air and again entering the ground through a hole in another location. In the period while this sign is presiding the circle of destiny slows down, in order to finish its cycle and return to the beginning.

 

Person(s) born during the reign of the dragon are known for doing everything slowly without rushing. That's why a lot of energy is accumulated in them which can bring about large changes if directed correctly. The thing that graces this sign is their honesty, which can sometimes be misinterpreted.

 

Dragon is a passionate lover which often doesn't have control over his emotions. He is prone to suddenly fall in love and is often the victim of romantic disappointments. Men of this sign want to literally tame their partner, subject her to them, but also their relation in the later stages of the relationship or marriage is not dominant. Actually, they are partners which would like a harmonious and equitable relationship, and if they achieve it they become devote and loyal. Women of this sign are emphatically emotional and that's why they are ready to yield and accept numerous concessions.

 

In business dragon is hard working and motivated. When he starts a new job, in the beginning he doesn't give his all, he needs some tome to show his potential. He is a being of creation, he possesses artistic drive therefore people of this sign can achieve great success in business which deals with design, new innovations and research.    

 

Person(s) of this sign are often of good health though they are like other people subject to individual diseases. Sensitive points on their bodies are the mouth, muscles, veins. They have bad blood circulation.

 

Those born under this sign, even though at the end of the Bosnian circle of destiny have the most difficult role since through life they have to light their own torch of spirituality, rise above material things and dedicate themselves to a healthy lifestyle in order to simultaneously prepare their spirit and body for an easier transition into liberation. That requires the ability of forgiveness, to themselves and to others, nobleness and empathy. That's why this task carries numerous difficulties and traps and many return to the beginning of the circle instead of successfully finishing the cycle.        

21.04.2014.

BOSANSKI KRUG SUDBINE

Bosanski horoskop ili bosanski krug sudbine bazira se na staroj narodnoj podijeli godine na dva dijela odnosno ljeto i zimu. Zbog toga u horoskopu postoji dualistična podjela na šest znakova svjetla i šest znakova tame koji zajedno predstavljaju dva načela tojest dobro i zlo te muški i ženski spol. Upravo zbog toga svaki znak počinje sredinom jednog a završava na sredini narednog mjeseca. Trajanje jednog znaka počinje i završava 15-tog u mjesecu tačno u podne.
Nad bosanskim krugom sudbine dominantan uticaj imaju Sunce i Mjesec koji najviše i utiču na život na našoj planeti. Znaci nad kojima vlada Mjesec uglavnom su familijarni, skloniji izražavanju osjećaja i u određenoj mjeri odgovorniji. No ne treba zaboraviti u ovom slučaju niti djelovanje same Zemlje koja ponekad ima naglašeniji uticaj na ljude u zimskom periodu, čak više i od Mjeseca, zbog toga što je zimi nebo često prekriveno gustim oblacima te su Sunce i Mjesec udaljeni odnosno skriveni.
Svjetli znaci su potpuna suprotnost onim tamnim i ta se razlika posebno vidi u njihovoj akciji, sklonosti ka riziku, promjenama i avanturama. Jačanje sunčeve svjetlosti, ubrzavanje prirodnog ritma, česte promjene vremena, ili čak oluje tokom ljeta, savršeno opisuju narav ljudi rođenih u nekom od šest svijetli znakova. Zbog toga su skloniji stresu, nerviranju, posesivnosti, naglim promjenama ponašanja.
Imena znakova u horoskopu nisu nimalo slučajna već ona potječu iz bosanske mitologije nastale iz antičkog kulta Velike Majke, čije obožavanje datira još iz neolita pa preko Ilira sve do današnjih dana. Iako kultni uticaj više nije naglašen kao u drevna vremena prisutan je u mnogim segmentima narodnih vjerovanja i mitoloških pojava. Glavni znaci horoskopa su Zmija i Zmaj koji predstavljaju dvije suprotne strane koje se istovremeno prožimaju ali i razdvajaju te označavaju početak i kraj. Oni su alfa i omega kruga sudbine. Na sredini kruga poziciju su zauzeli Did i Baba, svećenik Bogumila i njegova žena, koji se mogu nazvati još i ilirski božanski par Vidasus i Thana ili solarni bog i lunarna boginja.
U skladu sa dualističnim učenjem Bogumila bosanski krug sudbine se bavi kako materijalnim tako i duhovnim životom svakog pojedinca, pomažući mu da spozna sebe i svoju ulogu u životu, te sve ono što je negativno transformiše u pozitivno. Zbog toga krug sudbine je ništa drugo nego bogumilski točak reinkarnacije kroz koji ljudska duša prolazi kako bi dostigla konačno oslobođenje. Na tom putu duša uzima kako ljudsko tako i životinjsko tijelo, ali i vegatibilno obličje, pokušavajući nas naučiti empatiji i potrebi da pomažemo jedni drugima, bez obzira kakva nam je fizička forma i odakle dolazimo. Sa aspekta bogumilske filozofije svako ljudsko biće teži oslobođenju od negativnih elemenata svoje karme kako bi u konačnici doživjelo prosvjetljenje. Glavni pokretači kruga sudbine su ljudski ego, zloba, pohlepa, ljubomora ali čovjek kao dualistično biće ima potencijal da spozna zlo te se kroz određene cikluse oslobodi tog tereta i pročisti, doživi prosvjetljenje. Ilustracija te potrage kroz znakove kruga sudbine najbolja je ako je usporedimo sa nekadašnjim traženjem zlata, kada su kopači ispirali na rijeci tone i tone pijeska da bi pronašli nakon mukotrpnog posla pokoji grumen zlata.
Svaki čovjek nosi u sebi karakteristike sviju znakova kruga sudbine no ipak najdominantnije su one od znaka u čijem je periodu vladavine rođen. Takođe svaki znak ima svoju energiju, vibraciju, koja formira pojedinca i uvodi u novi ciklus. Zbog toga u bosanskom horoskopu znak u kojem je neko rođen predstavlja njegovu startnu poziciju sa koje duša kreće dalje u krugu sudbine. Taj krug je fizički i spiritualan. Možemo ga pratiti na materijalnom i duhovnom nivou od rođenja do smrti – rađamo se i rastemo, neprestano fizički i psihički mjenjamo, da bi jednog dana taj proces na jednom nivou stao i nastavio se na nekom novom.

21.04.2014.

Krug sudbine

Ciklus života na Zemlji predstavljen je u nizu simbola. Znakovi bosanskog kruga sudbine svoju pozadinu imaju iz spoznaje svijeta koji nas okružuje odnosno direktno iz prirode.
Mitološka predaja o zmiji koja nakon određenog vremena ostari i dobije krila te se zbog toga pretvori u zmaja i napusti zemlju leteći ka nebu jedinstvena je manifestacija vremena koje nezaustavljivo podstiče na promjenu jer krug je u vječnom pokretu ili još bolje rečeno - sve što ima u sebi klicu života mora da raste i evoluira. Zbog toga simbolizam kruga sudbine koji počinje sa znakom zmije a završava sa znakom zmaja veoma je jasan – duša napušta svoju materijalnu formu i odlazi ka višoj ili se ponovo rađa i ponavlja krug.
Zemlja, Sunce i Mjesec manifestacije su tri božanske kreacije života: fizičko tijelo, duh i duša. Zemlja simbolizira materijalno tijelo, Mjesec je simbol duha jer je pratilac Zemlje baš kako je sjenka pratilac svakog čovjeka, dok je Sunce simbol duše, njegova svjetlost i toplina daju svemu iskru života. Tri kruga, jedan unutar drugog, grafički su prikaz tog trojstva. Iz ova tri simbola “čita” se sudbina života na Zemlji, oblik i svrha.
Krug je univerzalni simbol svega što postoji, on označava vrijeme, akciju i materiju koja nastaje kretanjem u prostoru koji proizvodi samo vrijeme. Linija koja presjeca po sredini bosanski krug sudbine i dijeli znakove na svijetle i tamne zapravo je linija života čijom putanjom prolazi sve što je stvoreno.
Prema bosanskom krugu sudbine život svakog pojedinca odvija se u intervalima broj 40, bilo da se radi o danima, tjednima, mjesecima ili godinama. Broj 40 je simbol ljudskog života ali i života na planetu Zemlji, naime, u narodu se vjeruje kako se planeta “čisti” svakih 40 godina kroz prirodne katastrofe ili ratove.
U bosanskoj tradiciji vjeruje se kako Allah u prvih 40 dana od začeća ploda u majčinoj utrobi odredi tom čovjeku njegovu budućnost. Sama trudnoća traje 40 tjedana. Nakon porođaja prvih 40 dana, takozvana četeresnica, iznimno su bitni i osjetljivi kako za majku tako i dijete zbog negativnih uticaja koji prijete novom životu. Isto tako, nakon smrti prvih 40 dana prema vjerovanju duša se postepeno odvaja od familije i kuće te prelazi u drugu sferu.
U prvih 40 godina života čovjek je prvenstveno materijalno biće, kada je naglašena fizička snaga i plodnost, dok nakon tog perioda ili u toku narednih 40 godina te karakteristike slabe i nestaju dok jača duhovni poriv, mudrost, relativna prosvjećenost…
Najidealni primjer tog životnog prelaska iz materijalnog u duhovno predstavljeno je u životu božijeg glasnika Muhameda, koji je počeo dobivati svetu objavu upravo u 40-toj godini života. Da li u korelaciji sa tim ili ne, no i u narodu se vjeruje da se čovjek može baviti duhovnom medicinom ili općenito radom sa spiritualnim silama tek nakon 40-te godine.

21.04.2014.

Znakovi bosanskog horoskopa



Dvanaest znakova bosanskog kruga sudbine su slijedeći:
Znakovi tame (zime):
ZMIJA vlada u periodu od 15.10 do 15.11.
LASTAVICA vlada u periodu od 15.11 do 15.12.
TREŠNJA vlada u periodu od 15.12 do 15.01.
ŽABA vlada u periodu od 15.01 do 15.02.
RATNIK vlada u periodu od 15.02 do 15.03.
BABA vlada u perodu od 15.03 do 15.04.
Znakovi svjetla (ljeta)
DID vlada u periodu od 15.04 do 15.05.
GOLUB vlada u periodu od 15.05 do 15.06.
LIPA vlada u periodu od 15.06 do 15.07.
ZVIŽDENJAK vlada u periodu od 15.07 do 15.08.
SEDEFIL vlada u periodu od 15.08 do 15.09.
ZMAJ vlada u periodu od 15.09 do 15.10.
http://magic.bosnianforum.com/t618-kratko-upoznavanje-bosanski-krug-sudbine

21.04.2014.

PRORICANJE, SKIDANJE CRNE MAGIJE

Proricanje sudbine sa grahom,
skidanje crne magije,
salijevanje olova (strahe).
Izrada hamajlija.
Rijeka - Hrvatska
Rezervacija na telefon 091 786 1608

01.04.2014.

Persian religion in the tradition of the Bosnian people

One of the oldest civilizations in the world Persia or today's Iran, whose age is estimated according to archaeological locality to over 7000 years, had a very strong influence both on the Illyrians i.e. Bosnian people. Traces of that influence have their continuity and are evident in various segments from the linguistic, because of numerous Persian words in the Bosnian language, all the way up to folklore and mythology. Because of all that it is necessary to further investigate the connection of Bosnia and Iran through historical events and migration and genetic analysis in order to get a complete image of the connection between Illyrians and the Persians and if there is a possibility that the Illyrians came to the Balkans from today's Iran?!

Temple of god Mitra in Jajce

The temple of the Indo-Iranian god of sun and light Mitra (mitreum) was found in Jajce in 1931 when a foundation for a house was dug. On the initiative of curator of the National museum in Sarajevo professor Sergejevski, it was reconstructed in 1937. The cult of invincible god of sun - Mitra was widespread across all provinces of the Roman empire, including the province of Dalmatia in whose boundaries was a large part of today's Bosnia and Herzegovina. Members of Mithraism sought to place their cult places in caves, but they also built small one cell temples - spelaea, and if the terrain allowed, they were wrapped in dirt. An example of such a temple - spelaea carved into the rock, is located in Jajce and represents a unique and rare example. There is no direct data on the exact time the temple of Mitra in Jajce was built. It is assumed, according to when the coins were found, types of lamps and fibula that it was built at the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century BCE.

Ritual in the honour of Mitra

In one of my earlier texts I described connection of folk customs of lighting fire at dawn on May 6th (Jurjevo or Hidirlez) as a sign of welcome and celebrating sun, since the beginning of May according to Bosnian folk calendar the beginning of summer i.e. light part of the year. And that we are talking about the solar cult of our Illyrian forefathers is proved by another practice which was preserved by Bosnian traditional culture. We are talking about instruments so called trubaljka dedicated to god Mitra, played by men on small and large Jurjevo i.e. April 23rd and May 6th.

In the ethnological records under the name "Peculiar customs of Muslim villagers close to the place Prozor" it is described that Bosniaks in Prozor, at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, met at sunset at a location, which they would pick by themselves, and they would hold the ritual called Trubaljke. Every one of them would for that occasion carry in his hand an instrument, so called trubaljka made out of skinned bark of willow, for the ritual on the eve of small Jurjevo (April 23rd), or made out of the bark of hazel (hazelnut) if they would play on the holiday large Jurjevo (May 6th). That's why trubaljka was an instrument without holes.

"That company was mostly made out of young men, and often times among them there were older men i.e. bearded men. From every household there needs to be at least one member, and there can be more. The participants choose one among themselves which will be the leader, and he has to have the largest instrument (trubaljka). From that place, where they met, the leader goes first and the others follow, sometimes one after the other and sometimes in a crowd. The leader blows his long instrument and then all others in one voice. It is very interesting to listen to that type of music created by numerous instruments. That sound spreads across the entire place where the ritual is being held. They are followed by a crowd of children who goad them on with their thin voice. There is no singing with the instruments as far as I managed to find out, one can only hear various sounds of their instruments and thin children's voices. There are 80 to 100 people in the parade. The leader is always at the top of the file. They visit every Muslim yard and stay there for a few minutes blowing their horns. When they arrive in front of a house, all members of that household exit and observe their procession. They go from house to house, and if they think a witch lives in a house they visit her yard first and then continue on. When they go round the entire village, then they go back to the place from which they started, blowing the horns the entire way. Then the following ritual takes place: an entire group gathers around the leader in a circle (geometrical representation of the sun), holding their instruments in their hands, in a fighting stance. The leader swings his instrument first so hard that it splits into numerous pieces which fall around the gathered men (ritual blessing, imitating the sun's rays). As soon as he does it, it represents a sign for the others, who laughing and shouting, hit each other with the instruments until they are completely destroyed. Then they return to their homes. The Bosniaks practiced this ritual from ancient times, in the eve of both Jurjeva, in order to neutralise all negative effects of witches, who according to folk belief, were particularly active on these two identical holidays. With that ritual one would ensure protection of humans and domestic animals until next year."

Here the connection between Persians and Bosniaks doesn't stop. Namely, the Slavic name for God - Bog is a name that stems from the Persian name Baga which was used for Ahura Mazda. In the same manner, the Slavic name for our planet - Zemlja, has its root in the name of the Persian goddess of earth Zam. What is more important is the tradition of respecting old deities which existed among Bosnian Muslims in parallel with Islam, i.e. it was incorporated in it. Of course, we are talking about the so called "folk Islam", not the official one. Namely, there are written and published records in the book "Annexes for oriental philology" published in 1980, where it is mentioned that in Sarajevo before WWII there were men who directed their prayer (duas) not only to Allah but also to some non-Islamic deities. For this text the most interesting deity is Tir, Persian god of rain and fertility. Tir or Tistriya lead an army of Ahura Mazda in the battle against evil forces. Every 13th of each month was dedicated to him. Probably because of this deity the rituals for rain and fertility were upheld the longest among the Bosnian people, tradition practiced by the Illyrians and continued by the Bogomils and later Islamic Bosniaks.

14.03.2014.

Perzijska religija u bosanskoj tradiciji

Jedna od najstarijih civilizacija na svijetu Perzija ili današnji Iran, čija se starost procjenjuje prema arheološkim lokalitetima na preko 7ooo godina, imala je vrlo snažan uticaj i na Ilire odnosno na bosanski narod. Tragovi tog uticaja imaju svoj kontinuitet i uočljivi su u mnogim segmentima od onog lingvističkog, zbog relativno velikog broja perzijskih riječi u bosanskom jeziku, pa sve do folklora i mitologije. Zbog svega toga potrebno je podrobnije istražiti povezanost Bosne i Irana preko povijesni događaja i migracija te genetskih analiza kako bi se dobila potpuna predodžba u kakvoj su vezi bili Iliri i Perzijanci te da li postoji mogućnost da su Iliri došli na Balkan upravo sa područja današnjeg Irana?

Hram boga Mitre u Jajcu

Hram indoiranskog boga sunca i svjetlosti Mitre (mitreum) pronađen je u Jajcu 1931.godine prilikom kopanja temelja za izgradnju jedne kuće. Na inicijativu kustosa Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu profesora Sergejevskog, rekonstruiran je 1937.god. Kult nepobjedivog boga Sunca - Mitre bio je raširen po svim provincijama Rimskog carstva uključujući i provinciju Dalmaciju u čijim je granicama bio i najveći dio današnje Bosne i Hercegovine. Pripadnici mitraizma nastojali su smjestiti svoja kultna mjesta u pećinama, ali su izgrađivali i male jednoćelijske hramove - speleje, te ukoliko je teren dopuštao, ukopavali ih u zemlju. Takav primjer hrama - spelej izdubljen u stijeni, nalazi se u Jajcu i predstavlja jedinstven i rijedak primjer. O vremenu nastanka hrama boga Mitre u Jajcu, nema izravnih podataka. Pretpostavlja se, prema nalazu novca, tipovima lampi i fibule da je sagrađen krajem 3.ili početkom 4. stoljeća n. e.

Obred u čast boga Mitre

U jednom od svojih ranijih tekstova opisao sam povezanost narodnog običaja paljenja vatre u samu zoru 6.maja (Jurjevo ili Hidirlez) kao znak dobrodošlice i slavljenja Sunca, pošto je početak maja prema bosanskom narodnom kalendaru početak ljeta odnosno svijetlog dijela godine. A da je upravo riječ o solarnom kultu naših ilirski predaka dokazuje i još jedna praksa koju je bosanska tradicijska kultura sačuvala. Riječ je o sviralima takozvanim trubaljkama koje su posvećene bogu Mitri i koje su muškarci svirali na malo i veliko Jurjevo odnosno 23.april i 6.maj. U etnološkom zapisu pod nazivom „Čudnovati običaj u muslimanskih seljaka oko Prozora“ opisuje se kako su se Bošnjaci u Prozoru, krajem devetnaestog i početkom dvadesetog vijeka, sastajali nakon zalaska Sunca na nekom mjestu, koje bi sami odabrali, te održavali obred nazvan Trubaljke. Svako od njih nosio bi tom prilikom u ruci sviralo takozvanu trubaljku napravljenu od oguljene kore vrbe, za ritual uoči malog Jurjeva, ili napravljenu od kore lijeske (lješnjaka) ako se sviralo na Jurjevo. Zbog toga je trubaljka bila sviralo bez rupica.

„To se društvo sastoji većinom od mladića, a često puta među njima bude i starijih muškaraca odnosno bradatih muškaraca. Od svake kuće treba da bude bar po jedan član, a može ih biti i više. Između sebe učesnici izaberu jednog koji će im biti vođa, a u kojeg treba da bude najveće sviralo (trubaljka). Sa onog mjesta, na kojem su se skupili krene prvi vođa a ostali za njim, nekad jedan iza drugog a nekad i u gomili. Vođa prvi zatrubi sa svojim dugačkim sviralom a onda i svi ostali u jedan glas. Veoma je zanimljivo slušati tu muziku koju stvaraju brojna svirala. Taj zvuk se širi po cijelom mjestu gdje se održava ritual. Za njima ide gomila djece koja svojim tankim glasom potcikuje. Uz svirala, koliko sam doznao, ne pjevaju nikakve pjesme, samo se mogu čuti razni zvukovi njihovih trubi i sitni dječiji glasovi... U povorci sudjeluje od 80 do 100 osoba. Vođa uvijek ide na čelu kolone. Oni dolaze u svako dvorište muslimanske kuće i zadrže se nekoliko minuta trubeći. Pred čiju kuću dođu iz nje iziđu svi članovi familije i posmatraju njihovu predstavu. Tako rade redom, od kuće do kuće, a ukoliko sumnjaju da u nekoj kući živi vještica onda prvo posjete njeno dvorište pa nastavljaju dalje. Kada obiđu cijelo selo, onda se vrate na ono mjesto sa kojeg su krenuli trubeći cijelim putem. Tu se onda desi sljedeći ritual: oko vođe se skupi cijela grupa u krug (geometrijski prikaz sunca), držeći svirala u ruci, u pozi za borbu. Vođa prvi zamahne svojim sviralom tako jako da se ono rascijepi na mnogo komadića koji padnu po okupljenim muškarcima (ritualni blagoslov imitacije sunčevih zraka). Čim on to učini to je znak i za druge, koji uz veliki smijeh i galamu, udaraju se trubama dok ih potpuno ne unište. Potom se vraćaju svojim domovima. Bošnjaci ovaj ritual praktikuju još iz davnih vremena, uoči oba Jurjeva, kako bi se neutralisalo svako negativno djelovanje vještica koje su, prema narodnom vjerovanju, posebno aktivne na ova dva identična praznika. Tim ritualom se obezbjeđivala zaštita ljudi i domaćih životinja sve do naredne godine“.

Na ovome ne prestaje povezanost perzijskog i bosanskog naroda. Naime, slavenski naziv za Boga je naziv koji potječe od perzijskog imena Baga koji se koristio za Ahura Mazdu. Isto tako, slavenski naziv za našu planetu – Zemlja, ima svoj korijen u nazivu perzijske boginje zemlje Zam. Ono što je još bitnije jeste tradicija poštovanja starih božanstava koja je kod bosanskih muslimana egzistirala paralelno sa Islamom odnosno bila je ukomponirana u njega. Naravno, ovdje je riječ o takozvanog „narodnom islamu“ ne onom oficijalnom. Naime, postoje zapisani i objavljeni podaci u knjizi „Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju“ objavljenoj 1980. godine gdje se navodi kako su u Sarajevu pred Drugi svjetski rat postojali ljudi koji su svoje dove upućivali ne samo Allahu već i nekim ne-islamskim božanstvima. Za ovaj tekst najzanimljivije je ime božanstva Tir iza koje stoji istoimeni perzijski bog kiše i plodnosti. Tir ili Tistriya vodio je armiju Ahura Mazde u borbi protiv zlih sila. Svaki trinaesti dan u mjesecu bio mu je posvećen. Vjerovatno zbog ovog božanstva su se među bosanskim narodom najduže zadržali obredi molitve za kišu i plodnost, tradicije koju su praktikovali Iliri a nastavili sa praksom Bogumili i kasnije islamizirani Bošnjaci.

01.03.2014.

Ritual avec plomb

Dans la tradition de la Bosnie-Herzégovine est présent dans la médecine populaire depuis les temps anciens, un rituel intéressant de plomb connue sous le titre de la fusion du plomb ou salivanje olova, de la fusion de la peur ou salivanje strahe, de la fusion des grains ou salivanje zrna, déversement horreur ou prelijevanje strave, etc. Il annule les effets négatifs du mauvais œil, de la magie noire, de la rencontre avec les démons et de la chance bloquée, par exemple, quand une fille ne peut pas se marier ou l'elève ne reussi pas a l'ecole. Cependant, le plus souvent ce rituel se pratique pour les enfants qui pleurent frequemment ou ont le sommeil agité.

La personne qui pratique ce rituel est appelé stravarka ou stravaruša , si c'est une femme, ou stravar, si il s'agit d'un homme . Habituellement, la connaissance de la pratique du rituel est hérité d'un membre de la famille qui s'en est occupé toute sa vie. Lorsque cette personne est vieille ou pour cause de maladie ne peut plus être engagé dans la fusion du plomb alors ce savoir elle l'enseigne a son successeur .

Pour effectuer un rituel de fusion du plomb il faut prendre que quelques petits morceaux de plomb, un récipient métallique dans lequel on verse l'eau, il est recommandé que ce soit de l'eau de source, et une casserole dans lequel faire fondre le plomb sur le feu. Le patient est recouvert d' un tissu rouge sur la tête. Stravarka récitant des prières sur un bol avec de l'eau, en disant des le départ ceci:

Ma chere Hazrat Fatima, ma chère mère, dites à votre père Mohammed de me venir en aide comme a ce patient.

Puis il dit que la première et les trois derniers chapitres du Coran, soufflant dans l'eau chaque fois qu'il arrive a la fin de la prière. Si pendant que stravarka fais ca elle a des réactions telles qu'un étouffement dans la poitrine, l'apparition d'une odeur forte, elle sais qu'il est question d'un grand mal, et il est prononcé le chapitre 36. du Coran. Le même chapitre sera prononcé une fois de plus après la fin du rituel, mais cette fois sur un morceau de sucre que le patient doit manger.

Lorsque le plomb a fondu stravarka prend une cuillère et verse le plomb fondu dans un bol d'eau qu'elle tient au dessus de la tête du patient. Tout en versant au dessus de la tête, elle regarde dans la direction d'une grande colline pour que le mal s'en aille loin du patient. Pendant ce temps-là:

Le plomb se brise et de N (nom du patient ) tout le mal s'en va.

Au contact du plomb fondu et de l'eau froide celui ci va prendre differente forme qui seront analysés par stravarka pour connaitre la cause de la maladie ou d'un problème qui touche les patients. Si vous voyez un serpent dans la forme elle conduira à interpréter « que le mal est venu de l'ennemi " si il y a des formes qui ressemblent à des clous on dira alors que c'était la peur ou le stress, si on voit sur certains des morceaux de la couleur verte on va interpréter le signe disant «Quelqu'un a travaillé par magie avec l'aide de talismans, etc .

Lorsque vous interprétez ce que vous voyez dans les formes de plomb, les ramasser et les remettre de nouveau a fondre dans le feu. Le Plomb fondu sera de nouveau verser dans un bol d'eau par contre cette fois ci il sera tenu au niveau de l'abdomen des patients. Après ré- analyse des formes au fond du bol d'eau stravarka les ramasse à nouveau et refait fondre sur le feu une troisième fois. Cette fois ci le plomb fondu est versé dans un bol d'eau, qu'elle garde au dessus des pieds du patient. Le rituel est terminé, le signe que le mal ou la maladie est annulée se voit grace a une forme dans le plomb en forme de larme, appelé le «cœur». Si cette forme apparait c'est que le rituel a réussi.

Après ca stravarka prend trois allumettes, les allume une par une et les jette dans un récipient avec de l'eau , en disant :

Je n'e brule pas des allumettes mais je brule tout le mal, les maladies et les démons avec N ( dire le nom du patient ) de la mère N ( dire son nom »), avec l'aide de Dieu. Amen!

Stravarka sort alors les allumettes et le plomb du recipient et reverse l'eau dans une bouteille vide et la donne au patient pour la prendre à la maison. L'eau sert a la toilette du patient pendant sept jours, matin et soir, et il boit un peu à chaque fois de cette eau. Le meilleur jour pour effectuer ce rituel est le mardi qui était un jour saint de la Bosnie Bogumil. Si vous ne voyez pas après la troisième fusion du plomb la forme de coeur alors le rituel doit etre répété les deux mardi suivants.

Dans le contenant utilisé pour le rituel on emmiette des morceaux de pain en tout petit morceaux a fin de les jeter dehors et qu'ils soient mangés par les oiseaux. La signification de ce rituel est de donner l'aumone aux oiseaux afin qu'ils emportent avec eux le mal et les maladies qui ont frappé les patients.

En fin de compte, il convient de noter que la performance de ce rituel n'est pas anodine, car il se produit un transfert de l'énergie négative des patients sur stravarka qui fait qu'il ou elle ont généralement certaines réactions comme l'insomnie, la douleur de poitrine, les cauchemar, la dépression, etc. Par conséquent, le rituel devrait s'engager seulement par ceux qui ont des connaissances sur l'élimination de l'énergie négative .

14.02.2014.

Ljiljan - dokaz povijesti Bosne duge preko 2000 godina

Stari bosanski kraljevski simbol - ljiljani, simbol su historijskog kontinuiteta bosanske državnosti, a kao simbol su prisutni na tlu Bosne više od dvije hiljade godina. U različitim značenjima prisutan je i u nekim drugim starim civilizacijama. U II milenijumu stare ere može se naći u umjetnosti Krete i Egipta. Najstariji nalaz simbola ljiljana u Bosni pronađen je u Ilidži kod Sarajeva, u ruševinama jedne zgrade iz doba Rimljana, gdje je iskopan jedan ulomak zemljane posude star oko 2000 godina na kojoj je utisnut simbol ljiljana (vidi sliku dolje). To je do sada najstariji nalaz ljiljana u ovom dijelu Evrope:

Historičar prof. Dr Enver Imamović ističe da je Bosna u srednjem vijeku bila samostalna država, imala je svoje vladare (banove i kraljeve), svoju zastavu i grb (sa ljiljanima), vojsku, strogo određene i čuvane granice, svoj dvor i diplomatsku službu, vlastiti jezik (bosanski), vlastito pismo (bosančicu), svoju vjeru (bogumilsku), svoj narod (Bošnjani), svoju monetu, i sve drugo što karakterizira jednu državu, pa i više od toga, jer mnoge zemlje nisu imale ono što je imala i što je bila Bosna.

- Treba naglasiti da je Bosna jedna od rijetkih evropskih zemalja, a time i u svijetu, koja ima tako dugu tradiciju državnih obilježja.

19.01.2014.

La divination par les haricots

La divination de l'avenir avec 41 grains de haricots blancs est la forme la plus célèbre de prédiction du destin en Bosnie-Herzégovine. On croit que cette forme de divination vient de Turquie et est basé sur l'ancien calendrier turc, qui se composait de seulement neuf mois, chaque mois individuel de 40 jours. En outre, 40 + 1 grain a toujours eu sa forte symbolique, en particulier a cause de la légende turque du héro qui avec bravoure a vaincu 40 soldats seul. Certains anthropologues associent l’origine de cette méthode divination a une autre similaire qui se nomme Kumalak et qui existe dans la tradition de l'Iran et de Kasakhstan. 

Selon la tradition bosniaque ce genre de divination est liée à Hazrat Fatima, fille du Prophète Muhammad, qui faisait affaire avec cela en cachette de son père. Cependant, à une occasion, alors que Fatima prédisait l’avenir a une de ses amies dans sa maison Mohammed a surgi. De grande surprise et de peur, Fatima a reussi a cacher sous sa jupe la moitié des haricots. Voyant ca son père, lui dit alors: "Puisse la moitié etre la verité et l’autre moitié le mensonge!". En raison de cette légende dans le peuple de Bosnie au jour d’aujourd’hui on continue de croire qu’à chaque divination il y a seulement la moitié de vérité et que le reste est un mensonge. 

Pour la divination par les haricots il faut 41 haricot blancs et un morceau de tissu rouge. Quand le tissu est mis en face de soi sur la table, on met les haricots et avec la main droite on les tourne trois fois dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre en disant : " Au nom de Hazrat Fatima, je définis ces haricots pour... (ici préciser ce que nous voulons savoir ) ". Puis les grains sont répartis en trois piles égales et on retire de chacune des piles quatre grains, jusqu'à ce qu'il reste 1, 2, 3, ou 4 grains qui sont mis en face de soi. Lorsque trois rangs sont formés ont peut commencer l’interprétation. La Ligne verticale de droite est appelé "l'homme", la ligne verticale au milieu est appelé la "maison" et la ligne verticale gauche est appelée "femme". Si vous êtes une femme, vous interprétez les chiffres obtenus de gauche à droite ou vice versa si vous êtes un homme. Les haricots sont interprétés de trois façons: horizontalement, verticalement, et en diagonale. 

La première formation de grains en trois rangées horizontales révèle le passé de la personnes a qui l’ont prédit la destinée. La deuxieme formation de grains en trois rangées horizontales revele le présent de la personne pour qui on consulte les haricots et a la fin la troisième formation de grains est pour l'avenir. Le détail le plus important dans l'interprétation des haricots, c'est que lorsque vous formez trois lignes que vous devez compter le nombre de tas avec 4 grains. Ceux-ci sont appelés hatma et leur nombre détermine si le sort est favorable ou non. Si vous avez un hatma 5, 7 ou 9 il vous attend bonheur, l'accomplissement du désir ou un changement favorable tandis que si vous avez 6 ou 8 hatma devant vous période négative, la déception ou la tristesse. A part ca, quand se forme les trois rangs horizontaux la personne qui fait l’interpretation doit d’abord compter le nombre de 4 , de 3, de 2 et de 1 .. voici un exemple :  

Dans ce tableau, nous avons trois rangées de sept hatma ce qui est un signe de nouvelles favorables, de bonheur et de succès. De même, il n'existe qu'un seul 3, appelé murad et qui signifie l'amour. Murad est particulièrement avantageux dans la divination d'amour. Ensuite, nous avons quatre numéro deux (numéro 2 dans l'interprétation des haricots appelé "pas") qui indiquent un changement: depart à l'étranger, demenagement ou même une séparation entre deux personnes. Enfin, nous examinons combien il y a d’endroit avec le numero 1, dans ce cas ci il ya deux unités et ils représentent les problemes du consultant. Lorsque nous avons effectué une analyse des 4 premiers chiffres on passe au deuxième niveau de l’interprétation. Si le consultant est une femme nous interprétons les haricots de gauche à droite: 

Horizontal: 

234 - la femme (consultante) est amoureuse veut une relation avec un homme. 

112- la femme (consultante) est triste elle ne sait pas ce que l’homme ressent pour elle . Il est possible qu'il ne lui montre pas assez d'intérêt. 

242 – malgré tout il y aura une visite, une rencontre entre l’homme et la femme(consultante). 

Vertical: 

212 – la femme (consultante) risque une maladie sans gravité. 413 – confusion dans la famille , désaccord entre les membres de la famille, agitation. 

224 - réussite de l'entreprise, un nouvel emploi ou un changement favorable. 

Diagonale: 

212 – vu que cette combinaison se repete deux fois il se peut que la consultante ai besoin d’aller a l’hopital , elle ne pourra echapper a cette maladie. 

214 - période défavorable se terminant après six mois. 

http://magic.bosnianforum.com/f20-la-magie-des-bosnie  

15.01.2014.

Horoscope bosniaque: Serpent

Le serpent est le signe par lequel commence le cercle de la destinée. Chez les illyriens cet animal est devenu l'une des divinités les plus importantes et de protection de la famille. Sa règle dure 15/10-au 15/11. Les personnes nées sous le signe du Serpent sont traditionalistes, fidèles a leur maison et leur famille. Ils n'aiment pas le changement, parfois en raison de la paresse et parfois parce qu'ils ne sont pas enclins à assumer toute la responsabilité sur eux memes À l'action, ils peuvent stimuler une personne qui est plus dominante que eux, mais sympathique. Sinon, ils n'aiment pas l'autorité. 

De meme que la période d'automne est celle de la prospérité, lorsque la table a presque tous les fruits de la nature, les serpents sont un vrai gourmand parce que, surtout, ils aiment profiter de la nourriture et des boissons. Quand il s'agit des émotions les personnes de ce signe passent d'un extrême à l'autre: soit ils sont trop ouvert pour montrer leurs sentiments ou trop fermé. Dans les deux cas, le serpent connait souvent la déception et alors se retire. Cela se compare à un serpent en fuite dans un trou dans le sol. Leur partenaire doit être doux et compréhensif, mais en même temps passionné et combatif. Les serpents aiment le sexe et savent comment en profiter, peut-être plus que les autres signes. Si vous souhaitez faire l'expérience de la véritable passion au lit choisissez toujours un partenaire de ce signe. 

Le Serpent est souivent une personne mefiante , donc si vous le voulez en ami ou en partenaire vous devez montrer assez de patience pour gagner sa confiance. Bien que n'étant pas un signe qui se vante de vitesse au travail l'entrepri ils sont persistants et tenaces. Ils aiment l'argent, mais comme nous l'avons déjà souligné ils évitent l'autorité et à travers la vie de l'entreprise essaient toujours de se réaliser de façon autonome que ce soit en créant une entreprise ou en se livrant à un passe-temps qui leur apportera de l'argent. Quant à la vitalité des personnes nées sous le signe du Serpent ce sont ceux qui le plus souffrent de problèmes circulatoires, la colonne vertébrale et les reins. Si vous êtes né dans la nouvelle phase de la lune vous resterez toujours d'apparence jeune. 

http://bosniaq.blogspot.com/ 

11.01.2014.

Reincarnation in the tradition of the Bosnian people

Bogomilsm was based on Persian dualism: the master of the spiritual world was god, and the material, which was transitory, was ruled by the evil god Satan. The same principle is evident in Christianity, Islam and Judaism where the principle of good and evil are clearly accentuated, and that god for various reasons never managed to defeat Satan and that's why both of them have their kingdoms and eternally opposed armies. The balance of power is equal with a religious promise that Satan will be eventually beaten and destroyed. 

The main element of the spiritual world was the soul, for which the Bogomils believed that with migrations or metempsychosis it aims at eternal perfection or nirvana - final liberation. According to Bogomil doctrine, it was forbidden to kill animals and birds, and even to destroy their eggs, because in every animal there can be a human soul doing penance for the sin's a man has done for his lifetime. That old Bogomil beliefs left a huge mark on the Bosnian people is best witnessed by the still active belief from north-western Bosnia which claims that evil people turn into animals after death such as pigs, cows, horses,. in order to serve humans in their new life and to pay for their sins . 

One important record, which dates from the Ottoman occupation of BiH, named "From Bosnia with pictures" speaks explicitly about the very widespread idea of reincarnation among the Bosnian people. Author Clement Božić commented, like numerous other contemporary observers, seeing packs of dogs moving freely around the neighbourhoods and streets of Sarajevo: "Bosniaks take care of them (dogs), by giving them complete freedom; they say that some of them may contain a human soul and if someone has a bad dream, in the morning they buy bread and feed them to the dogs." . 

The only animal that cannot have a human soul is the snake, probably because of the Illyrian legend according to which a snake has been created 40 years prior to any living being on this planet. This mythological belief of the Bosnian people is completely analogous to the ancient representation about the forefather of all Illyrians which was wrapped by a snake when he was a baby. In many ways a snake has been officially given a favoured status and she had a special place among the Bogomils which can be seen from numerous legends created throughout the Middle Ages where this animal plays a major role. To the Bogomils, unlike other Christian churches, the snake didn't represent the reincarnation of evil since according to their doctrine the tree of knowledge of good and evil was a woman (Eve), and Adam sinned for copulating with her, and that's why both of them were banished from heaven. Thanks to this fact the existence of the cult of snake was never brought into question throughout any period of Bosnian history, not even during the turbulent Middle Ages. The answer to the question why was only the snake exempt from the karmic circle is that she as a holly animal cannot be the bearer of a human's sinful soul, her task is to use her mystical powers to protect every house and all souls living in them . 

Even though the Bogomils weren't inclined, according to their religious belief, to excessive indulgement of earthly goods, they were, like all others, exposed to constant temptations which ruled the evil material world which additionally made it harder for a soul to achieve enlightenment. According to Bogomil's conception the end of the reincarnation cycle was only possible after receiving the sacrament at death with which the soul would achieve its spiritual regeneration. It was only possible through this type of cleansing and after separation from the material world which was under the control of evil. The final goal was to ensure the unification of the soul with the good god. In a lawsuit in Torino in 1388 a claim mentioned that a soul which doesn't receive consolamentum transfers into the first body to which it comes across to, either human or animal; this continues on until it is blessed by its spiritual father on its deathbed. 

When we summarise all that has been written so far we come to some sensational data which reveals to us that in Bosnia and Herzegovina we find very clear and evident basic doctrines about karma and reincarnation which can be considered to be rare, if not the only country in this part of Europe, with such traditional concept which certainly didn't form in the Bogomil religion, but it's appearance dates from ancient times. That's why this particularity deserves special research. 

Reincarnation as a term was well defined in Bhagavad Gita, authoritative writing of a Vedic teacher which dates from the 5th century BCE, defined as a cycle of birth and death in the circle of samsara, and karma as causal effect according to which by our own actions, thoughts and feelings we create our own destiny. The idea about reincarnation can be found on all continents. But, for us the most important data is that reincarnation as a thought was present among the old Celts and Persians, two peoples which more or less had a defining influence on the religious understanding of the Bosnian people, especially during ancient and middle ages . 

11.01.2014.

Celtic dragon and goddess of moon

In order to get a more detailed understanding of the beginnings of the religious idea of reincarnation in Bosnia and Herzegovina it is necessary to follow the snake (dragon) trail on the unique symbol of ancient past of this country - tombstone. Even though the representation of a dragon on a Bosnian tombstone such as the one in Boljuni or on the famous tombstone from Donje Zgošće accidentally or on purpose didn't stimulate interest for serious observations, but was interpreted in a simpler way, as heraldic motifs without any deeper background meaning, it can be a road sign to any serious researcher when it comes to discovering religious and cultural heritage of the Bosnian people. Luckily today we know that depictions of dragons are not accidental nor in the form of an ornament without meaning, but they represent, among others, proof of deep symbiosis of Celts and Illyrians, through cultural and religious practice. Namely, on some tombstones there are depictions of two-headed dragons which is the same as the Celtic symbol of the two-headed dragon. The similarity of the Celtic and Bosnian (Illyrian) tradition doesn't end there, but it gets its full meaning through depictions of the Celtic moon goddess Arianhrod on one of the tombstones which brings us to recent evidence about the dominant influence of the cult of the Grand Mother and dragon as symbol of fertility - new life. 

Arianhod is known under several names: "High Fruitful Mother", "Silver Wheel", "Silver Circle", "Sky Goddess", etc. In etymology it is considered that her name comes from the Welsh word "silver" or "ariawyn" - "silver woman". The origin of the name is also brought into connection with Ariadne or Aradia, Greek lunar goddess, which is connected to the cult of the growing moon. Ariana, whose meaning is "one very holly", is a familiar Illyrian name and is very present today on the territory of Albania, Kosovo and BiH. Other variations of this name are also in use such as Ilirijana or Ilirija. 

Celtic religious influence on Illyrian tribes left a relatively deep mark especially on the cult of the Grand Mother. Namely, according to Celtic legend, Arianhrod takes care of warriors and their souls which perfectly fits into the legend about Mujo Hrnjica and the Mountain faery. In the same manner, Arianhrod is the goddess of reincarnation, new life, with which she represents unrivalled mother of life. Notion of reincarnation i.e. resurrection and new life was not foreign to the Illyrians, on the contrary, all that symbology was represented by the snake, their totem, which personified the unbroken circle of life by shedding its skin. 

In accordance with everything said so far, we can conclude that reincarnation notion was inseparable part of the cult of fertility and the Grand Mother and that as such it was part of the tradition of our people throughout all centuries, in a smaller or larger extent. That's why we can find it in the Bogomil tradition but also during middle Ages in folk religion. 

11.01.2014.

From Illyrian's and Bogomil's to the Bosnian holocaust

The Bogomil movement is without a doubt one of the phenomena of Middle Age Bosnia and Herzegovina since it testifies about the strength and unity that characterised the Bosnian people of that time. Aware of their uniqueness, especially Illyrian descent, the Bosnian's of that time had the hardest time during the violent transition from paganism to Christianity since the new religion was foreign and completely absurd to them. This is the reason why Bosnian people never gave up their old cults, especially the cult of the snake, which were perfectly in line with coexistence with nature, its gods, especially the Grand Mother and astral deities. In line with that there had to be a resistance, the same one that almost militarily ruined the Roman Empire, which found the Bosnian people in Bogomilism. We can assume that the Bosnian people recognised some similarities between Bogomilism and Illyrian cults, but more important is the fact that through Bogomilism they achieved certain autonomy from the Christian church, in order to continue their ancient practices of worshiping their old cults, with such convenience. Assemblies on high localities where the Illyrians glorified the heavenly deities was one of the practices of the Bogomils. 

The wish for preserving tradition and cultural identity resulted in the fact that the Bogomil faith completely affirmed itself in Bosnia and Herzegovina becoming the main religious but also political movement based on the revolutionary idea of resistance towards dictatorship and hegemony which came from two directions - Vatican and Byzantium. Mass conversions in the next period of Bogomils to Islam, without force or threats, are the best proof of the claims that support that Bogomil's saw in the new faith the best protection and solution to their existence. 

From all of the above we can find the root of animosity that the Bosnian people were subject to from Serbs and to some extent Croats. Even though Bosnian people were third in number when it comes to people in the former Yugoslav republic, cultural genocide was practiced over them not just in that Republic but decades earlier, which all culminated in the period from 1992 to 1995 when it assumes an ever harsher shape expressed through ethnical cleansing. At that time of the Bosnian holocaust the most ruthless crimes were undertaken since WWII, when Bosniaks, faced with the possibility of complete annihilation, were killed in numerous Serbian concentration camps, which resulted in mass graves whose number up until today has only been partially discovered. 

This all was preceded by a well thought out strategy of destroying the identity of Bosniaks, appropriation of everything that made a people a nation, where Serbian ethnologists and anthropologists played a major role. Namely, all folk beliefs of the Bosniaks were appropriated as being Serbian along with the thesis without valid evidence that Bosniaks themselves were actually Serbs?! But, this is not only the case with Bosnia, but also other neighbouring countries, and through their ethnological literature we can find entire chapters of folk tradition of Croatia, Montenegro, Bulgaria or Romania under the joint name "Serbian beliefs". A special part is made up of traditional beliefs of Turkey, their customs, cuisine, numerous words, even music, which Serbs today regard as authentic works of their cultural history?! . 

16.12.2013.

Stećci

Nenad M. Đorđević an independent researcher of ancient cultures and mythology on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, believes that tombstones historically don't belong to the church of Bosnia, as the most dominant religious institution during the middle ages in Bosnia, nor to the catholic or orthodox church. He claims that the origin of the tombstones is much older than Middle Ages and that it spans into the period from Neolith and the beginning of the bronze era, between 7000 and 3500 years BCE . 

According to Mr. Đorđević today's hypothesis about medieval origins of the tombstones is based solely on partial historical and archaeological data which were available to the academic stipend during the first few centuries after WWII. With regard to the theory about Bogomil and Patarene origin of the tombstones, it is not based on historical or scientific facts, since the followers of Bogomil religion generally rejected wealth and feudal exploitation of state government . 

Bogomils also categorically refused the Orthodox Church and its hierarchy, its temples, sacraments and holiness performed by priests. Numerous reports sent to the pope spoke of this; like the one written by one of the four grand inquisitors, which were declared to be saints by the Roman church, Capistran (Giovanni de Capistrano), also known as an expert in heresy. In his letter to pope Callixtus III 04.07.1455 he wrote: "Bosnian Bogomil's (krstjani, Bošnjani) are not members of the Eastern Church, on the contrary, they would much rather die in their unbelief than accept the faith of Rašan (Serbs)."  

In a similar sense they rejected all material objects which were used by the orthodox during their prayers and they condemned the use of icons, especially the cross, and the worship of relics or saints. Bogomils and Patarens were mostly religious preachers, indifferent to worldly affairs. Mass production of tens of thousands of monolith tombstones with rich decorative motifs is in total contradiction with the modest religious doctrine of the Bogomils and Patarens . 

Bogomils had a similar aversion towards the Catholic Church. Pope John XXII writes on July 18th 1319 to Mladen Šubić ".that the land of Bošnjani is so tainted by the lack of faith, that the churches are neglected, priesthood is uprooted, Christ's sacred objects are scornfully trampled, there is no respect towards the cross, the sacrament of communion life is not upheld, on the contrary christening is to some only known as a noun, even though it is the basis of the Christian religion."  

As an interesting fact we should mention that the Bogomil movement appeared in Bosnia before the 12th century, as some historians have postulated, and it spread from this land further west. Dominican Anselmo from Alessandria in Italy, who lived and worked during the 13th century, in one of his writings mentions that "the heretics were first located in Bosnia from where they spread their doctrine towards Lombardi, then further towards France, where it arrived in Orleans in 1022 and Arras in 1025 (A.Dondaine, Le Tractatus de hereticis d`Alexandrie, Arch. Fr. Praedic, XX, Rome 1950., p. 308-324.)  

Because of the aforementioned facts we can conclude that tombstones are not a privilege of the church of Bosnia, or even less of orthodox or catholic Christianity, but that they had their ancient origin as a sacral motif of the cult of fertility and cult of the dead. Namely, from 70 000 registered tombstones, only 5000 have decorative motifs. From those 5000 decorated tombstones only 438 have as their main decorative element different types of crosses. This means that the most important religious symbol which is potentially subject to various churches, together with other variants of tombstones in the form of a cross, doesn't represent even 20% of decorated tombstones. The question that spontaneously rises from these facts is: how is it possible that the most representative symbol of both, Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church only encompasses such a small number of tombstones? If with previous facts we add that most of the crosses on the tombstones are of pagan origin in a form of a swastika or anthropomorphic shape, then there can only be one logical conclusion - tombstones are not an exclusive privilege of medieval churches and cultures. Even though there are numerous proofs that tombstones were used as gravestones for catholic and orthodox Christians, and there are even some indications that a discrete number of tombstones were manufactured during the middle ages, reuse of numerous tombstones during the middle ages cannot be excluded in advance . 

16.12.2013.

Ancient symbols of Illyrian cults

When we analyse the motifs on numerous tombstones we notice that the most dominant symbols are depictions of crosses, swords, axes, hands, crescent moon, circles, etc. which in essence represent the symbols of the astral cult and the cult of fertility. As we all know the crescent moon and the cross are not original Christian symbol but symbols of Islam. Namely, the cross originated from a swastika, ancient symbol of sun and fertility, while the crescent moon belongs to the cult of the goddess Mother or goddess of moon. The circle motif comes from the cult of sun which is analogous to the Illyrian practice of carrying staffs which had a disc or circle on top of it. A raised hand is a classic ancient symbol of supreme gods along the Mediterranean belt and it symbolises demonstration of divine power and strength. Sword and axe as weapons also have their origin in ancient times and they represent weapons which symbolised courage, strength and power. Among the Illyrian tribes numerous axes were known to have two blades which can visually represent the symbol of a moon i.e. the phase of rising and the phase of falling moon which again fully forms a circle which can symbolise a full moon . 

Among the ancient Bosniaks (Illyrians) the axe was without a doubt a symbol of the goddess of moon. In support of this claim the legend about the punished son can serve the purpose, namely the son raised his axe on his mother and god punished him immediately by killing him and carrying his body, with the hand still raised holding an axe, onto the moon's surface in order to warn people during a full moon that they need to respect the woman i.e. mother. Illyrian warriors were especially known by wearing their war axe with which they caused mortal fear in their enemies. Probably because of the above mentioned the axe became a symbol of divine protection of the house and family among the Bosnian people, precisely the characteristic which was traditionally prescribed to the goddess Mother or the goddess of the moon. Images of ancient axes on the facades of Bosnian houses could be seen until the Second World War along eastern Bosnia and around Sarajevo. Among the Bosnian Christians a cross regularly replaced an axe . 

09.12.2013.

Illyrian religion and Bosnian mythology

Cultural anthropology which combines a few special disciplines such as ethnology, archaeology or linguistics, gives us a perfect insight into the history and heritage of a certain people, and it tries, fairly successfully, to show in a logical sense the evolutionary trend present throughout history among a certain people. Influences are, of course, socially multifaceted, and so with the cultural the religious influence was supplemented and the circle would be complete. . 

If we wish to monitor carefully that evolutionary sequence of events then we surely must reach out to mythology, its fantastic creatures and legends, mostly for the fact that mythology is the most archaic form of art which for the first time showed mankind's limitless imagination. Inhabiting nature and the world around them with highly unusual and different beings and appearances, mankind first of all showed their social nature, but also the need to express its intimate fears, hopes, aspirations and frustrations. The tendency to express oneself in the best possible way resulted in the appearance of various stories, legends, drawings and sculptures about a different world where the principles of good and evil are highly accentuated, and what is more important, where they show their meaning and efficiency. Through those mediums we come across information about classic frustration with everyday life to which people were subject to in the old days as well as today. That's why mythology as a discipline always suggests that there is no one answer but that there are many. .

Consistency of mythological legends is evident in various segments of a society in its entirety, even though it might not be so visible at first glance. Some of its parts, smaller or larger segments, are so incorporated in everyday life that no one pays attention to them, nor is their deeper meaning analysed. In more recent past mythology was present in social memory mostly when one wanted to achieve a political goal, which is always connected with nationalism and genocidal ideas, which we could witness during the end of the last century when the militant politics of Serbia specifically and deliberately used the historic event, defeat by the Ottomans at Kosovo, to start their military invasion on neighbouring republics which had catastrophic circumstances, such as the genocide in Srebrenica but also in other cities in BiH. .

When we want to study the mythology of Bosnia and Herzegovina but also of the entire former Yugoslavia we have to start from the historical fact that southern Slavs don't exist. There are only people of southern Europe which use Slavic languages, but those people are not of Slavic descent but Illyrian, especially the people from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, which was proven a couple of times with the analysis of genetic origin. The mistake that historians made in their estimate of the origin of a certain people based solely on their language is catastrophic and, as we have witnessed, historically tragic. According to that theory todays Mexicans should be Spaniards, Brazilians or Portuguese, etc. .

One of the studies on genetic origin of the inhabitants of former Yugoslav republics was implemented in cooperation with: Institute for Anthropological research in Zagreb, Medical University in Skopje, Clinical centre in Belgrade, Estonian Bio-centre at the Tart University, Medical University in Priština, Medical Faculty in Tuzla, Clinical hospital "Bijeli Brijeg" in Tuzla, Health centre in Zagreb and Medical school in Edinburgh - Scotland. For the results to be as close to reality in the field, the tests were gathered in all cities of the former Yugoslav republic. .

The results showed that the most dominant were the haplogroup's on the territory of former Yugoslavia: 1lb, R1a, R1b and E3bl. Haplogroup l1b or so called "Illyrian gene" was the most widespread in all countries of former Yugoslavia, and the most interesting fact is that the group l1b was present even in 70% in Herzegovina, Dalmatia and other islands. In Bosnia this group was present in 52, 20% while the Slavic group R1 on the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina was present only in 24,60% of the cases. .

Precisely those facts correspond with the ever present confusion of scientific circles, especially after genetic analysis, did the arrival of Slavic tribes to the Balkans really ever took place? There are indications which gain more authenticity, that such an event never took place, but that the Illyrians, after a difficult and long occupation by the Roman empire, created a pretty intelligent plan of survival and preservation through assimilation of languages of neighbouring Slavic countries in order to ensure some sort of peace and possibility for survival through a turbulent history. .

Many segments of Illyrian religion are still present today in all countries that made up the former Yugoslav republic such as the snake cult, belief in stars-guardians of souls, cult of fertility, and solar and lunar cults, worship of water through the cult of god Bindu, belief in spellbound eyes, the name spellbound (Urok) is an Illyrian word, etc.   

http://ilirskabosna.blogspot.com/

06.11.2013.

Bosnian Superstitions

Some Bosnians might tell you that they're not superstitious. Well, don't believe them. What some may call superstition many Bosnians take as a natural fact. Where these beliefs have come from nobody knows in full, but rest assured the pagan Illyrians, heretic Bosnian Church, and Islam have all contributed to them. Here are just a few of the long list of superstitions...

 

 

 

 

* This one can be refuted (at least by the Bosnians) as a medical fact instead of a superstition. Drafts. Yes, drafts. All diseases are carried in drafts so if it's 40 degrees outside and you see all the windows rolled up it's not because everyone has AC. Any earaches, colds, sties, headaches - well, just about any ailment is blamed on that little nip of wind from open windows. Don't be surprised to see people dashing to close the window if there is another one open in the building or car that you're in.

 

* Drinking anything cold is another great excuse, even in the middle of summer, for why someone is sick. Don't be disappointed, especially American travelers, to find no ice in most places. You'll get sick for heaven's sake!
* Wet hair. On more than one occasion during the war one could find Sarajevans taking a brisk walk through sniper fire and shelling - that was normal. God forbid, though, if you stepped outside with wet hair. That is a big no-no. Wet hair, with the combination of wind (yes, even in the summer) will give you pneumonia, guaranteed. If the receptionist looks at you as if you've just been released from a 'home' she or he is simply worried about you. The general rule is you must first dry your hair with a hairdryer, wait at least an hour and then it's safe to walk the streets. And you think I'm kidding.
* If you knock a glass over or spill something while speaking - that, of course, means it's true.
* When describing an injury or sickness never ever show or explain it on your own body. Never.
* If you spill your coffee, don't fret it, it simply means you are about to be rewarded some material gain.
* An itchy left palm means you are about to get something (positive).
* An itchy right palm, naturally, means you are about to give something.
* An itchy nose means you are about to get angry.
* If you say something you would like to come true be sure to knock on wood three times, but from underneath - the underneath thing is key.
* Whenever entering a building always enter with right foot first.
* Whatever you do don't whistle in the house. It is a sure bet that you have summoned demons and when you leave there is no guarantee that they haven't.
* Bread is heaven's gift. Never throw it away. This rule gained strength in the war due to the extreme lack of food, every crumble was held in high regard.
* Always stir clockwise, it's the natural flow of things.
* It's bad luck to cut your nails after dark. Only daylight cutting please, you don't want to jinx yourself.
* Never stand in the middle of a doorframe... nobody knows why, it's just 'bad'.
* People talking about you makes you hick-up.

 

03.11.2013.

SRETNA NOVA MUSLIMANSKA GODINA!

Sa zalaskom sunca, u 16.41 sati, danas je prema lunarnom kalendaru nastupila Nova 1435. hidžretska godina. Arapska riječ “hidžra” znači iseljenje poslanika Muhammeda, a.s. i njegovih sljedbenika iz Meke u Medinu 622. godine.

Muslimani Bosne i Hercegovine, Balkana općenito, na razne načine obilježavaju Hidžretsku Novu godinu. U džamijama se obilježava uz učenje Kur’ana, prigodan program i predavanja vezana za hidžru.

Preseljenje Poslanika Muhammeda a.s. i prvih muslimana iz Meke u Medinu, hidžra, polazna je tačka računanja vremena muslimanskog kalendara, a ovaj historijski događaj Muslimani su uzeli za početak svoje ere.

Hidžretska godina traje oko 354 dana, a sastoji se od 12 mjeseci. Jedanaest dana je kraća nego u sunčevom kalendaru. To čini da se datum Hidžretske nove godine razlikuje svake godine.

Hidžretski kalendar je službeni kalendar u mnogim islamskim zemljama, a posebno u Saudijskoj Arabiji. Druge islamske zemlje koriste gregorijanski kalendar za civilne svrhe i okrenuti su hidžretskom kalendaru samo za vjerske potrebe.

Hidžretska Nova godina je državni praznik u zemljama kao što su: Bangladeš, Komori, Džibuti, Egipat, Indonezija, Irak, Iran, Jordan, Kuvajt, Libanon, Libija, Malezija, Maldivi, Mauritanija, Maroko, Senegal, Sudan, Tunis, Ujedinjeni Arapski Emirati i Jemen.
 

02.11.2013.

Kućni prag - oltar Velike Majke

Poznato je da su ljudi u paleolitu koristili špilje kao prirodno sklonište  i mjesto za podizanje familije. Upravo zbog te fundamentalne vrijednosti pojedini antropolozi špilju su nazvali Zemljinom maternicom iz koje je potekla ljudska vrsta ali i kult Velike Majke, o čemu nam danas svjedoče brojni arheološki nalazi. U  paleolitu granica između vanjskog svijeta i sunčeve svjetlosti te unutrašnjosti špilje i mraka predstavljala je sveto, magijsko mjesto. Prelazak preko nje u jednom smjeru mogao je značiti izlaganje opasnosti a u drugom zaštitu od njih. I onda kada je ljudska vrsta napustila špilje i započela sa gradnjom kuća i naselja u kolektivnoj svijesti čovječanstva ostala je prisutna religijska misao o važnosti ulaza, kao posebnog dijela kuće koji dijeli vanjski od unutrašnjog svijeta.

 Još od ilirskih vremena kuća tojest kućno ognjište bilo je pod zaštitom zmije, ktonske i totemske životinje, koja je glavni segment kulta plodnosti jer povezuje muški (Sunce) i ženski princip. Vjerovanje u zmiju-zaštitnika kuće prisutno je čak i danas u vjerovanju naroda Bosne i Hercegovine. Za razliku od ognjišta kućni prag kao simbol ulaza odnosno izlaza u svijetu magijske simbolike oduvijek je predstavljao ženski spolni organ te je kao takav bio posvećen boginji života tojest Velikoj Majci. Deskripcijom pojedinih bosanski vjerovanja o kućnom pragu dolazimo do prilično interesantnih podataka koji podržavaju teoriju o njegovoj kultnoj pozadini i simbolici plodnosti.  Prvi podatak koji me je usmjerio u tom pravcu pronašao sam u analizi rituala ljubavne magije, koje su kroz vijekove upražnjavale bošnjačke djevojke, a čija je primarna svrha da osiguraju ljubav koja će dovesti do braka i rađanja. Rekviziti korišteni u ljubavnim ritualima redovito su na početku ili kraju obreda odlagani u neposrednu blizinu praga, iza kućnih vrata, bilo da se tu radilo o ćeremidi, metli, sjekiri ili su se oni, pak, zakopavali pod sami prag poput biljke milogled, pramenova kose, noktiju, zemlje uzete iz otiska stopala, itd. I u onim ritualima sa razdvojenim predmetom, poput prepolovljene kocke šećera, predmeti su se namještali na ulaznim vratima kako bi između njih prošao muškarac čija se ljubav htjela osigurati. Čim bi on prošao djevojka ili žena bi uzela oba dijela kocke i spojila je. Ideja da se magijski ritual izvodi u neposrednoj blizini kućnog praga proizilazi iz želje da se osigura intervencija same boginje koja bi trebala pripomoći svojim moćima u namjeri žene da si osigura mogućnost da postane supruga i majka.

Nije nimalo slučajna niti narodna izjava kako temelji ili tri ugla kuće stoje na leđima žene a samo jedan na muškarcu, želeći se time naglasiti da je svaki dom područje gdje žena ima dominantniji uticaj. Ova izjava čak neobično podsjeća na mitološko vjerovanje kako Zemlja stoji na leđima bika Tura, inače životinje-simbola sirijske boginje Majke Ištar ili Astarte. Analogija između žene i Zemlje vrlo je očita u bosanskom narodu te se ona posebno ističe kroz simboliku broja 40. Prema vjerovanju Zemlja se svakih 40 godina "čisti" od ljudi kroz velike ratove ili prirodne katastrofe. Trudnoća se među Bošnjakinjama smatra vrlo blagotvornim stanjem za cio organizam pošto se žena nakon poroda, poslije 40 nedjelja trudnoće, očisti od svega lošeg i tako popravi svoje zdravstveno stanje.

No, vratimo se kućnom pragu i njegovoj simbolici i značenju kroz folklornu tradiciju. Nevjesta u sjeverozapadnom dijelu BiH takozvanoj Cazinskoj krajini prije nego što će po prvi put ući u kuću svoga muža prostire svoju maramicu preko kućnog praga i poljubi ga, iskazujući na taj način poštovanje prema svom novom domu. Zatim ulazi u kuću, noseći maramicu, prilazi kućnom ognjištu i u vatru baca maramicu kako bi tom finalnom gestom prekinula sa djevojaštvom i označila ulazak u period aktivne plodnosti i reprodukcije. Saginjanje i ljubljenje kućnog praga treba posmatrati i kao čin izražavanja poštovanja prema Velikoj Majci, sa kojim se traži blagoslov plodnosti. Osim toga, nevjesta kao buduća majka ovim činom želi steći stalnu naklonost boginje koja bi trebala u budućnosti pomoći ženskoj djeci da, poput nje, realizuju udaju i majčinstvo. Ta poveznica se posebno vidi u ritualima ljubavne magije.

Prag je pored ognjišta oduvijek bio najsvetije mjesto u kući što potvrđuju mnogi tabui vezani za njega, posebno onaj da se na njega ne smije stajati nogoma jer "time zatireš dom". Pod pojmom zatirati dom misli se na neplodnost. Direktna povezanost kućnog praga i plodnosti manifestuje se i kroz zabranu da žena sjedi na pragu uz obrazloženje da će zbog toga "teško roditi dijete". Znači, riskira da bude kažnjena teškim porodom od strane Velike Majke zbog svetogrđa koje čini.

Opasnosti od ograme (napada zli duhova) izlaže se onaj ko, prema narodnom vjerovanju, neokupan nakon intimnog odnosa pređe preko kućnog praga. Analizirajući predočeno stječe se utisak kako čovjek poslije seksualnog odnosa ne podliježe nikakvim tabuima ili opasnostima dok boravi u kući no čim iziđe napolje riskira mogućnost da postane meta napada zlih duhovni bića. Izlaskom iz kuće i prelaskom preko praga nestaje protekcija Velike Majke, zaštitnice plodnosti i obitelji, jer ljudsko tijelo na kojem ima ostataka vaginalnog sekreta i sperme alarmira demone, vječite neprijatelje ljudskog roda i novog života, da djeluju na krajnje negativan način izazivajući duševnu i fizičku bol kod čovjeka.

24.10.2013.

Sretan blagdan Kadir Hom svim muslimanima

Danas, 18. zihidžea 1434. godine po lunarnom hidžretskom kalendaru ili 24. oktobra 2013. muslimani obilježavanju veliki blagdan Kadir Hom.    

Danas se u svim djelovima Irana, džamijama, mesdžidima i drugim vjerskim centrima organizuju proslave povodom tog velikog muslimanskog blagdana. Na taj dan Muhamed a.s. izabrao je hazreti Aliju za svog nasljednika dok je on ujedno bio prvi šiitski imam.  Hazreti Alija više puta je, shodno Božijoj naredbi, od strane Poslanika a.s., predstavljen kao budući vođa muslimana, a najvažniji od tih događaja svakako je onaj poznat kao Kadir. Zbog svega ovoga, očekivalo se da će nakon Poslanikovog a.s. preseljenja na Ahiret, Alija  odmah preuzeti poslove zajednice i postati vođa muslimana.  Radio-televizija IR Iran svim muslimanima svijeta i pobornicima šiitskog mesheba čestita blagdan Kadir Homa.

17.10.2013.

Blood and tears of Bosnia and Palestine

 

 

There are people or even a part of a nation, even though it's hard to call them people, who are cold blooded killers which work on the principle of rational and prepared violence. The basis of such inhumane behaviour should be sought in complete nationalist societies in which nationalism becomes the justification for all crimes towards other people.

In order to achieve but also to justify genocide many reasons are given from national threat from another nation, various myths where military victories are celebrated and defeats dramatized, call to revenge, for all economic or other issues the nation which will be attacked is blamed and murders are being staged in order to awaken fear and lust for revenge. All of these examples took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina before the aggression by Serbia and Montenegro. In the same manner, the same scenarios can be seen every day in the media when one of the many terrorised Palestinians, rebel and show some resistance to the Israelite army, they are promptly killed. There we can see a perfect example of manipulation when it comes to killing, in this case of the Palestinians, which is perfected by the Jews.

 

 

Genocide done to the Bosnian people, and that to the Palestinian people, is based on the same villainous policy which rests on the fact that the victim is freed from its identity, is humiliated and all attributes of humanity are stripped away and the victim is reduced to something or someone very low, in the case of the Serbs who committed the aggression you could hear: "we must kill all balije!" and among the Jews "we are a holly nation and that is why we must cleanse Israel from the damned animals (Palestinians)!". Among the Serbian ideology of evil the Bosnians are not a nation but a part of the Serbian people which converted to Islam and in the Jewish the Palestinians as people don't exists they are in essence people from Jordan?! All of these claims were created because of propaganda which must justify future crimes solely for one purpose which is creation of "Grand Serbia" or "Grand Israel".

A large part of nationalists have a common characteristic which is primitivism which is in its essence devoid of any sort of intelligence, connection with reality and historical facts. Those people simply don't have the habit nor ability to be educated, nor to research and perceive historical facts. The best example is the usage of the term balija by the Serbs. They don't even know the real meaning of that term, which in the past was a synonym for an agricultural worker in Bosnia, a farmer. Besides that, Bosniak's as the majority in Bosnia and Herzegovina always had a larger percentage of their citizens living in urban and not rural areas. These are only small examples which perfectly explain how nationalism is a fertile ground exclusively among the primitive masses and uneducated people.     

Politicians like Slobodan Milošević, Radovan Karadžić, Ariel Sharon or Benjamin Netanyahu belong to a category of so called epileptoid psychopaths, who are usually sadistic and violent in their policy, if they are intelligent. Their priority is the nurturing of primitive nationalism, or what is usually called "American excellence" today in the USA, which is the "food" for people of lower intelligence which turns them into mass murderers, war criminals and psychopaths of every sort. Representations of crime which were undertaken by the Serb soldiers in BiH in some instances exceeded the atrocities of WWII. Civilians and prisoners of war were subject to various types of torture, abuse, they cut their fingers off, ears, hands, legs, genitalia. Decapitation was the most frequent occurrence. Such crimes were done with the help of broken bottles, or old knives in order to prolong the agony of the victim. Girls of all ages were raped and often they would force male family members to rape their mother, sister, grandmother .

The crimes of the Israeli army done to the Palestinian inhabitants are no less horrifying. The thing that is most intimidating is that the Jews created the largest concentration camp in the world where they hold over two million people in the most inhumane conditions in front of the whole world?! We can compare Gaza with the besieged Sarajevo where during that time around 11 thousand people were killed. The fact that is most frightening is that Gaza could end up like Srebrenica which is referenced to by various Israeli politicians with statements like: "the goal of the operation is to return Gaza into the medieval times" or the statement of Gilad Sharon, the son of the former Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon - "We must raze all of the districts in Gaza!". We see immense hatred in these statements and a clear desire for a new genocide which caused death to millions of Palestinians over the last few decades.

 

 

                                                            

 

                                                  

                                                   isreali war criminal Ariel Sharon

 

 

 

serbian war criminal Radovan Karadžić

 

 

israeli war criminal Benjamin Natenyahu

 

 

serbian war criminal Slobodan Milošević

 

Their priority is the nurturing of primitive nationalism, or what is usually called "American excellence" today in the USA, which is the "food" for people of lower intelligence which turns them into mass murderers, war criminals and psychopaths of every sort.

 

 

 

When religion becomes justification for genocide

 

The role of religion is interesting when it comes to the planning of mass crimes, that concept of God and the holly which is built in the ideology by the people committing the crime serves as just another "justification" why a certain nation needs to be destroyed. Throughout history we have a lot of examples but today the most numerous myths are the Israeli ones, such as the myth of the "sacred nation", the rebuilding of the temple of Solomon or the Serbian one where they claim that they are a "heavenly people" and that even "God himself is a Serb!". Another example is Saudi Arabia which by the establishment of Al-qaeda used Islam with the goal of dominating other countries in the Middle east, creating an impression that their attacks were directed towards other religious groups, but that has changed in the past few years and we are witnessing killing of Muslims by various Islamist groups lead by Al-qaeda with the obligatory exclamation "Allahu Akbar!". Like in the previous examples crimes are justified by fight for ethnically cleansed lend and "free" lifestyle.

 

 

 

Conformism in the service of crime

 

In psychology the term criminal ruthlessness which always signifies planned and desired crime in which the person is aware of what it is doing. Mass killings and rapes in which Serbian soldiers smirk, jeer and joke on the account of their victims fully fit the profile of social sadists and bullies which have a lower intellectual factor. The cause of such behaviour should be sought in the term "collective consciousness". There is a difference between individuals and collective consciousness, or the consciousness of people in the mass. Both individuals and a mass can be ruthless, but inside a mass we have a new phenomenon, which is responsible for numerous war crimes, and that is conformism. In all major crimes done in Bosnia there is always the same formula: a few real villains which trigger events, and besides them, a mass of faceless conformists. After all fear, cowardice, weak personality and conformism go together. An ideal example is Srebrenica where under the leadership of Ratko Mladić and a few other military personnel, the largest genocide in Europe after WWII was undertaken.     

 

 

serbian war criminal Ratko Mladić

 

03.10.2013.

Stećci - čuvari antičke Bosne i Hercegovine

Jedan od četiri Velika Inkvizitora koji su proglašeni svecima od strane Rimske Crkve je inkvizitor Capistran (Giovanni da Capistrano) koji je poznat i kao ekspert za hereze. On je u pismu Papi Kalistu III 4/7/1455 napisao: "Bosanski krstjani nisu pripadnici Istočne crkve, dapače da oni radije vole umrijeti u nevjeri, nego prihvatiti vjeru Rašana (Srba)."

 Ref: Franjo Šanjek Fenomen "krstjani" u srednjovjekovnoj Bosni i Humu, zbornik radova.

Stećci - čuvari antičke Bosne i Hercegovine

Nakon višegodišnjeg znanstvenog istraživanja, konačno imamo arheološke i povijesne dokaze koji potpuno demantiraju srednjovjekovno porijeklo stećaka, izjavio je Nenad M.Đorđević, nezavisni istraživač drevnih kultura i mitologija na području Bosne i Hercegovine.

-Moji zaključci o prapovijesnom porijeklu stećaka su rezultat dugogodišnjeg naučnog istraživanja i sudjelovanja u projektu bosanskih piramida. Jedan od mojih glavnih istraživačkih interesa, osim, naravno, fenomena bosanskih piramida, usmjeren je prema prapovijesnim kulturama Stare Europe, a posebno prema kultnim i religioznim objektima. Osim toga, profesionalno sam angažiran u području suvremene arhitekture, za koje je potrebno posjedovati određeno i generalno poznavanje njenog historijskog ali i prahistorijskog razvoja. Na osnovi tih elemenata, a posebno zahvaljujući novim arheološkim otkrićima na tlu Stare Europe koji danas stoje na raspologanju, bilo je moguće napraviti minucioznu rekonstrukciju prapovijesnog porijekla stećaka. Do sada su pripadnici ortodoksne i dogmatične nauke pokušavali svrstati graditeljski, umjetnički i vjerski fenomen monolitnih stećaka u samo tri različita konteksta pravoslavlje, katoličanstvo i takozvanu Bosansku Crkvu, heretičku doktrinu bogomila i ostatke paganski vjerovanja nepoznatog porijekla.

Sa strane akademske stipendije, povijesno porijeklo stećaka je predloženo isključivo kao srednjovjekovno. Međutim, tokom mog studija i naučne analize na osnovi tri različita konteksta: arhitekture, umjetnosti i religije, došao sam do zaključka da stećci pripadaju periodu između neolita i početka brončanog doba, odnosno periodu između 7 000 i 3.500 godine prije nove ere.

Ono što je proizašlo iz studije je da je primarna funcija stećaka bila višestručna. Poznato je da su staroeuropske kulture sahranjivale žene i djecu između ili unutar kuća neolitskih naselja, što potvrđuje da je moderni i popularni naziv za stećke vječna kuća (vječni dom) i najprikladniji, a potječe direktno iz antičke tradicije. Uostalom, nalazimo nalazimo stećke u obliku kuće na različitim lokacijama po Bosni i Hercegovini. Osim toga, arhitektura stećaka inkorporira  ne samo različite oblike staroeuropskih hramova, nego i svetu simboliku koja je vezana za pitagorejsku doktrinu čeiri vječna osnovna elementa Zrak, Voda, Zemlja i Vatra.

 

Današnja hipoteza o srednjovjekovnom porijeklu stećaka je utemeljena isključivo na parcijalnim historijskim i arheološkim podacima koji su bili na raspolaganju akademske stipendije tokom prvih decenija nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. Što se tiče teorije o bogumilskom i patarenskom porijeklu stećaka, želio bih naglasiti da ona nije zasnovana na historijskim i naučnim činjenicama, pošto su sljedbenici uključeni u bogumilsku vjeru odbacivali u principu bogastvo i feudalno izrabljivanje državne vlasti. Bogumili su, također, odbijali dominantnu istočnjačku kršćansku crkvu i njezinu hijerarhiju, njezine hramove, sakramente i svečanosti u izvedbi svećenika. Na isti način su odbacivali sve materijalne objekte koje su koristili pravoslavci tokom održavanja molitve i osuđivali upotrebu ikona, posebno krsta, te štovanje relikvija i svetaca. Bogumili i patareni su pretežno bili vjerski propovijednici, ravnodušni prema svjetovnim poslovima. Masovna proizvodnja deset tisuća monolitnih stećaka sa bogatim ukrasnim motivima je totalno u kontradikciji sa skromnom vjerskom doktrinom bogumila i patarena. Sa druge strane nam se predstavlja sličan problem u vezi srednjovjekovne teorije stećaka kao povlasticom ortodoksnog ili katoličkog kršćanstva. Naime, od sedamdeset tisuća registriranih stećaka, samo pet tisuća imaju ukrasne motive. Od tih pet tisuća ukrašenih stećaka samo 438 imaju kao glavni ukrasni element različite forme krstova. To znači da najvažniji religiozni simbol potencijalno podložan različitim crkvama, zajedno sa ostalim varijantama stećaka u obliku križa, ne predstavlja niti dvadeset posto ukrašenih stećaka. Pitanje koje iz ove činjenice spontano proizlazi glasi: kako je moguće da najreprezantativniji simbol obje, rimske katoličke i istočne pravoslavne, crkve obuhvata takav mali broj stećaka? Ako uz prethodne činjenice još dodamo da je većina krstova na stećcima paganskog porijekla u obliku svastike ili antropomorfnog oblika, logičan zaključak može biti samo jedan – stećci nisu ekskluzivna povlastica srednjovjekovnih crkava i kultura. Iako postoje brojni dokazi da su stećci korišteni kao nadgrobni spomenici pravoslavnih i katoličkih kršćana, pa čak i neke indicije da je diskretan broj stećaka proizveden u srednjem vijeku, ponovna upotreba mnogih stećaka tokom srednjeg vijeka ne može se isključiti unaprijed.

28.09.2013.

Antičko porijeklo stećaka

Postoji kontinuirani pokušaj da se simbol sjekire na stećcima pripiše slavenskom bogu Perunu ali se u toj teoriji stalno zaboravlja navesti kako je ilirsko kraljevstvo, a samim time i antička Bosona ili Bassania, dugo bilo pod rimskom okupacijom te da su na području današnje Bosne i Hercegovine značajan religijski trag i vjerovanja ostavili pored Rimljani i Grci te Kelti. Donekle je primjetan utjecaj i stare Perzije (hram boga Mitre u Jajcu) te još pojedini naroda i kultura. Mnoštvo arheoloških nalaza  na mnogim lokacijama po BiH potvrđuju ovaj i druge podatke. Nedavne znanstvene analize stećaka potvrdile su kako je većinski dio stećaka mnogo stariji od srednjeg vijeka. Upravo zbog toga njihovu simboliku i značenje treba tražiti u antičkom dobu tojest vremenu Ilira te utjecaju mediteranskih kultura poput Rima, Grčke ali i onih daljnih kao što su Sirija.

 

 

(Uočljiva je velika sličnost u odjeći i oružju  između izgleda ratnika na stećku i prikaza ilirskog ratnika)

 

 

 

Stećak i antički kult bogova

 Kada analiziramo motive na mnogim stećcima uočavamo kako su na njima najdominantniji prikazi simbola križa, mača, sjekire, ruke, polumjeseca, motiv kruga... Kako svi znamo niti križ niti polumjesec nisu originalni simboli kršćanstva tojest islama. Naime, križ je paganski simbol boga vjetra a polumjesec pripada kultu boginje Majke ili boginje mjeseca. Motiv kruga dolazi iz kulta boga Sunca, a zanimljivo je navesti podatak kako su  Iliri nosili na štapovima disk ili krug kao simbol boga sunca. Podignuta ruka je klasičan antički simbol vrhovnih bogova duž mediteranskog pojasa i ona simbolizuje demonstraciju božanske moći i snagu. Mač i sjekira kao oružje također imaju svoje porijeklo u antici i predstavljaju oružje koje simbolizira hrabrost, snagu i moć. Kod ilirskih plemena poznate su bojne sjekire sa dvije oštrice koja vizuelno mogu predstavljati i simbol mjeseca tojest fazu uspinjućeg i fazu opadajućeg mjeseca koja opet u cjelini formira krug koji može označavati pun mjesec.

Sjekira je kod antičkih Bošnjaka (Ilira) bila bez svake sumnje simbol boginje Mjeseca. U prilog toj tvrdnji može idealno poslužiti legenda o kažnjenom sinu koji je podigao sjekiru na svoju majku i Bog ga je istog trena kaznio, tako što ga je ubio i njegovo tijelo, sa podignutom rukom i sjekirom u njoj, prenio na mjesečevu površinu kako bi od tamo ljude u noćima punog mjeseca opominjao da moraju poštovati ženu tojest majku.
Ilirski ratnici su posebno bili poznati po nošenju bojne sjekire sa kojom su zadavali smrtni strah svojim neprijateljima. Vjerovatno zbog svega navedenog u bosanskom narodu je sjekira postala simbol božanske zaštite kuće i familije, upravo onog što se tradicionalno od davnina pripisivalo boginji Majki ili boginji Mjeseca. Prizori drvenih sjekira na pročeljima bošnjačkih kuća mogli su se vidjeti sve do Drugog svjetskog rata duž istočne Bosne ali i okolice Sarajeva. Kod bosanskih kršćana na kućama umjesto sjekire redovito se stavljao krst.

Omiljenost sjekire među bošnjačkim narodom ogleda se i u starom pravilu da svaki čovjek koji kada pođe nekamo na put mora sa sobom ponijeti sjekiru jer sa njom se može odbraniti od eventualnog napada ali i nasjeći drva za potpalu vatre ili sebi sagraditi sklonište. Vjerovanje da sjekira posjeduje božanske moći boginje Mjeseca može se primjetiti i u jednom ljubavnom čaranju kada djevojka u namjeri da primami određenog muškarca sebi stavi sjekiru iza ulaznih vrata a onda se kada obavi prvi dio rituala vraća po nju, donosi je do ognjišta, i ponovo vraća do vrata. Od antike ljubavna magija je spadala pod nadležnost Mjeseca tojest mjesečeve boginje.

Na kraju treba kazati kako je teorija da je simbol sjekire na stećcima zapravo simbol boga Peruna održiva koliko i teorija da je ona simbol grčkog boga Hefesta, jer svakako ne treba ignorirati činjenicu da su se stećci vijekovima među bosanskim narodom nazivali i „grčko groblje“.

U ovom krajnje neozbiljnom i iracionalnom tvrđenju čak se pokušava manipulirati sa tradicionalnim kraljevskim simbolom mnogih stećaka a to je ljiljan i pod njega se poturiti perunika, valjda zbog sličnosti sa imenom Perun. No, i tu se namjerno izbjegava navesti latinski naziv ove biljke koji glasi Iris Illyrica što bez svake sumnje dokazuje da su stari Iliri poznavali ovaj cvijet koji je očito bio dio neke njihove religijske ili mitološke predaje. Sličan slučaj je i sa božurom, naime, mit da cvijet božur raste iz krvi poginulih ratnika dolazi nam iz Irana ili stare Perzije i njega su Srbi preuzeli i ugradili u svoj mit o porazu na Kosovu polju, gdje su ih Turci u potpunosti porazili i nanijeli im takve gubitke od kojih se nisu oporavili vijekovima. I za kraj dijela o Perunu i peruniki zanimljivo je navesti kako se među Bošnjacima i ne poznaje taj naziv za biljku već se on u mnogim dijelovima BiH naziva drugačije poput „šaš“, „ljubičica“, itd.

 

Iris Illyrica

 

U skoro svim obrazloženjima o povijesti Bosne uvijek se navodi planina Perun kao očiti dokaz kako je stanovništvo ove zemlje uvijek bilo slavensko no nikad se ne pominje kako su, recimo, Dalmacija i Istra dobile nazive po ilirskim plemenima ili da su ista ta plemena naseljavala i današnju BiH. Zanemaruju se cijela arheološka nalazišta gdje su pronađeni, ali još uvijek se pronalaze novi dokazi, dominantne ilirske prisutnosti.

20.09.2013.

Bosnian love magic

16.09.2013.

Dont forget genocide in Bosnia and Rwanda 1994-1995.

Since some civilizations or cultures are simply more barbaric than others, and since these are multiethnic – and different ethnic groups will naturally want to fight each other – such conflicts consist of assaults on civilians, bizarre masquerades, acts of unspeakable cruelty, and outright genocide, as in Bosnia and Rwanda.

Mary H.Moran - Liberia: the violence of democracy, 2006.

 

15.09.2013.

Bosnian coffee

Historically coffee stems from the kingdom of Kaffa in Ethiopia, from where it gained its name. In one of the oldest legends about coffee a certain shepherd Khalid is mentioned who after watching how sprightly his goats were after they have eaten the fruits from the bush of coffee, he decided to consume them himself.  Since he noticed a similar effect he spread the news to all his people in the tribe about a magical plant and its fruit and the others also started consuming it. 

 

 

 

 

The biggest merit for the popularity of coffee and its overall acceptance in the world is owed to the Arabs. They called it gahva which could be translated as "potable juice" and that name came from the Turks into Bosnia. In Arabia coffee was initially used as a remedy which is witnessed by Rhazes, an Arabian philosopher from the ninths century, who wrote that coffee cured sciatica. A few centuries later a few other medical merits were added to coffee and it was claimed that it strengthened the organism, had a positive effect on skin, that it cleans the skin and refreshes it.

 

 

Kahvendisanje

 

About coffee and its role in the traditional life through social but also economic aspects of Bosnia and Herzegovina we could write dozens of chapters or even a whole book. In the life of the Bosnian folk, drinking of coffee is an everyday ritual which carries in itself a strong social effect; over coffee people socialise, meet, bring mutual conclusions or business decisions but also rest and enjoy. The term "bake coffee/make coffee" clearly states that the Bosnian folk have their own, original way of preparing homemade Bosnian coffee. The preparation itself is a tradition connected to the entire ceremony which clearly alludes to the desire to enjoy or kahvendisanjem, in this beverage that invites people across the globe for socialisation, discussions and rest.

 

-"Let's go for coffee" or "Come over for coffee", is usually an invitation for a meeting and chat. We could say that coffee in Bosnia has a connecting role, bringing them closer to each other, nurturing friendship and love. It always calls for a dialogue. A pack of coffee and sugar is always brought over when one visits an elder person or someone who is dear to us. With that small gesture of affection we show respect towards an older person or a dear friend. Coffee is also one of the symbols of Ramadan since all of those who fast drink coffee first after their fast. Usually the coffee is drank first and only then one has dinner or iftar. Sehur is also ended with coffee drinking, a meal consumed before dawn, before fast.

 

 

About the popularity of this hot refreshing oriental beverage and attention which is dedicated by Bosnian people to the entire ceremony of preparation and drinking is best described by the description of the kitchen utensils used for making coffee. Therefore let us begin from the vessels which was in the past one of the irreplaceable vessels for coffee preparation - namely ibrik (ewer), about which Tvrtko Kanaet in his book Podveležje I podveležci writes the following: "It's a larger dish used to heat the water for coffee. The lower part is called dib and it is very protruded. It has a handle and a lid. There are large ones, which can carry 2 to 3 litres, especially among the richer households. It is always close to the fire. It contains hot water just for the preparation of coffee. Instead of water it is also used to heat up milk which is added to coffee. The coffee isn't "made" in the ibrik, but in a Džezva or Dževzi (coffee pot). It's cylindrical, near the bottom its wider and on top it has a bracket with a groove, which is used to pour coffee, and a handle which is bent at the end or expanded and beautified with ornaments.  Along with the coffee pot, in which one "prepares" or "makes" coffee there is also a šerbetnjak of coffee, after the first cups have been filled. The size is measured by the number of cups which a coffee pot contains. Cup holders can be found in a small number i.e. zarfovi made out of copper decorated with ornaments. There is also a coffee grinder, coffee and sugar box with a lid. As a rule the grinder and boxes are decorated, even with the simplest ornaments. We should also add a round, cylindrical coffee maker (dolaf)."

Until the advent of the grinder the baked coffee beans were beaten (or crushed) exclusively in a dibek. It is interesting to note that in Bosnia and Herzegovina the coffee is "baked" not "cooked", and that same verb in its entirety was used by the Turks. Only since 1878 since the Austrian occupation the term "cook coffee" can be heard. Today the term "pristaviti kahvu (put on coffee)" is also established.

 

 

 

 

 

Preparation of Bosnian coffee

 

 

Raw coffee is usually baked in a casserole inside an oven at 200 degrees until the beans attain their characteristic brown colour. After that the casserole with the beans is taken out and left to cool.  In order for the coffee to be as tasty as possible, the beans are ground in a hand grinder just before the preparation i.e. when one wants to drink coffee. In the ibrik (pot) the water is placed to boil which must not be brought to a boiling point, it must be removed from fire as soon as the first bubbles appear, which is a last phase before it boils. In the coffee pot one puts ground coffee and places it on fire, stirring so it doesn't burn. As soon as its recognizable fragrance is felt one pours water in the coffee pot and is stirred until it boils.

After the coffee is removed from fire a small amount of water is poured in the coffee pot "a few drops", for the sediment (or teljiva from the Turkish word telva) to lower to the bottom. Then it is poured into coffee cups which usually has a cube of sugar next to it or a Turkish delight. For a better sense and enjoyment of the aroma before drinking coffee one drinks a glass of water "to clear one's throat".

Coffee isn't traditionally drunk quickly, but slowly, to enjoy in it or kahvendiše. Older Bosnian people had a custom to place a dried carnation in the beans of coffee (Caryophyllus aromaticus Thunb.) and ground together in order for the beverage to have a stronger aroma and smell. For the Bosnian folk coffee is first of all a symbol of welcome and hospitality as evidenced by the traditional way of serving coffee during which, for the inhabitants of the household there is always an extra cup ready if an unexpected guest arrives (musafir). For every person which unexpectedly arrives while the inhabitants are drinking coffee it is said that they come "sa nafakom" i.e. with luck. With this we can conclude that coffee among the Bosnian people is a symbol of luck.

 

 

 

 

The magic of coffee

 

 

As we already mentioned coffee in Bosnia is prepared in a special way, specific to this country, and this description isn't only mentioned as a way of introduction to the preparation methods, but it is a necessary information in order to present the ancient ritual which is still today practiced by many Bosnian people in order to calm the tensions in marriage and in the family.

When there is tension in a marriage for some time among the partners followed by smaller or larger disputes, the woman undertakes the ritual of annulling negative energy. An empty džezva is heated on the stove and then removed and covered with a small saucer and left like that for three minutes. Coffee is then prepared in the above described way in it, and both partners drink this coffee. In the same way, it is believed that each džezva that is in the house needs to be covered in order to stop the entrance of negative energy inside a house or family.

And according to the belief of Bosnian witches coffee has magical powers which can purify each home from the negative energy and return the harmony. It is sufficient to at least once a month throw some ground coffee and sugar onto a heated stove and leave it for a few minutes to spread its fragrance around the house. After half an hour one can open the window in order for the negative energy to leave the house along with the fragrance.

 

 

 

Coffee and folk belief

 

Among the Bosnian there are dozens of superstitions about coffee, and these are just some of them:

You shouldn't pour coffee over your hand (on the right side) - your stomach will ache.

If the baked coffee beans crackle in the box, it is believed that guests will arrive soon.

When the coffee oozes out of the coffee pot on the stove - it is believed that there will be a material gain.       

It is said for a woman that drinks hot coffee that she isn't afraid of her husband.

A woman which likes to drink the sediment from coffee will marry a rich man.

If the woman often makes the coffee in such a way that it oozes on the stove is a sign that her husband loves her a lot.

To dream of coffee - worrying, if you dream of drinking coffee with others - you will worry for no reason.

When the foam forms a circle then the one who gets that cup can await some sort of gain, etc.

 

 

see: http://kazandzijskaradnjamanufaktura.blogger.ba/

 

29.08.2013.

ŽIVOT NAKON GENOCIDA - DA LI JE TO MOGUĆE?

Dokazano je da su poljski Židovi koji su preživjeli pogrome dugovječniji od onih koji su za to vrijeme mirno živjeli u Izraelu, ali ovaj zaključak odnosi se samo – na muškarce. Postoji li nada da i Bošnjaci koji su preživjeli genocid dobiju koju godinu više života? Bez svake sumnje, potrebne su domaće studije na ovu temu jer nakon neviđenih užasa od strane četnika sa ove i one strane Drine nad bošnjačkim stanovništvom, čiji su zločini zasjenili čak i one najokrutnije iz Drugog svjetskog rata, svakako zaslužuju da budu studiozno istražena i analizirana. Veliki broj konc logora koje su Srbi otvorili diljem Bosne i Hercegovine za nesrpsko stanovništvo neizbrisivi su dokazi monstruoznosti balkanskih nacista od čijih zločina ostao je zaprepašten sav civilizirani svijet. Mučenja, ubijanja na razne načine, silovanja, unakažavanja, trovanja  samo su dio mračnih scenarija koja su mjesecima bila svakodnevni repertoar najužasnijih mjesta na svijetu između 1992-1995.godine.

 

Iako se već dugo govori o tome, konačno je dokazano: oni koji su preživjeli Holokaust žive duže od pripadnika istog naroda koji nisu prošli golgotu. Naime, u studiji objavljenoj u Izraelu dokazano je: muškarci koji su preživjeli Holokaust žive značajno duže od svojih vršnjaka koji nikada nisu bili pod nacističkim terorom.

Ono što čini ovaj rad posebno intrigantnim jesu njegove velike razmjere i savjesno osmišljavanje: autori su skupili podatke o preko 55.000 poljskih imigranata koji su došli u Izrael između 1945-1950., i jedne četvrtine onih koji su došli u Izrael prije 1939. Propusta u metodologiji nema, jer svi pripadaju istoj grupaciji – Aškenezima, koji su poznati po dugovječnosti.

I – šta su istraživači pronašli?

Muškarci koji su iskusili Holokaust u uzrastu od 10-te do 15-te godine života, živjeli su, u prosjeku  10 mjeseci duže od „braće“ koja su bila u Izraelu, dok su oni koje je Holokaust „snašao“ od 16-te do 20-te godine živjeli čak „dodatnih“ osamnaest mjeseci. Ovakvi rezultati su, u izvjesnom smislu- nelogični. Naime, studije koje se bave ljudima koji su preživjeli genocid  pokazale su da je njihovo mentalno zdravlje postalo i ostalo veoma krhko.  Kod njih je primjetno više aneksioznosti, više depresije i više pratećih simptoma posttraumatskog stresnog poremećaja nego kod opće populacije. Nedavna genetska istraživanja također pokazuju da rana trauma može teško oštetiti naše telomere (zaštitne dijelove naših kromozoma koji nas štite od kancera i preranog starenja, čije je stanje neka vrsta repera koliko ćemo dugo živjeti).

Naravno, pojavilo se logično pitanje: zašto jedna od najtraumatizovanijih populacija, pored crnaca, živi duže od svojih vršnjaka? Autori nude dvije teorije. Prva je fenomen „posttraumatskog rasta“. To je intrigantna ideja, isprva razvijena od strane psihologa sa Univerziteta Sjeverne Kalifornije, a koja predviđa da mnogi koji prežive užasne događaje dobiju obnovljeni osjećaj svrhe i smisla, preorijentacije čitavog života. Neke od ranih studija ovog fenomena zasnovane su na posmatranju ratnih zarobljenika iz Vijentama, od kojih mnogi pokazuju značajnu prilagodljivost, otpornost i produktivnost, a postoje i slični rezultati onih koji su preživjeli vojne napade poput Palestinaca  ili Iračana, prirodne katastrofe (Indonezija), smrtonosne bolesti i smrt voljenih.

U prilog ovoj teoriji, Asher Alagem, šef Programa za žrtve torture na Medicinskom fakultetu u New Yorku, pominje jednog svog pacijenta koji je izgubio dijete u sukobu na Obali Slonovače: „On vjeruje da ga je Bog doveo ovdje da stvori bolji život za ostatak familije i sebe samog“. Reklo bi se da je sasvim uredu pretpostavka da trauma može dovesti do toga da čovjek bude zahvalan za život, međutim, da li postoji dokazana veza između sreće i životnog vijeka? Na ovu temu ima različitih istraživanja i u skladu sa tim različitih rezultata. Recimo, u Britanskom medicinskom časopisu prošle godine je objavljenja studija koja dokazuje da depresija dovodi do skraćivanja životnog vijeka, da bi početkom ove godine bila objavljena istraživanja kojima je, navodno, dokazano da je pesimizam u direktnoj korelaciji sa dužim životom. Ko je tu u pravu?

-Sve je to spekulativno, kaže Avi Zagi Shwarz, profesor psihologije na Univerzitetu u Haifi u Izraelu, i jedan od koautora studije o onima koji su preživjeli genocid: „I ja sam imao problem da se izborim sa ovim kontradiktornim podacima“. Međutim, kao neko ko je i razgovarao sa preživjelima, a ne samo skupljao podatke o njima, Zagi-Schwarz, suradnik u Memorijalnom muzeju Holokausta u SAD, dodaje priči i ličnu notu: „Zaboravite na trenutak ove suhe statistike. Mnogi preživjeli će vam reći: "Dobili smo rat. Ovo je naša pobjeda. Imamo djecu, unuke, praunuke, svi su uspješni. Teško je izmjeriti koliko su ove stvari ohrabrujuće za njih, ali postoji i mogućnost da su preživjeli razvili jaku želju da slave svoju pobjedu“.

Međutim, postoji još jedna opcija – teorija da su oni koji su bili dovoljno jaki da prežive konc logore (ili mnoge godine sakrivanja, jer nemoguće je znati koliko je subjekata studija kako provelo ratne godine) već imali šanse da žive duže. O tome se kaže: „Jedno alternativno tumačenje bilo bi diferencijalni mortalitet, što znači da oni koji su bili izloženi uvjetima opasnim za život, naravno, imali povećani rizik da umru tokom Holokausta. Preživjeli po definiciji su preživjeli ozbiljnu traumu, i to može biti u vezi sa njihovim specifičnim genetskim, karakternim, fizičkim ili psihičkim osobinama koje su im omogućile da prežive genocid i da budu predisponirani da dostignu relativno duboku starost“.

Međutim, ova hipoteza iz nekog razloga je bila sporna da bi bila objavljena, recimo u članku „Jeruzalim posta“ o ovoj studiji, vjerovatno zbog tipičnog židovskog straha od svega onog što bi moglo na bilo koji način da negira njihovo stradanje i time im, na primjer, oduzme „pravo“ koje su sami sebi dali da vrše genocid nad Palestincima. Dok god vjeruju da samo oni bili žrtve genocida bez imalo milosti i humanosti ubijat će palestinsku djecu iz „opravdani razloga“ jer Izrael mora biti očišćen od svih onih koji nisu pripadnici „svetog naroda“. To je još jedan paradoks u čitavoj priči o židovskom stradanju koji svakako zaslužuje ozbiljne i temeljite studije kako bi se u potpunosti zaokružilo istraživanje o Židovima-žrtvi i Židovima-agresorima.

 

 

 

21.08.2013.

Narodna medicina bosanskih Bogomila

U narodnoj medicini Bosne i Hercegovine u prošlosti je bila raširena praksa liječenja  bazirana na vjerovanju u moć čarobnih riječi sadržane u tekstovima kraćeg ili dužeg sadržaja, tojest bajalice i basme. Ovaj oblik narodne medicine naziva se bajanje. Riječ potječe od azerbajdžanske riječi bayati što označava  oblik narodne poezije. Bajanje je nakraće rečeno magijska poezija namjenjena različitim aspektima ljudskog života, najviše usmjerena ka liječenju. Narod vjeruje da to znanje potječe od Boga pa se zbog toga ne naplaćuje već bolesnik u znak zahvalnosti za pruženu pomoć ostavi neki poklon. Bajanje se oduvijek prenosilo usmenim putem, obično sa jednog člana familije na drugog, i to onda kada praktikant  ostari i onemoća fizički i psihički.

Ovom praksom liječenja od davnina su se bavile osobe starije od 40 godina. Prema vjerovanju naroda Muhamed je počeo da propovijeda o  Allahu i širi Islam upravo u svojoj 40 godini života pa prema tom religijskom podatku  je vjerovatno i utemeljeno vjerovanje  da čovjek može liječiti magijskim riječima nakon te životne dobi.  Liječenjem magijskim formulama uglavnom su se bavile žene, nazivane stravarke,  mada je bilo i muškaraca ali u znatno manjem broju.  Danas se magijskim formulama uglavnom još samo liječi djelovanje urokljivih očiju te strah, bolest želuca, glavobolje ili prilikom liječenja bradavica po rukama. U prošlosti taj spisak je bio mnogo duži. Svaki put kada čajevi ili neka druga narodna metoda liječenja nije davala rezultat bolesnik se upućivao ka lokalnom hodži ili stravarki.

Izgovaranje magijskih formula uvijek su pratili određeni ritmički pokreti i upotreba rekvizita od gvožđa poput noža, igle ili makaza kojim bi stravarka dodirivala oboljeli dio tijela. Ukoliko bi za to vrijeme stravarka počela nekontrolisano zijevati smatralo se pouzdanim znakom da će se bolest izliječiti. Magijsku formulu ona uporno ponavlja sve dok zijevanje ne prestane. Tada će si uzeti pauzu. Naravno, nema nikakve sumnje da je u praksi liječenja magijskim formulama sugestija imala vrlo bitnu ulogu kako za stravarku tako i samog bolesnika.

Poganica (Arthritis rheumatica)  je naziv za bolove koji se pojavljuju na različitim mjestima po tijelu i u prošlosti najviše se liječila magijskim formulama. Vjeruje se da dolazi od nahlade, crne magije, susreta sa demonima ili od proklestva.  Vjerovanje u poganicu potječe od Bogumila koji su tu bolest nazivali Nežit. Bogumili su vjerovali kako se ova bolest može liječiti samo magijskim formulama i takvo vjerovanje je ostalo i nakon bogumilskog preobraćenja na Islam, što pokazuju etnološki podaci o narodnoj medicini Bosne i Hercegovine.

Kada stravarku posjeti bolesnik i pokaže joj mjesto gdje ga boli stravarka obično prokomentariše: "Tako mi Boga, mogla bi biti poganica. Vidjet ću da nije moja". Prema bosanskom vjerovanju, ukoliko stravarka dok ponavlja magijsku formulu doživljava određene senzacije poput zijevanja, idu joj suze na oči, teško diše, etc onda se čvrsto vjeruje da je bolest (poganica) njena tojest da može pomoći bolesniku. Izostanu li ove popratne pojave stravarka bolesnika šalje kod neke druge žene da mu ponovi isti ritual.

Dok dodiruje nekim rekvizitom nogu ili ruke bolesniku stravarka govori:" Izađi prljava poganice. U visoko nebo, u velike dubine, u široke horizonte, u visoke planine. Idi tamo gdje se sjekirom ne radi, gdje vo ne riče, gdje ovca ne bleji, gdje koza ne mekeće, gdje pijetao ne pjeva, gdje se kokoš ne čuje".

Bude li bolest u predjelu vrata onda stravarka govori ovako: "U Sijerme devetero djece: od devet-osam, od osam-sedam.....od dva-jedno, od jedno - nijedno".

Dvije biljke su od velikog značaja za uspješnost ovakvog načina liječenja a to su hapta (Sambuccus ebulus) i pomoćnica (Solanum nigrum L.) na koje stravarka, prema vjerovanju, može prenijeti svoju iscjeliteljsku moć ukoliko iznad njih izgovori nekoliko puta magijsku formulu. Nakon što bi to učinila tim biljkama se pokrivao oboljeli dio tijela da odstoji cijelu noć.

Osim na te biljke stravarka je svoju magijsku moć mogla prenijeti i na lubanju psa. Ukoliko bi samo jednom lubanju psa stravarka koristila u svom radu smatralo se da ona nakon toga ima neograničenu moć djelovanja pa se u prošlosti u mnogim kućama po Bosni i Hercegovini mogla vidjeti pasja lubanja, koju su ukućani čuvali na sigurnom mjestu. Lubanja se koristila u liječenju tako što bi je stavljali na oboljeli dio tijela neko vrijeme ili bi njome masirali taj dio, povlačeći je niz tijelo.

20.08.2013.

Flowers that smell like sorrow

Bosnian lily (Lilium bosniacum) is a flower of Bosnia and Bosnian people. Extraordinarily beautiful flower, dignified, all in golden-yellow color it proudly keeps its loftiness and regal posture  while its red stamen symbolize blood of the Bosnian man, which was often shed because of the enemies of this country. The Bosnian lily became a symbol for the suffering of Bosnian people during the aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995. In a tragic song it is mentioned that a lily each year on July 11th changes its fragrance and that day it smells like sorrow and pain. That day from the lily the blood drips on the sacred Bosnian land on which the dead bodies of murdered men, women and children of Srebrenica, Sarajevo, Žepa, Zvornik, Bijeljina, Foča, Višegrad, Prijedor, etc. lay.    

06.08.2013.

Happy Eid ul Fitr

 

18.07.2013.

How to steal a birthmark from someone's face?

A birthmark in Bosnia has always been considered a pretty accessory on the body, especially if it was located on a face of a woman. Located near the eyes, the birthmark would make the woman prettier and more attractive and gave her a note of mysticism. In the case of numerous birthmarks on the face or one large birthmark located on the nose or the chin, then it created an opposite effect and made the woman uglier and unattractive.

Since the old times, birthmarks were given magical properties and it was believed that a person born with a birthmark, especially the one with red colour, has an immunity on the effects of black magic. Besides being a blessing , the birthmark can also be a sign of god's punishment for sins. Namely, if the pregnant woman steals something, it is believed that it will be revealed once the baby is born since on the part of the body which she touched after the theft a birthmark will be present on the baby's body at the exact same spot.

A small dark birthmark was since the old days a coveted accessory, especially on the right cheek of a woman. That's why a large number of pregnant women use the state that they are in to steal something small and black from the house that they visit, in order for her child, especially if it is a female, to have the coveted beauty mark on her face. Usually a grain of pepper was chosen as the object that the pregnant woman would steal since it resembled the beauty mark. Immediately after stealing the grain, the pregnant woman would touch her right cheek, close to her eye.

Besides appearing as a form of punishment or intervention of a pregnant woman, the birthmark can also appear on the body as a result of someone's ill intent towards him/her. When a pregnant woman visits a house, her baby is in danger of falling prey to a magic ritual. While the pregnant woman is walking away from the house, a person that wishes ill intent towards her future child, takes a hot coal and throws it after the pregnant woman, without her noticing it, and touches a party of body that he wants the baby to have a nasty birthmark.

According to folk belief a birthmark can be stolen from someone's face?! We're not talking about a plain theft but one done with the help of magic. The conditions for performing this spell are simple, it is necessary for the person whose birthmark one wants to steal to be asleep. The thief takes a warm piece of bread, brakes it in half and brings it close to the birthmark so that the vapour from the fresh bread can cover the birthmark. One needs to hold the bread in place for several minutes close to the face taking care not to wake the individual. If the person wakes up the ritual will fail. However if it succeeds the person eats that bread and soon the birthmark will appear on their face and disappear from the face of the victim. After that, it is believed that the person which had their birthmark stolen will die shortly after the ritual, that's why this ritual was always criticized and classified as a ritual of banned black magic.  

17.07.2013.

Zločini u Višegradu predstavljaju genocid

IRIB-U Višegradu su juče boravili predstavnici Instituta za istraživanje zločina protiv čovječnosti i međunarodnog prava kao i njihove kolege iz Instituta za istraživanje genocida iz SAD-a.

  

Zaključeno je da, bez obzira na nepostojanje sudske presude, zločin u ovom gradu predstavlja genocid. Takođe je izražen zajednički protest protiv odluke vlasti RS-a da se na saslušanje pozivaju članice Udruženja Majke Serebrenice.

To što se srebreničke majke pozivaju na saslušanja je strašno i nedopustivo, poruka je naučnih radnika i uglednih univerzitetskih profesora koji se bave istraživanjem genocida.

 "Vlasti RS-a sve rade smišljeno kako bi se stvorila klima nemogućnosti opstanka Bošnjaka u RS-u. Ta i takva vlast neodoljivo podsjeća na aparthejd koji je bio prisutan u JAR-u", kazao je David Petigru, iz američkog Instituta za istraživanje genocida nad Bošnjacima.

 Uz sve to ide i negiranje genocida koji je počinjen, kako tvrde profesori, ne samo u Srebrenici već i u drugim gradovima pod opsadom

15.07.2013.

THE GARDEN OF HAZRAT HAVA

The use of herbs for medicinal purposes is the oldest form of medicine. The cognition about the medical properties of individual herbs the Bosnian people reached through an empirical method, following particular animals, such as cats and dogs, which would eat an herb when they were sick or injured. In the same manner, humans would use a homeopathic method to compare the shape and colour of a plant with that of a human organ and based on that they reached a conclusion that since the plant corresponds to the organ it must have a positive effect on it.

The knowledge about medical and magic potential of herbs was revealed to individuals by faeries, as the legends claim. Dozens of folk songs speak about the verses that the faeries would utter in order to reveal the medical power of individual herbs. Besides that, one would come across information through magical rituals. One of them is the one of Illyrian descent when one would catch and kill a snake inside a forest and roast her until she turned into ash. That ash would be collected and gathered inside a glass. A person would take that glass and go to the part of the forest where the roosters and human voices couldn't be heard and would place some of that ash under his tongue. Apparently, at that moment the senses of that person would sharpen and that person would be connected with the nature bringing his consciousness in a state of trance. At that moment the person could hear and understand the voices of plants and trees around him and communicate with them.

 

 

Since the woman received the role of a mother and someone who takes care of the health of the children and family, from the old days, it is then logical that female deities were more present in those parts of healing where divine power and strength were called forth. When we analyze the list of medicinal herbs we can easily see that most names have a female connotation, which is another verification of the interconnectedness of the female sex and the plant world.

 

This connection can be seen in the short formula which is still today uttered by numerous stravarke while picking herbs which they intend on using as a magical item or an instrument for concocting a tea or medicine. While picking a specific plant the stravarka utters this formula which is followed by a rhyme in its original form: "I cull this plant from the garden of hazreti Hava (Eve), so that it can be a medicine and of benefit to me as it was to her." As we see from the above in herbal treatments the magic of words is inseparable from the process, the magic is constructed out of formulas of a short content called basme and formulas of a longer content called bajalice. Both of them are a key

component of the magical medicine in whose medicine the rhetorical power of the word is stressed.

 

Also in love magic a lot of attention is given to the use of specific herbs for which it is known to be a medicine for a "frozen heart". According to the rules of Bosnian witchcraft it is specifically culled between sunsets until midnight, on the eve of Friday, during the new moon.

 

 

 

An ideal example of such practice is the culling of milogled (asarurn europaeum) for whom there is a rule that it can be dug inside a forest with bloody hands on the first Friday of the new moon. Second powerful love herb is the mysterious "fairy grass" (Seseli rigidum?) which can only be found if you place a silver coin on the ground next to a spring. After that a witch would step aside and wait in hiding until the curious faeries show up drawn by the shinny object. At the place where they show up, after they have satisfied their curiosity regarding the silver coin they disappear, one should dig there since the root of fairy grass can be found there. Both roots should be carried on one's naked chest.

 

fairy grass

 

 

Herbs for magic but also for healing is infrequently grown in the gardens if the witches since they believe that the largest magic capacity can be found in "wild" grown (from God) plants especially if it grows in hard to reach places next to a river or a creek. Particularly amazing power is possessed by forest herbs, especially if there is a creek flowing through the forest. In the old Bosnian legends the faeries live inside the forests, and among them the famous Bosnian fairy, with whose song and dance all of the vegetation swells and grows and in special cycles it gains magical powers.

12.07.2013.

11.juli - dan kad zamirišu ljiljani čemerom

Bosanski ljiljan (Lilium bosniacum) je cvijet Bosne i bosanskog naroda. Izvanredno lijep cvijet, gord, sav u zlatno-žutoj boji ponosno odiše svojom uzvišenošću i kraljevskim držanjem dok njegovi crveni prašnici simbolišu krv bosanskog čovjeka, koja se često lijevala zbog neprijatelja ove zemlje. Bosanski ljiljan postao je simbolom stradanja Bošnjaka u agresiji na Bosnu i Hercegovinu. U tužnoj pjesmi navodi se kako ljiljan svake godine 11.jula promjeni svoj miris i taj dan miriše na tugu i bol. Tog  dana iz ljiljana kaplje krv i pada po svetoj zemlji bosanskoj na kojoj su ležala mrtva tijela ubijenih muškaraca, žena i djece  Srebrenice, Sarajeva, Žepe, Zvornika, Bijeljine, Foče, Višegrada, Prijedora...

11.07.2013.

SREBRENICA 1995 - 2013.

I ove godine, na ovaj tužni dan srce Bosne krvari. Opet je zrak u Srebrenici postao bol, opet se čuje plač majki, žena, sestara i djece kojima  su četnici, ta srpska gamad i koljači, oduzeli očeve i sinove. Ponosi se ti prokleta Srbijo, ponosite se bosanski četnici, ponosi se ti prokleti narode koji nema duše ni srca, ponosite se vi neljudi! Vi ste ti koji ne zaslužuju da žive! Vi prokleti! Ponosite se svojim zlom, svojim ubijanjem, klanjem, silovanjem, pljačkanjem. Ponosite se balkanski nacisti! Uvijek ćete biti i ostati ono što jeste – najgore smeće i izrod koji hoda po ovoj planeti!

Majko Srebrenice, i ove godine ostani ponosna i jaka. Neka tvoje majčinsko srce izdrži sav bol i tugu, u inat svim četnicima, ubicama i zločincima. Ti si majko Srebrenice uvijek bila i uvijek ćeš biti ona koja može svakom pogledat u oči. Oni ne mogu. Proklet im bio rod i porod!

Bosna neće nikada niti zaboraviti niti oprostiti onima koji su je uništavali, palili, ubijali. Bosna zna da od starog neprijatelja nikad neće biti novog prijatelja. Ali, Bosna kao Bosna, uvijek ostaje jaka i ponosna. Nisu te ubili, mada su to htjeli svom snagom. Nisu, jer nisu znali svinjoglavi četnici – Bosna je neuništiva.

Danas ljiljani po cijeloj Bosni i Hercegovini mirišu tugom. Ali i oni su kao majke Srebrenice ponosni u svom bolu. Sinovi i kćeri Bosne i Hercegovine uvijek ćete živjeti u nama, u našim sjećanjima, sa našom ljubavi. Nismo vas nikada oplakali i nećemo nikada jer ono najdraže nikada se i ne zaboravlja, nikada se ne može prežaliti. Djeco Bosne, budite mirni i spokojni, mi živimo i mi vas se sjećamo. I zbog vas nikad nećemo zaboraviti zlo koje su nam donijeli četnici, bezdušni monstrumi.

Dok se kolone ljudi sa svih strana svijeta slijevaju u Potočare i još jednom gledaju djelo najvećeg užasa u Europi nakon drugog svjetskog rata, znam da se svi pitaju samo jedno – Da li je moguće da je ovo mogao neko uraditi nevinom narodu?! Da, jeste, moguće je.

Učinile su to monstruozne nakaze sa ove i one strane Drine, oni koji nemaju ni srca ni duše, koji su stvoreni samo da budu prokleti i da ubijaju, muče, kolju i pale. To je najgori narod koji se pojavio na Balkanu, to su balkanski nacisti. Kako ih god nazoveš pogodit ćeš - ološ, neljudi, zvijeri, monstrumi, ubojice, koljači, silovatelji, palikuće, mučitelji....iza svakog naziva se krije ista svinjoglava spodoba - četnik ili srbin, isto je.

Molim za tebe Srebrenico, za tvoj mir. I plačem zajedno sa ucviljenim majkama, sestrama, siročadi. Bog će dati, on je jedini kadar, mir i spokoj.

NE PLAČI MAJKO

 

Ne plači majko mada znam da moraš,

Al' i mrtvog tvoje suze me bole,

Kad staviš ruke na zemlju mezara

mrtve me, majko, kosti zabole.

 

Ja te čujem majko u noćima dugim,

kako plačeš i ime mi zoveš,

nemoj, majko, teže su mi tvoje suze

I od ove tvrde zemlje bosanske.

 

Znam, majko, ali tako biti mora,

ubile su me zvijeri, sinovi svinje,

nisu mogli sami protiv sebe

jer zvijeri su zvijeri ma kakve bile.

 

Ako ti je lakše ti im oprosti,

što nam doniješe tugu i nesreću,

sve bi im halalio ali  tebe i suze

nikada, majko, nikada neću.

 

 

 

 

10.07.2013.

Throwing beans or Falanje u grah

One of the most popular methods of fortune-telling in Bosnia and Herzegovina is certainly divination with beans "falanje u grah" or "throwing beans" (bacanje graha). Among the people there are stories that demised Hazrat Fatima secretly performed divination with beans, hiding it from her father Muhammad. On one occasion while Hazrat Fatima predicted the fate of her friend in the room suddenly entered Mohammed. Hazrat Fatima in shock and rush managed to hide under her dress only half of the beans, which were located in front her, therefore since then it is believed that in every divination lies half truth and half lie. It is interesting that one combination of divination is named after her name – “Hazrat Fatima fal”. It is a combination of 333, which represents happiness, marriage and the fulfillment of whish.

In Bosnia, a person dealing with the divination in the beans is called “faladžija" or "faladžinica" if it is a female person. For divination in the beans fortune teller needs the red patch on which he or she lines up 41 grains of white beans. Before she starts placing the beans on the patch she takes the beans into the right fist , places the fist close to her mouth and recites the prayer: “Rabbi jesir vela tu'asir, rabbi temmim bil-hayr” three times and then blows into her fist three times.

Then she divides the beans into three smaller piles and from each takes the four seeds making a figure of three rows with nine beans pile where each individual pile can have 1, 2, 3 or 4 seed. The left vertical line represents a female person and the right male person. The vertical line in the middle is called the house or heart. In addition, females and males lines are divided into three symbols: the head, arms, legs and the line in the middle is divided on: the cushion, fireplace and doors.
The method of divination in the bean is extremely broad and requires much effort and space for an explanation, however there are several shorter versions of divination which people mostly use to get the answer to a specific question.


The group of 41 beads of white beans the fortune teller arranges three times:
-The first arrangement is for the past and it symbolizes childhood and youth
The second arrangement symbolizes the clients present and the middle of his life
The third arrangement symbolizes the future, and is treated as the most important part of the complete fortune telling. It symbolizes the latter part of someone's life.

A B C
D E F
G H I

TEHIR or TIME

The first row (A,B,C) is called „površina“ or "the surface", and its characteristic is that it can only have an odd sum of numbers 5 or 9 beads, when compared to the second and third row. When there are five beads in the first row (212, 122, 221), and in the bottom that symbolizes time (or their) 5 groups each having four beads (or five hatmi) then that shows speed to the fortune teller, favorable progress of the situation, or as they like to say: „the beans go in your favour!" The first row symbolizes intelligence, thinking patterns, thought processes,. and that's why there is a "male" and "female" head inside and a "pillow".

The second row (D,E,F) represents emotion and the house. It can be said that the second and third row are connected while the first row is separate and independent. The one thing that most people don't know is that only in the second and third row there can be for example a combination of infidelity, loss, moving, tears but also travel, gain, etc.

The third row (G,H,I) is a symbol of the things that are outside or in front of the door. It is a symbol of movement and action which is confirmed by the male and female foot prints (or legs) and the "threshold". The more beads there are on the threshold the more guests in the house or if there is only one bead on the threshold-the news will arrive inside the house, two beads "open door" that is the one whose fortune is foretold will travel or the like.

Tehir or time symbolizes a specific period when a prophecy might come true, for example, if there are five groups that have four beads in the "time" row, that means that the foretold will come about soon, if there are four groups each having four beads then the client has to be patient because the prophecy will not come about soon, etc. Fortune telling of four groups each having four beads is called „hatma“.

Besides this, each fortune teller with beans can foretell for three types of persons- girlfriend, wife, widow or boyfriend, husband, widower. For example, if a married person receives the "Hazrat Fatima fal" it is not interpreted as to the other groups. While to the other groups it foretells marriage, to the married ones it foretells divorce or the like.

 

111 - problems, divorce, departure

112 - loss of a loved one

121 – love between partners

131 - ''wings'': happiness, cash gain, succes

144 - relationship, marriage

212 - bismillah fal grah: love date

233 - love joy

242 - meeting, cash gain

224 - travelling

314 - problems in a marriage or family

323 - love

333 - marriage

414 - problems

431 - loss

432 - news

444 - prosperity, succees on work or in love

03.07.2013.

Magical Plants of Bosnia - Neven

Neven (Calendula officinalis) is a plant that is often mentioned in folk songs where a girl uses love magic in order to conquer or punish a man because of unrequited love

"It wasn't me Meho I swear on your life!

I only circled out your footprint in the ground

and there planted Neven.

As Neven can't grow without Earth

so you too will not be able to live without me"

In the past in Cazin it was forbidden to plant Neven in the house where there were adolescent females since it ruined their chance to get married. But, Neven didn't get a reputation of an unwonted plant because of this isolated case but quite the opposite. Because of its yellow colour in Bosnian witchcraft Neven was dedicated to the sun and that's why it carries the power of attraction for money and business luck and it was always planted in pots and kept on the window of a house or business office.

24.06.2013.

Bosnian myth about the bull Turu

The existence of the cult of the large mother is found in the Stone Age. She was considered to be the mother of humans and gods and her cult spread along the Mediterranean belt, which once contained the Illyrian kingdom and today, among other countries, the modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The cult of the large mother stems from Syria, according to the available data, from which it spread to other countries and we can find it in Egypt (Izida), Babylon (Ishtar), Asia Minor (Kibela), Greece (Demetra), etc. The Syrian name Taschter or Tir, from which the name Astharte is derived, is present in Bosnia by the name of Tur, Tir or in the female form Tirinica.
Astharte was a goddess of the moon, fertility and motherhood but also of war, described as a horned deity, with a head of a bull. This data is key to linking her with the Illyrians and the myth about the bull Garonja who is only familiar to the Bosnians, the Serbs and Croats don't mention him in their mythology. 
According to all of the archeological data the ox or bull belonged to the cult of the moon among the Illyrian tribes. It is important to note that the bull is a common symbol of the cult of the mother among all of the ancient peoples, the myth about Mithras also existed among the Persians; he killed the godlike bull and created entire nature out of his blood, especially wheat.
In Donja Dolina (Sanski Most) during the excavation of an Illyrian village, a skull of a pre-bull was found  (Bos primigenius), which is - as Ć. Truhelka speculates, attached to the façade of the house and served as a bucranium. It is known that a head of a bull was hung on the walls of temples in Greece once it has been sacrificed to the gods, and that's where the tradition originated from also this is the reason for all of the bucranium carvings on temples and various other structures.
Numerous depictions of oxen are from an earlier time, they didn't always carry an explicit message, but they surely weren't only decorative in nature. It is interesting that the findings are only limited to the north, and to a lesser extent to central areas where the Illyrians lived, even though it is fairly certain that in other areas there was also a religious system in which the ox, as a lunar symbol, was connected to the cult of the large mother. Here we're referring to the area occupied by the Liburn people, then people from the region Dalmatia and partially tribes in the southern and central parts of the Illyrian tribes. Also in this case, as with many other symbols, lack of illustrations should be sought in the sphere of esthetic comprehension of the former men, not only in the religious differences, i.e. the lack of the cult of the bull in specific Illyrian regions.
Ritual slaughter of the bull as a sign of fertility and its connection with the cult of the large mother was very old in these regions,  and was preserved unchanged to this day in the Balkans and elsewhere.


Bosnian myth about the bull Turu


In publications "Supplements for oriental philology:  Revue de philology orientale" from 1980 the following content is mentioned on page 311: "In 1933 from a poor old woman, Puhalovka Alijaginica, who lived in Čerbedžije in Sarajevo, literally recorded the following: "On Wednesdays when you pray afternoon prayer and bow: Ognju and Ognjevom Piru, Turu, Hadži Dedi, Hadži Kasapi, Sitoj Nefisi, Vejsil Karaniji, their parents and brother Mevelan". Checking whether this tradition is still prevalent in other places, I found out from Mahmud Traljić (born in Sarajevo in 1918)that he listened to the enumeration of these names from a Muslim woman from Sarajevo Fatima Hajrić, which died in 1961 or 1962 in her 102nd year.

As Oganj, Ognjev Pir and Tur or Tir don't belong among the names of Islamic saints it is evident that these names are actually folk names for Illyrian deities. In my opinion we're dealing with two deities i.e. sun god Oganj (fire) or Ognjev Pir (emperor of fire) and goddess of the moon Tur or Tir. In other words, this means that among the Bosnian Muslims there were people who unknowingly, before WWII, prayed to the ancient gods. Confirmation of this fact can easily be found in the fact that these deities were presented in one context.

That Tur-Tir is a female deity is confirmed by a statement from Seid Traljić who mentions a female cult name Tirinica, whose godlike characteristics were annulled by Islam, but her name was kept in prayers until WWII, since it was considered holly.  
    
The Bosnian folk believed from old times that the Earth resting on the back of a large bull called in some places Garonja. According to belief when he moves his ears there will be an earthquake and when he shakes his entire body it is believed that it will be the end of the world. Ethnologist Gržetić stated succinctly the belief which perhaps best depicts who is behind the character of Garonja, namely: "the people in Bosnia still to this day believe that the earth is supported by Turu, and once he shakes, there will be an earthquake". Meaning, the original name of the bull is Tur and not Garonja as is mentioned in south-western part of Bosnia.
According to everything that is written it is easy to conclude that the ancient mother goddess is behind the character of Tur or Tir (Tirinica), which was also depicted with the head of a bull. She is the mother of fertility, i.e. earth, and it is logical that he is depicted supporting the earth. It is quite probable that the Latin word for bull - Taurus stems from the name Tur.
 
On the prevalence of the cult of the mother goddess in Bosnia and Herzegovina the following place names testify, such as: Turovo (beneath Jahorina), Turić (Gradačac), Turići (Vlahovići near Travnik, Lugovi near Fojnica, Banovići, Visoko), Turija (Bihać, Konjic, Tuzla, Visoko, Srebrenica), Turjak (Bosanska Gradiška, Dobrun kod Višegrada) and Turjačani (Bosanska Gradiška).
14.06.2013.

The happiest divorce ever: British banker gives 'brilliant' Bosnian ex-wife £150m - and she's 'thrilled' he's dating a supermodel

With a personal fortune of £300 million,  financier Roger Jenkins’s divorce from his Bosnian-born wife Diana was always  going to be costly, but the couple have proved that parting ways doesn’t need to  be nasty – even when millions are at stake.

The pair, who separated three years ago, have  now divorced, quietly and without an undignified courtroom fight involving  overpaid lawyers.

Mr Jenkins, who made his fortune as a tax  expert at Barclays Bank, has awarded his wife £150 million, and the former  Bosnian refugee now joins her ex-husband among Britain’s wealthiest 500  individuals.

New love: Roger Jenkins pictured in Ibiza with girlfriend Ellle Macpherson

New love: Roger Jenkins pictured in Ibiza with  girlfriend Ellle Macpherson

Remarkably, the estranged couple – who  described their split as ‘unconventional’ – remain the ‘best of friends’ and say  they have ‘the happiest divorce ever’. Diana is even said to be ‘thrilled’ at  his new relationship – with supermodel Elle Macpherson.

Mr Jenkins has told friends: ‘I love Diana  and have such admiration for her as a mother, businesswoman and someone who was  brilliant as a wife.

'We have moved on and are supremely happy  with the arrangements we have in our lives. Diana will always be a very happy  part of my life.’

Sources say there was no wrangling over  56-year-old Mr Jenkins’s fortune, which he accumulated  during his decade  at Barclays.

The couple, who were married for ten  years  and have two children, have amicably carved up their property  portfolio, which  includes luxury homes around the world.

Their £25 million clifftop estate overlooking  Malibu beach is in joint names  and while Diana, 37, lives in the main house  with their two children, Mr Jenkins has an adjoining house on the five-acre  estate.

Delighted: Diana Jenkins is said to be 'thrilled' at her former husband's new relationship

Delighted: Diana Jenkins is said to be 'thrilled' at her  former husband's new relationship 

Mr Jenkins, who divides his time between Sao  Paulo in Brazil and North America, has bought a house in the Santa Monica hills.  The  couple have sold their townhouse in Mayfair, which was in Mrs  Jenkins’s name, and are believed to be sharing their holiday home in Bosnia. 

They will continue to hire their  marble-floored yacht Utopia, on which Diana entertains celebrity friends  including George Clooney.

While she was enjoying a private break last  week, her ex-husband was with their children and Diana’s parents at the lake  house in Bosnia.

Diana, now a successful businesswoman with  her own lucrative drinks brand, has told friends she is delighted with the  payout and that she and Mr Jenkins have stayed on good terms.

‘All is great, life is good, Roger is  wonderful – class all the way to the end,’ she told friends last week. ‘He is  and always will be my best friend. He is the father of my children and I will  always love him.’

Diana, who left London for LA three years ago  when the couple split, is said to have been dating a younger man for two years,  while Mr Jenkins is dating Miss Macpherson, as The Mail on Sunday revealed. 

He and the 48-year-old lingerie model were  recently photographed on holiday in Ibiza and, despite seeming an unlikely  match, are said to be very happy.

Mr Jenkins, a former rugby player and amateur  runner, is a sports fanatic and is said to love Elle’s passion for the outdoors.  News of the divorce suggests that the relationship is serious.

When Diana and Mr Jenkins separated, she said  she was in no hurry to divorce, and would do so only when he met someone else –  something he said ‘is never going to happen’.

Says a friend: ‘They say they have the  happiest divorce ever, and they do. Everybody’s super-happy. Diana is thrilled  that Roger has found happiness with Elle; we all thought she’d be cut up about  it, but she’s delighted.

'She really likes Elle and wants Roger to be  happy. He seems to be, and the relationship is very serious. Diana has been  telling people that it’s great and she has a great settlement and she’s  delighted.’

Despite the record payout, Mr Jenkins – the  man credited with  saving Barclays at the height of the credit crunch – is  still one of the country’s wealthiest people. In this year’s Sunday Times Rich  List the Scots-born financier was worth £272 million and ranked 290 out of  2,000.

He was up £122 million from the previous year  after becoming a managing partner in Brazilian bank BTG Pactual, where he had a  share in the bank’s £10 billion flotation.

For the first time his wife is now also in  the list, at 457. As chairman of Neuro Brands, a line of health drinks in which  her husband is understood to still have a share, she hopes to become even  wealthier.

Mr Jenkins made his millions at Barclays,  joining as a graduate trainee and earning more than £120 million in three years  from 2004.

He was once the highest paid man at the bank  when he ran the legal but controversial tax avoidance division at Barclays  Capital. He then went to head the investment banking division in the Middle  East.

Last week it was reported he is to be  investigated by the Financial Services Authority over £4.5 billion of investment  in Barclays he secured from Qatar and other Middle Eastern investors that saw  him earn an estimated £30 million in the process.

From humble beginnings: The apartment block in a suburb of Sarajevo, where Diana Jenkins was born and raised. She arrived in England with no money and no family but saved enough to enrol at London¿s City University

From humble beginnings: The apartment block in a suburb  of Sarajevo,  where Diana Jenkins was born and raised. She arrived in England  with no  money and no family but saved enough to enrol at London's City  University

He was later part of a group that raised  another £7.3 billion. The deals helped Barclays avoid state ownership during the  credit crunch, but it was claimed the Middle Eastern investors were getting a  better return on their money than ordinary shareholders could expect.

The FSA declined to comment, but a Barclays  insider said: ‘Who would not want to woo the Qataris when they spend £35 billion  a year on investment holdings – that is more than £100 billion in the years that  the FSA seems to be interested in.

Not to try to get close to the Qatari  government would have been bizarre. To have got their money was a benefit for  Britain. I am not sure why the FSA would want to look into this.’

Mr Jenkins has previously credited his wife  for helping to negotiate the bailout from Qatar. A formidable networker, Diana  was born Sanela Dijana Catic but changed her name when she arrived in England  from Sarajevo in 1993.

She spoke no English, and had no money and no  family but saved enough to enrol at London’s City University. In her time there  she launched an investment fund, through which she met her husband. They married  in 1999, the same year their son, Innis, was born. Daughter Eneya was born three  years later.

When the couple separated Mr Jenkins promised  he would be generous when it came to the settlement. Last year he told The Mail  on Sunday: ‘Will she take half my money? Of course. And quite rightly so.  Without her, I would not have anything like the success I have had.’

Both Mr Jenkins and his ex-wife last night  declined to comment.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2180471/The-happiest-divorce-British-banker-gives-brilliant-Bosnian-ex-wife-150m--shes-thrilled-hes-dating-supermodel.html#ixzz2WAFWopwH
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03.06.2013.

How to protect yourself from spellbound eyes?

In Bosnia the effect of spellbound eyes is called urok, this name stems from the Illyrians and represents "captivation" or "fascination". The negative effect of the human gaze, according to belief, is mostly demonstrated in small children, especially in the first months of their life. That's why, in order to protect the small child a red, black or green string is tied around its wrist, in order to divert the first and most harmful gaze and in such a way to neuter the power of spellbound eyes.

The use of red string and tying knots on it while repeating specific chants is a traditional form of white magic which can be seen all around Bosnia. Usually older women practice this form of magic since they are the ones that believe in the effect of spellbound eyes the most. One of them is Fatima Dautović from Velika Kladuša, for quite some time she used to tie 99 knots on a black thread 40cm long. Before every bind she utters the verse Ayetul Kursi, blows into the string and strengthens the knot. This technique first of all requires calmness, concentration and time. When she finished tying all of the knots, the string is then wrapped around a small piece of yew (Taxus) tree in order to enhance its apotropaic power. An amulet constructed using this technique will protect the wearer from black magic, spellbound eyes, bad luck during travel. According to Fatima, if this amulet is worn by married women, they will be more dominant in marriage.
Ziba Kovačević from Zenica also practices an identical method of amulet construction against spellbound eyes, the only difference is that she uses red thread and ties 41 knots. The thread with the knots is wrapped around a small piece of yew tree. An amulet constructed in such a way is often wrapped around a child's hand.
-Yew is a tree that protects against evil and it is advisable that everyone carries a piece of it with them, in their pocket or wallet, Ziba explains.
It is also believed that the thread used to stitch the cloth used to wrap a dead person, gains prophylactic powers. A thread of 10 cm is used and once it has been threaded through the cloth, it is then divided into two equal parts. The first part of the thread is thrown in a whirlpool of a river and the other half is used to tie a knot and is carried alongside the user. Allegedly such a knot protects against all forms of evil, spellbound eyes and black magic.

There are various forms of spellbound eyes that are known among the Bosnian folk:

zazor is a name for jealousy which is manifested through spellbound eyes,

začud is a name for admiration for one's beauty, assets or health and that was the reason for the effect of spellbound eyes,

presjek is a name for spellbound eyes that cause loss of appetite in children and it loses weight suddenly, etc.

In order to find out if her child was a victim of spellbound eyes a mother uses her tongue to lick specific places on the child's face, temple and the area between the eyebrows, in order to justify her suspicion. If she feels a salty or sour taste then the child has been affected.
Negation of the effect of spellbound eyes should commence as soon as it is discovered, since, according to folk belief, in the course of three days the power of spellbound eyes dominates the entire body of the child and can cause serious illness.
In Bosnian tradition there exists a popular belief that every mother can best protect her child from spellbound eyes which is illustrated by the first words of this magical formula:

Mother gave birth, mother cured!
Scatter spellbound eyes like the leaves in the forest,
like the foam on water,
like gold among gentleman.

While repeating this formula the mother uses her tongue again, this time she licks the child up its nose continuing to the forehead and ending where the hair starts. She repeats this procedure three times.  

11.02.2013.

Bosniaks - Illyrians

Bosnian historian prof.dr.Enver Imamović, believes than the modern-day Bosniaks do not continue the lineage of any Slavic tribe, but rather of an ancient Illyrian tribe called Posen. He gives a serious reference to support his statement and adduces the ancient Greek historian Appain of Alexandria (c. 95 – 165 C.E) who mentions an Illyrian tribe named Posen as living on the territories of modern-day Bosnia and Hercegovina. Mr.Imamović corroborates that the term Posen is nothing else but a corrupted form of the Illyrian term Bosen. Thus, mr. Imamović concludes that when talking about modern-day Bosniaks and the ancient Illyrian Posens we are talking about „one and the same people with the same name and a historic continuity of 2,000 years“.
To support his theory of the Illyrian ancestry of the Bosniaks, mr.Imamović mentions that the very name Bosnia is pre-Slavic and that it was existent long before the Serb and Croat tribes moved to the Balkan. Thus, he mentions that„already in the Roman time Bosnia was called approximately Bassania“.


Prof. dr. Enver Imamović in his book “Historija bosanske vojske” ("The history of the Bosnian army") describes at length the Bosnian Illyrians, their military and social system. For this text the most important part of the book is the one that describes the vast density of Illyrians in Bosnia before the advent of the Romans and the Slavs:

After they had conquered the coastal tribes the Romans headed inland. At that time Bosnia was inhabited by numerous Illyrian tribes. They were considered as particularly brave and warlike by the surrounding tribes. The north-western part of Bosnia was inhabited by Japodi, east of them, between the rivers Vrbas and Bosna, were the Mezeji and in the central Podrinje there were Dindari. Desetijati inhabited central Bosnia, Dalmati western Bosnia and Ardijejci southern Herzegovina and the Adriatic coast.



Nakon što su pokorili obalna plemena Rimljani su krenuli u unutrašnjost zemlje. U to doba Bosna i Hercegovina je bila naseljena brojnim ilirskim plemenima. Ona su od okolnih plemena smatrana izuzetno hrabrim i ratobornim. Sjeverozapadnu Bosnu naseljavali su Japodi. Istočno do njih, između rijeka Vrbasa i Bosne, živjeli su Mezeji a u srednjem Podrinju Dindari. Desitijati su naseljavali srednju Bosnu, Dalmati zapadnu, a Ardijejci južnu Hercegovinu i primorje.

 

According to prof. dr. Enver Imamović and academician Muhamed Filipović, the Bosniak people are direct descendants of Illyrians which can be easily confirmed through various analyses especially historical but also religious.

It has long been regarded that the Albanians are the only direct descendants of the Illyrians, however the things that mr. Imamović and mr. Filipović have brought forth in their historical analysis's and papers confirmed the findings of the Swiss institute IGENEA. Namely, the experts of the institute came to a conclusion that only 20% of the Albanians have the Illyrian gene on the other hand 40% of the Bosnians have the gene as well.

When the Slavs arrived in the Balkans they performed genocide over the Illyrians, it is believed that 4 million of them were killed, and the survivors had to forcefully assimilate into the community of the Slavs.


NAME: Illyrian


EVOLVED FROM: Danubian / Yamnaya


COUNTRY: Albania / Croatia / Bosnia and Hercegovina / Romania / Greece / Turkey


REGION: Dalmatia, Bosnia/Hercegovina


TERRITORY: Illyria


LANDMARKS: Adriatic Sea / Balkan Peninsula


SITES: Gmunden / Oberzeiring / Koman


CENTERS: Glasinac / Skodra


AGE: Neolithic / Bronze / Iron


DATES: BC 2000 /BC 15th – 12th c / BC 1000 / BC 900 / BC 8th c / BC 5th c / BC 393 / BC 359 / BC 310 / BC 3rd / AD 168


DEITIES: Galatea


SIGNATURE: tumulus / villages / hillforts / tattoos / horse breeders / sea raiders / lembi

                                                     

 

                                               

 


 


02.02.2013.

Witchcraft in Bosnia

In accordance with the Old Bosnian believes the Moon Goddess manifested in two forms. The first form was celestial and the second one was a tellurian. In her celestial form the Goddess had the power of magic and healing whilst in its tellurian form she was the goddess of fertility and well being. The text of the old Bosnian Love Chant alludes on her tellurian form, noticeable already in the beginning of the formula “Black Earth Mother, please help me, nor is this charm related to you neither to me, but to my dear…” When Christianity came into Bosnia and after that the Islam, the old cult of Mother Goddess was preserved, thanks to Bogumils, but with time the people forgot the meaning of most of the rituals and customs.


The belief in fairies is the best preserved part of the cult of Mother Goddess, which was kept in the mind of people. It is obvious that the cult could continue to exist only by loosing its religious significance and get a mark of local legends and superstitions. As such, it did not present any threat to monotheism but could have been forwarded from generation to generation. Based upon it, even the titles of Moon Goddess and Mother Earth had been changed into Zlatna (Golden Fairy) and Gorska vila (Forest Fairy). Both of them have been mentioned in the mythology of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The title Zlatna comes from the word gold which reminds of shinning, gloss or better to say the moonlight. The Gorska vila is the same as the Forest Fairy and the late title also refers to earth.



Chant Bosnian witch



What happened to Hasiba B. from a small Northwest village of Bosnia, few years after the World War II, shows the best that the connection between the people and old goddesses never severed. According to her story, once while she was shepherding at the meadow something unusual happened. While walking around she suffered a huge shock for no apparent reason which mostly reassembled the epileptic seizure. She lost the consciousness, her body was completely rigid and she was foaming out of the mouth. The family members found her in such condition and brought her home. Hasiba was lying for three days without consciousness like being in coma. When she woke up on the fourth day, she was completely sound and healthy. That most fascinating thing was that she woke up with the gift of foreboding and healing. Namely, while in coma she was visited by fairies who taught her how to foretell the future by watching into the water, how to perform divination with beans and how to heal the people by ritual of salivanje strahe. The fairies also taught her the various bajalice (oral charms) that she was supposed to pronounce in the healing rituals. One of the most interesting charms is the one related to the magical healing of the Moon.   


If analyzing quite a long text of three bajalice which make a whole, one could write a lot. However for this occasion it is enough to list few interesting ones. The bajalica brings up several times numbers 3 and 9 (3x9=27, which corresponds to the lunar circle), few times word silver, the metal dominated by Moon in astrology, while water as the Moon element is being mentioned 52 times. For better understanding of this text, maybe is good to specify that a year has 52 weeks.   


The fight against the evil embodied in physical and psychological diseases starts by activating of two elements: earth and water and after that the fire. It is important to remember that the forth element of air is present constantly through the breath i.e. the speech of a person who chants or baje. As described in bajalica, during the battle between the earth and water from one side against the evil, the “doors of the earth” are being open whilst the valleys and hills collide. That creates the power which neutralizes the evil. The appearance of the full moon is quoted at the end of the first bajalica.


The second bajalica starts with full moon coming that manifests by the psychical calmness of patient. The full moon waning, the moon phase coming and this change results by Moon giving the water and strength to the patient.  It follows by the next: “the patient was born in the night of the full moon and therefore he eliminated any decease during nine days”, “the night comes to the patient as so the help from the water; as the down comes the following day so the sun will arrive to the patient.” The last verse points out that by arrival of the sun the patient will be relieved of physical issues, such as fear, insomnia and anxiety. After, as the sun goes down in the west so the peace and calmness comes to the patient. On the next night the full moon brings the water as the gift to the patient that heals him for the next nine days. The evil withdraws and disappears as the days pass by. At the very end are mentioned the following: the full moon as well as the moon phase that brings the new moon which makes patient resting and neutralize the negative affects.




At the very beginning of the third and last bajalica it is described the arrival of full moon that brings the health i.e. strength to the patient. The most interesting part in this bajalica is speeding up the moon phases: full moon – moon phase – full moon, whilst element of water is in all verses that follow the moon change. Once again the reborn of the patient is emphasized but this time he is born for the first time during the night of the moon phase and the second time during the full moon. In both cases the moon “gifts” the patient but this time the gifts are three waters and nine days. These gifts have the profound curing effect as described in the following verses: “regenerate its own body; open the eyes; calm the psych; heal the bones and body; the full moon is coming…” In the last 15 sentences it describes exclusively the fight between fire and water, their interaction that bring definite victory over negative influences which caused psychological and physical problems to the patient.  



*Bajalica or magic chant – basma, bajati. The term has its origin in the Azerbaijan language where it represents folk poetry bayati which is in fact incantation- a type of magical poetry intended for sickness, happiness, love, fertility, keeping evil at bay.

25.01.2013.

WITCHCRAFT IN BOSNIA - PART II

Thanks to Bogumils who at one period of the BiH history used to be dominant religion and, in the same time, worshipers of Nature, the old cults managed to survive. By their credit we can, today, follow the leads of old days witchcraft performance, which, after so many centuries still exist through various beliefs and practical performance.

 


Time of the ritual

In Bosnia, the most powerful and the most dangerous days are considered to be those between 30th of April and the 13th of May in which, accidentally or not, the witches holiday Beltane (1st of May) happens to be. In this very period the regeneration of Nature is at its peak, as well as farming works. In the middle of this period there is a Jurjevo or Hidirlez (6th of May) Christian-Moslem holiday of Pagan origin that is traditionally put in the context of Nature and water which is under the influence of the Moon. The worshiping of water as one of the manifestation of the Goddess is well reflected in two customs that are practised even these days in some parts of Bosnia. This is about the celebration of the first Tuesday that precedes Hidirlez Holiday called Boni Tuesday (Boni utorak) entirely devoted to the water treatment (of the sick). During Boni Tuesday, healing springs in the Nature are being visited; the sick drink the water and wash their bodies with it. The first Tuesday after the 6th of May is called Dovni Tuesday (Dovni utorak) and on this day prayers are to be chanted for the wellbeing of individuals and the community as a whole. Clearly speaking; the believers used to pray or, better to say, thank to the ruler of the water (the Moon) for its support, aiming to get its protection throughout the year. Of course, by the appearance of Islam all that referring to the old Cult had to be suppressed and assimilated into the new religion. The Goddess had been changed to the prayer to Allah, although it is clear at the very first glance that those rituals have nothing to do with the Islam.


 

 


Light and the darkness

Even today in the 21st century the Bosnian witches follow the ancient guidelines in their magic performance. The part of the day when the Sun is setting and the night falls down between Aksham and Jaci ( „između akšama i jacije“ ) is still considered to be the best period for the magic performance, especially for the love magic.
Analysing in detail the information why the sunset period is the most important period of the day to the Bosnian witches for performance of the magic ritual, is to be sought in the very roots of European witchcraft history. Two of the most important holidays Beltane and Samhain celebrates the beginning of the shiny & dark part of the year. Both holidays are the moments of the most celebrated celebrations and most powerful rituals related to the divinity of the Nature. Similar to that, the end of the day and the beginning of the night represents the miniature alteration of light and the darkness, Beltan and Samhain. According to Bosnian believes , immediately after the sunset Jinny get the power, they wake up and go active, what is coincided with the belief that in the night of Beltan and Samhain the door of the spiritual world open from which various spirits and demons come to he world of human beings.

 



The Moon Cult

Although small number of ethnological data on magic inheritance of Bosnia & Herzegovina can be found today, from what such data disclose it can be clearly found that in the past existed several types of cults among which the Sun and the Moon cults dominated.
Even these days, when they see a New Moon, some Bosniak women perform the ritual in which the influence of Islam and the old days Moon cult interlace with each-other. While gazing to the moon, a woman, lifts her arms to the chest level, with her palms pointing the sky, chants 5 Qu'ran-s prayers, after what she wipes her face with the palms. In the continuation, a Moon Cult ritual follows; a woman points her right forefinger to the Moon saying: “The way you Moon grove and transform so renew my form (existence)”. Apart from this ritual there were dozens of similar rituals amongst Bosniak women that were passed from one female generation to another. In another ritual woman prays to the New Moon for a good health of her children, in which case she directly alludes to the Goddess of the Moon; the protector of fertility and children. Another interesting belief alludes to the old times idea on divine characteristic of the Moon, namely; it is believed that when the New Moon is seen for the first time the formula:“ I see New Moon, Mashallah!“ should be chanted, as in contrary a bad magic of “evil eyes” can strike the person. In traditional Bosnian beliefs small kids are most vulnerable to the influence of the evil eyes what leads to the idea that in the old days the New Moon has been considered as a divine child,i.e. freshly (re)born Goddess, which her followers need to protect; in the faze when she has no enough strength and power.






The Bogomils

When Christianity commenced to spread in the East and West, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, it intermingled in the East with the learning of Zoroaster, which reigned in the Persian Empire as the official religion of the state. By a mixture of both creeds, the Persian prophet Mani (216-276) fashioned a new teaching, known after his name as „Manichaeism“, and adopted the the principal ideas of Zoroaster, as for example, the old Aryan dualism, and rules for foodstuff. Thus when this new creed began to spread speedily through the Byzantine Empire, it was severely opposed by the powers of state which caused a dispersion of the religion and atomization into many sects. One form of persecution of the adherents of the new religion took the form of sending them to western confines of the Empire to be used as „cannot-fodder“ against invading Bulgars, who menaced the Empire from the 6th to 10th century. But the heretics, instead of waging war against the Bulgars, fled to them and spread amongst them the new creed. Thus, during the first half of the 10th century there appeared in Bulgaria a man named Jeremija, who found a new religion, based on Manichean teachings and old Slavic customs. Jeremija took the name of „Bogomil“ meaning „Dear to God“; it was he who named the new religion Bogomilism. It soon spread all over Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia and finally reached Bosnia. Bogomils thus came to Bosnia directly from Bulgaria and established therein a powerful bulwark.


 


 


23.01.2013.

Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, Visoko

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18.01.2013.

Fortune telling in coffee cup

Fortune telling or falanje  is done by and for women, principally for young women. Most of its predictions concern love and marriage, although they also deal with matters of employment, finance and health. One practice, followed only by unmarried girls and in the spirit of fun, involves hanging a golden ring on a piece of thread held over a glass of water. The number of times it sways back and forth indicates the age at which the woman will marry. The ring is then suspended over the pulse of the woman's wrist, its subsequent movements indicating the number of sons and daughters she will bear. This simple method of prediction requires no elaborate preparation or skill and is pursued more in the spirit of a parlour game than in that of serious prophecy.

 

The most common technique is certainly that of reading the fortune in the coffee cup ( or falanje u kahvu). On any occassion when women who know each other well are gathered together to drink coffee, they may read fortunes in the cups. However, the presence of a relative stranger or of one who is known or felt likely to disapprove, will inhibit the fortune telling.

 

 

After the coffee has been drunk the dregs are allowed to settle in the cup which is then inverted onto a saucer or tray and left to stand. When these dregs have dried to a stain inside the cup, fortunes may be read therein. One side of the cup is the male side, one the female. On these two sides the teller searches for certain symbols - dark men and blond men, dark women and blond women, the bird which means one will receive a message, the horse for strength, the rabbit for speed, the question mark for some unforeseeable but important event or for a hint of doubt.

All of these symbols are standard and thus anyone may learn to read fortunes. On one occasion I sat drinking coffee with two women I knew well. I asked if one of them would read my fortune but the first said she wasn't In the mood and the second claimed not to "know". She had had her own fortune told countless times and was familiar with all the symbols but was squeamish about reading fortunes herself since the practice is considered a dubious one.

 

Instead she told me to read my own fortune. I protested that I didn't "know" it either but she told me: "You've heard it all before, bird, horse, rabbit... You just have to look for it. "

Yet whilst anyone can read a fortune in some manner or other, certain individuals are said to be better at It than others. Their superior knowledge is judged by their ability not only to discern the relevant symbols in the coffee stain but to weave them all into a coherent picture. Thus, anyone who is so inclined can see that: "You have a message-and there's a horse here, that's some sort of strength ... a number three, maybe you'll get three messages... " But only those who know fortune telling well will tell one things along the lines of: "There's a blond man in your life, he's far away but he's trying very hard to send some message. He's hindered by a dark woman who's jealous and likely to cause problems in some devious way...“

 

Those who have the reputation of really "knowing" fortune telling usually meet the request for a reading with at least a brief display of reticence before complying. There is no question of offerring payment to the teller, one is not even supposed to thank them for their pains. Such thanks ne valja.

12.01.2013.

Prehistoric Amulet Shows Evidence of Stone Fabrication in the Visoko Civilisation!

 The artifact, which appears to be a votive amulet of the Neolithic period, was discovered a few years ago by farmers in the locality of Buci, in Visoko. The artifact is made of two parts: a mask made of fired clay, and a body made of stone. An overall examination of the artifact's surface properties suggested that the clay mask was fixed on a soft cement-like material that later hardened. No traces of tool-work has been detected on the artifact's surface, suggesting that the artifact was poured into a mold and afterwards polished. Occasional overlaps between the different materials on the artifact's surface further corroborate the theory that the body of the amulet is made of fabricated ("artificial") stone. The peculiar characteristics typical of a cement-like filling can be observed especially in the holes of the clay mask representing the eyes and the mouth.

Visoko, Bosnia, Amulet

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