Bosnian Wor(l)d

Bosnia-Hercegovina is a multinational state. Today, most citizens identify themselves as one of three groups: Bosniaks (48 percent, Illyrians), Bosnian Croats (14 percent, Illyrians), or Bosnian Serbs (37 percent, Slavs).


Witchcraft in Bosnia

In accordance with the Old Bosnian believes the Moon Goddess manifested in two forms. The first form was celestial and the second one was a tellurian. In her celestial form the Goddess had the power of magic and healing whilst in its tellurian form she was the goddess of fertility and well being. The text of the old Bosnian Love Chant alludes on her tellurian form, noticeable already in the beginning of the formula “Black Earth Mother, please help me, nor is this charm related to you neither to me, but to my dear…” When Christianity came into Bosnia and after that the Islam, the old cult of Mother Goddess was preserved, thanks to Bogumils, but with time the people forgot the meaning of most of the rituals and customs.

The belief in fairies is the best preserved part of the cult of Mother Goddess, which was kept in the mind of people. It is obvious that the cult could continue to exist only by loosing its religious significance and get a mark of local legends and superstitions. As such, it did not present any threat to monotheism but could have been forwarded from generation to generation. Based upon it, even the titles of Moon Goddess and Mother Earth had been changed into Zlatna (Golden Fairy) and Gorska vila (Forest Fairy). Both of them have been mentioned in the mythology of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The title Zlatna comes from the word gold which reminds of shinning, gloss or better to say the moonlight. The Gorska vila is the same as the Forest Fairy and the late title also refers to earth.

Chant Bosnian witch

What happened to Hasiba B. from a small Northwest village of Bosnia, few years after the World War II, shows the best that the connection between the people and old goddesses never severed. According to her story, once while she was shepherding at the meadow something unusual happened. While walking around she suffered a huge shock for no apparent reason which mostly reassembled the epileptic seizure. She lost the consciousness, her body was completely rigid and she was foaming out of the mouth. The family members found her in such condition and brought her home. Hasiba was lying for three days without consciousness like being in coma. When she woke up on the fourth day, she was completely sound and healthy. That most fascinating thing was that she woke up with the gift of foreboding and healing. Namely, while in coma she was visited by fairies who taught her how to foretell the future by watching into the water, how to perform divination with beans and how to heal the people by ritual of salivanje strahe. The fairies also taught her the various bajalice (oral charms) that she was supposed to pronounce in the healing rituals. One of the most interesting charms is the one related to the magical healing of the Moon.   

If analyzing quite a long text of three bajalice which make a whole, one could write a lot. However for this occasion it is enough to list few interesting ones. The bajalica brings up several times numbers 3 and 9 (3x9=27, which corresponds to the lunar circle), few times word silver, the metal dominated by Moon in astrology, while water as the Moon element is being mentioned 52 times. For better understanding of this text, maybe is good to specify that a year has 52 weeks.   

The fight against the evil embodied in physical and psychological diseases starts by activating of two elements: earth and water and after that the fire. It is important to remember that the forth element of air is present constantly through the breath i.e. the speech of a person who chants or baje. As described in bajalica, during the battle between the earth and water from one side against the evil, the “doors of the earth” are being open whilst the valleys and hills collide. That creates the power which neutralizes the evil. The appearance of the full moon is quoted at the end of the first bajalica.

The second bajalica starts with full moon coming that manifests by the psychical calmness of patient. The full moon waning, the moon phase coming and this change results by Moon giving the water and strength to the patient.  It follows by the next: “the patient was born in the night of the full moon and therefore he eliminated any decease during nine days”, “the night comes to the patient as so the help from the water; as the down comes the following day so the sun will arrive to the patient.” The last verse points out that by arrival of the sun the patient will be relieved of physical issues, such as fear, insomnia and anxiety. After, as the sun goes down in the west so the peace and calmness comes to the patient. On the next night the full moon brings the water as the gift to the patient that heals him for the next nine days. The evil withdraws and disappears as the days pass by. At the very end are mentioned the following: the full moon as well as the moon phase that brings the new moon which makes patient resting and neutralize the negative affects.

At the very beginning of the third and last bajalica it is described the arrival of full moon that brings the health i.e. strength to the patient. The most interesting part in this bajalica is speeding up the moon phases: full moon – moon phase – full moon, whilst element of water is in all verses that follow the moon change. Once again the reborn of the patient is emphasized but this time he is born for the first time during the night of the moon phase and the second time during the full moon. In both cases the moon “gifts” the patient but this time the gifts are three waters and nine days. These gifts have the profound curing effect as described in the following verses: “regenerate its own body; open the eyes; calm the psych; heal the bones and body; the full moon is coming…” In the last 15 sentences it describes exclusively the fight between fire and water, their interaction that bring definite victory over negative influences which caused psychological and physical problems to the patient.  

*Bajalica or magic chant – basma, bajati. The term has its origin in the Azerbaijan language where it represents folk poetry bayati which is in fact incantation- a type of magical poetry intended for sickness, happiness, love, fertility, keeping evil at bay.



Thanks to Bogumils who at one period of the BiH history used to be dominant religion and, in the same time, worshipers of Nature, the old cults managed to survive. By their credit we can, today, follow the leads of old days witchcraft performance, which, after so many centuries still exist through various beliefs and practical performance.


Time of the ritual

In Bosnia, the most powerful and the most dangerous days are considered to be those between 30th of April and the 13th of May in which, accidentally or not, the witches holiday Beltane (1st of May) happens to be. In this very period the regeneration of Nature is at its peak, as well as farming works. In the middle of this period there is a Jurjevo or Hidirlez (6th of May) Christian-Moslem holiday of Pagan origin that is traditionally put in the context of Nature and water which is under the influence of the Moon. The worshiping of water as one of the manifestation of the Goddess is well reflected in two customs that are practised even these days in some parts of Bosnia. This is about the celebration of the first Tuesday that precedes Hidirlez Holiday called Boni Tuesday (Boni utorak) entirely devoted to the water treatment (of the sick). During Boni Tuesday, healing springs in the Nature are being visited; the sick drink the water and wash their bodies with it. The first Tuesday after the 6th of May is called Dovni Tuesday (Dovni utorak) and on this day prayers are to be chanted for the wellbeing of individuals and the community as a whole. Clearly speaking; the believers used to pray or, better to say, thank to the ruler of the water (the Moon) for its support, aiming to get its protection throughout the year. Of course, by the appearance of Islam all that referring to the old Cult had to be suppressed and assimilated into the new religion. The Goddess had been changed to the prayer to Allah, although it is clear at the very first glance that those rituals have nothing to do with the Islam.



Light and the darkness

Even today in the 21st century the Bosnian witches follow the ancient guidelines in their magic performance. The part of the day when the Sun is setting and the night falls down between Aksham and Jaci ( „između akšama i jacije“ ) is still considered to be the best period for the magic performance, especially for the love magic.
Analysing in detail the information why the sunset period is the most important period of the day to the Bosnian witches for performance of the magic ritual, is to be sought in the very roots of European witchcraft history. Two of the most important holidays Beltane and Samhain celebrates the beginning of the shiny & dark part of the year. Both holidays are the moments of the most celebrated celebrations and most powerful rituals related to the divinity of the Nature. Similar to that, the end of the day and the beginning of the night represents the miniature alteration of light and the darkness, Beltan and Samhain. According to Bosnian believes , immediately after the sunset Jinny get the power, they wake up and go active, what is coincided with the belief that in the night of Beltan and Samhain the door of the spiritual world open from which various spirits and demons come to he world of human beings.


The Moon Cult

Although small number of ethnological data on magic inheritance of Bosnia & Herzegovina can be found today, from what such data disclose it can be clearly found that in the past existed several types of cults among which the Sun and the Moon cults dominated.
Even these days, when they see a New Moon, some Bosniak women perform the ritual in which the influence of Islam and the old days Moon cult interlace with each-other. While gazing to the moon, a woman, lifts her arms to the chest level, with her palms pointing the sky, chants 5 Qu'ran-s prayers, after what she wipes her face with the palms. In the continuation, a Moon Cult ritual follows; a woman points her right forefinger to the Moon saying: “The way you Moon grove and transform so renew my form (existence)”. Apart from this ritual there were dozens of similar rituals amongst Bosniak women that were passed from one female generation to another. In another ritual woman prays to the New Moon for a good health of her children, in which case she directly alludes to the Goddess of the Moon; the protector of fertility and children. Another interesting belief alludes to the old times idea on divine characteristic of the Moon, namely; it is believed that when the New Moon is seen for the first time the formula:“ I see New Moon, Mashallah!“ should be chanted, as in contrary a bad magic of “evil eyes” can strike the person. In traditional Bosnian beliefs small kids are most vulnerable to the influence of the evil eyes what leads to the idea that in the old days the New Moon has been considered as a divine child,i.e. freshly (re)born Goddess, which her followers need to protect; in the faze when she has no enough strength and power.

The Bogomils

When Christianity commenced to spread in the East and West, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, it intermingled in the East with the learning of Zoroaster, which reigned in the Persian Empire as the official religion of the state. By a mixture of both creeds, the Persian prophet Mani (216-276) fashioned a new teaching, known after his name as „Manichaeism“, and adopted the the principal ideas of Zoroaster, as for example, the old Aryan dualism, and rules for foodstuff. Thus when this new creed began to spread speedily through the Byzantine Empire, it was severely opposed by the powers of state which caused a dispersion of the religion and atomization into many sects. One form of persecution of the adherents of the new religion took the form of sending them to western confines of the Empire to be used as „cannot-fodder“ against invading Bulgars, who menaced the Empire from the 6th to 10th century. But the heretics, instead of waging war against the Bulgars, fled to them and spread amongst them the new creed. Thus, during the first half of the 10th century there appeared in Bulgaria a man named Jeremija, who found a new religion, based on Manichean teachings and old Slavic customs. Jeremija took the name of „Bogomil“ meaning „Dear to God“; it was he who named the new religion Bogomilism. It soon spread all over Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia and finally reached Bosnia. Bogomils thus came to Bosnia directly from Bulgaria and established therein a powerful bulwark.




Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, Visoko



Fortune telling in coffee cup

Fortune telling or falanje  is done by and for women, principally for young women. Most of its predictions concern love and marriage, although they also deal with matters of employment, finance and health. One practice, followed only by unmarried girls and in the spirit of fun, involves hanging a golden ring on a piece of thread held over a glass of water. The number of times it sways back and forth indicates the age at which the woman will marry. The ring is then suspended over the pulse of the woman's wrist, its subsequent movements indicating the number of sons and daughters she will bear. This simple method of prediction requires no elaborate preparation or skill and is pursued more in the spirit of a parlour game than in that of serious prophecy.


The most common technique is certainly that of reading the fortune in the coffee cup ( or falanje u kahvu). On any occassion when women who know each other well are gathered together to drink coffee, they may read fortunes in the cups. However, the presence of a relative stranger or of one who is known or felt likely to disapprove, will inhibit the fortune telling.



After the coffee has been drunk the dregs are allowed to settle in the cup which is then inverted onto a saucer or tray and left to stand. When these dregs have dried to a stain inside the cup, fortunes may be read therein. One side of the cup is the male side, one the female. On these two sides the teller searches for certain symbols - dark men and blond men, dark women and blond women, the bird which means one will receive a message, the horse for strength, the rabbit for speed, the question mark for some unforeseeable but important event or for a hint of doubt.

All of these symbols are standard and thus anyone may learn to read fortunes. On one occasion I sat drinking coffee with two women I knew well. I asked if one of them would read my fortune but the first said she wasn't In the mood and the second claimed not to "know". She had had her own fortune told countless times and was familiar with all the symbols but was squeamish about reading fortunes herself since the practice is considered a dubious one.


Instead she told me to read my own fortune. I protested that I didn't "know" it either but she told me: "You've heard it all before, bird, horse, rabbit... You just have to look for it. "

Yet whilst anyone can read a fortune in some manner or other, certain individuals are said to be better at It than others. Their superior knowledge is judged by their ability not only to discern the relevant symbols in the coffee stain but to weave them all into a coherent picture. Thus, anyone who is so inclined can see that: "You have a message-and there's a horse here, that's some sort of strength ... a number three, maybe you'll get three messages... " But only those who know fortune telling well will tell one things along the lines of: "There's a blond man in your life, he's far away but he's trying very hard to send some message. He's hindered by a dark woman who's jealous and likely to cause problems in some devious way...“


Those who have the reputation of really "knowing" fortune telling usually meet the request for a reading with at least a brief display of reticence before complying. There is no question of offerring payment to the teller, one is not even supposed to thank them for their pains. Such thanks ne valja.


Prehistoric Amulet Shows Evidence of Stone Fabrication in the Visoko Civilisation!

 The artifact, which appears to be a votive amulet of the Neolithic period, was discovered a few years ago by farmers in the locality of Buci, in Visoko. The artifact is made of two parts: a mask made of fired clay, and a body made of stone. An overall examination of the artifact's surface properties suggested that the clay mask was fixed on a soft cement-like material that later hardened. No traces of tool-work has been detected on the artifact's surface, suggesting that the artifact was poured into a mold and afterwards polished. Occasional overlaps between the different materials on the artifact's surface further corroborate the theory that the body of the amulet is made of fabricated ("artificial") stone. The peculiar characteristics typical of a cement-like filling can be observed especially in the holes of the clay mask representing the eyes and the mouth.

Visoko, Bosnia, Amulet

Bosnian amulets

Among the Bosnian people there were always those individuals whose supernatural powers were known to many. One of the most famous Bosnian magicians, whose knowledge came from ancient Arabic teachings, was Hadži-beg Rizvanbegović, the captain of Stolac, who lived during the end of 17th and beginning of the 18th century. According to legend he was an educated man who was very lively who showed interest for astronomy and the occult in his early age. At that time in his travels to Istanbul the captain of Stolac came across the Ottoman translations of the old Persian books of magic which helped him open the door to the supernatural.

The occult power that he gained practicing the ancient rituals allowed him to influence the people around him and the astrological practice allowed him to see into the future. How successful he was is shown by one of the tales that say that he accurately predicted the date of his death. In his town, Hutovo, it was said that he had a secret chamber in the tower where he would go to be alone in order to write magic and magical squares and to call forth the Jinn.

The power that he enjoyed, both the magical and military, made him the most controversial person of the time. The old scriptures describe him as a rigid man, very shrewd and often arrogant. And as it always happens with great wizards, his fame didn't die with him but it spread through many folk tales and legends from which one is still active today and that is that on the ruins of his town there are no snakes to be found anywhere. Namely, all of them go around the ruined city of mystical powers.

Besides Hadži-bega Rizvanbegovića the occult history of Bosnia mentions Mujo Hrnjica, a very charismatic and almost pagan character, with whom many stories and legends are identified. When his life is analysed in more detail we get the full picture of the hero of pagan Bosnia, long before the appearance of monotheism. All legends claim that Mujo was in contact with fairies, supernatural beings. The name Gorska vila is often mentioned which is also called his stepmother and whose milk made Mujo a big and strong warrior. His occult power is best described by folk songs where his communication and the benefit from it is described. It is also believed that Mujo carried with him all his life, until death, an amulet made out of nine beads of wheat sown into a red bag on the right side of his body.

It is interesting to note that the same amulet which alluded to Mujo Hrnjica was carried by numerous soldiers coming from North-Western part of Bosnia during the last war (1992-1995) when Serbia and Montenegro undertook genocide and an aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Historian and an archaeologist prof. dr. Enver Imamović, professor at the Faculty of Philosophy in Sarajevo, confirmed to the author of the book "Zapisi i Hamajlije" by the journalist Ahmed Bosnić, that talismans and amulets are an inseparable part of Bosnian tradition and that they are equally liked by both the Christians and the Muslims.

In the past decades- dr. Enver Imamović claims- that no house, i.e. no family could go without an amulet or talisman . They were carried by villagers, merchants, civil servants but also royalty and caesarean employees, soldiers and generals.... Everyone carried amulets and talismans, but their power and influence was dependant on those who made them, because the level of spiritual education of the creators of amulets was diverse.

Probably the most famous amulet in BIH was the shirt-amulet of Husein-Captain Gradaščević, better known as the Bosnian dragon, to whom a skilful Imam wrote various verses of the Qur'an on his linen shirt, chapters, magical squares and circles. The property of this amulet was that the wearer of the amulet is protected from all sorts of weapons. Since the construction of such an amulet was cumbersome it was very valuable and expensive.

As Husein-Captain Gradaščević was remembered in history as the defender of Bosnia from the Turks, the folk belief was that mere mention of his name had magical and protective powers. The gate of the old castle in Gradačac where the captain resided served as a motif for the amulet among the folk. Namely, on white tissues, the women would sow the picture of the door on which there was a sword and a mace, while they repeated a magical formula over and over again: "Benefactor of the people, for the defence of the people Husein-captain". Such an amulet was apparently small and a poor version of the shirt-amulet for which it was believed that it protected the wearer from any and every weapon and evil.


Née pendant la guerre, elle raconte son histoire 20 ans après le siège de Sarajevo

LONDON, Royaume-Uni, 18 avril (HCR) Vêtue d'un jean slim et d'une veste, Lejla a tout d'une jeune Londonienne à la mode. Mais, âgée de 19 ans, Lejla Damon n'est pas une jeune adulte comme les autres. « Je suis née le jour de Noël », dit-elle en ramenant en arrière ses cheveux bruns brillants et en me regardant avec ses yeux verts. « C'était en 1992, à l'hôpital principal de Sarajevo », ajoute-t-elle.

« Ma mère était une Bosniaque ; elle avait été prisonnière dans un camp de concentration où elle avait été violée à plusieurs reprises par un soldat serbe. » Neuf mois plus tard, la femme a donné naissance à une petite fille. « Elle me haïssait profondément. Elle pensait que j'étais le diable? et que je grandirais comme les hommes qui l'avaient violée. Elle ne voulait me garder pour rien au monde », explique Lejla.

Ce départ désastreux dans la vie a coïncidé avec le début du siège dans la capitale de Bosnie-Herzégovine, Sarajevo, et avec l'escalade vers le conflit le plus meurtrier en Europe depuis la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Quatre ans plus tard, à la fin du conflit, l'Ex-Yougoslavie s'était décomposée et on dénombrait près de 200 000 morts et 2,7 millions de personnes déplacées.

Avant même les premiers coups de feu tirés en Bosnie, le journaliste de la BBC Dan Damon travaillait en Slovénie pour couvrir la guerre d'indépendance de 10 jours en juin 1991 et ses répercussions, avec sa femme photographe Sian. L'année suivante, le couple a rejoint clandestinement Sarajevo où, pendant sept jours, Dan a été le seul reporter TV occidental dans la ville.

Le couple était déterminé à rester à Sarajevo, même s'ils étaient les invités du leader politique serbe en Bosnie Radovan Karadzic et hébergés par le Général Philippe Morillon, commandant des forces militaires des Nations Unies, quand celui-ci était absent. Sous les feux croisés de tirs d'artillerie, de roquettes, d'obus de mortier et des tireurs embusqués, les 400 000 habitants de la ville ont lutté pour trouver des vivres, des médicaments et de l'eau. Des milliers de civils ont été tués ou blessés.

Dan et Sian étaient en reportage dans cet hôpital quand ils ont rencontré la mère de Lejla, qui leur a dit qu'elle ne voulait pas garder son enfant. Conscients de faire quelque chose d'illégal, ils ont pris leur décision avec le consentement de la mère de faire sortir le bébé hors du pays vers la sécurité. Ils l'ont appelée Lejla, du nom d'une diplomate bosniaque qui les y a aidés. « Ils ont vu que c'était une situation horrible pour un bébé et ils ne voulaient pas me laisser là », explique Lejla. « Evidemment, ce n'était pas la sortie du pays la plus légale qui soit. »

Le couple était habitué à prendre des risques, mais les démarches pour la faire sortir du pays dans un fourgon blindé, pour obtenir des documents d'identité falsifiés suivies de plusieurs années de bataille juridique pour l'adopter ont été plus difficiles que tout ce qu'ils ont vu durant leur carrière. Ils ont finalement obtenu la garde et, à l'âge de trois ans, leur fille réfugiée a pu commencer sa vie au Royaume-Uni.

En grandissant au Royaume-Uni, Lejla est restée consciente de ses origines et elle s'est rendue deux fois dans son pays de naissance. L'année dernière, elle est allée à Sarajevo avec ses parents et elle a notamment rencontré le Président Bakir Izetbegovic. Bien qu'elle ne parle pas la langue, elle a ressenti un lien fort avec ce pays : « Je me suis sentie à l'aise à Sarajevo, mais c'est étrange car j'ai vu l'hôpital où je suis née et aussi tant de cimetières. Vous pouvez voir le renouveau dans cette ville, mais on est également découragé par tout ce qu'il reste à faire. »

Elle ne s'attarde pas sur ce qui aurait pu lui arriver si Dan et Sian ne l'avaient pas trouvée à Sarajevo. « J'ai eu une vie très agréable. J'ai reçu une excellente éducation, je me suis bien amusée et j'ai fait tout ce que les enfants font à leur jeune âge. J'en suis très reconnaissante à mes parents », confie-t-elle.

Toutefois Lejla a maintes fois pensé à tenter de retrouver sa mère biologique. « Je ne sais pas si c'est bien, tout spécialement pour quelqu'un dans sa situation. Je ne veux pas lui rappeler des situations affreuses pour elles. J'ai été conçue lors d'une scène des plus abjectes, constituant une violation et un affront à l'humanité même », indique Lejla. « Si ma mère disait 'non, je ne veux pas la voir' je pense que je serais choquée. Et je n'y suis pas vraiment prête. »

Vivre avec ce lourd passé l'a parfois démarquée de ses camarades. « C'est vraiment étrange car les gens de mon âge n'ont pas idée de ce qu'est la Bosnie. Ils ne savent rien de la guerre car ils venaient de naître quand elle a eu lieu? Je vois les mêmes attitudes envers les réfugiés et les demandeurs d'asile. Je pense parfois que les gens sont bornés », explique-t-elle.

« Vous n'entendez jamais les réfugiés raconter leur point de vue et parfois je ressens qu'ils sont ostracisés et critiqués, ce qui n'est pas juste. Même les gens de mon âge sont très dédaigneux envers les réfugiés. Je leur dis 'alors, vous me méprisez aussi ?' et ils disent 'non, toi, c'est différent'. Je trouve inquiétant que les gens soient aussi ignorants. »

Lejla explique être encouragée par le travail du HCR. « J'ai toujours entendu parler du HCR notamment par les photos de mes parents en Bosnie. Le logo du HCR était en arrière-plan. » Entre 1992 et 1996, le HCR a coordonné le pont aérien le plus long jamais organisé. Quelque 160 000 tonnes de vivres, de médicaments et d'autres biens de secours ont été acheminés vers Sarajevo à bord de plus de 12 000 rotations d'avions cargos. Le pont aérien a également permis d'évacuer plus de 1100 civils qui avaient besoin de soins médicaux d'urgence.

Le HCR aide encore des dizaines de milliers de victimes du conflit. Parallèlement, une conférence internationale organisée à Sarajevo la semaine prochaine a pour objectif de collecter plus de 500 millions d'euros pour financer des programmes de logement pour un grand nombre de personnes qui sont toujours réfugiées ou déplacées internes ainsi que pour des rapatriés.

Lejla est désormais étudiante en publicité. Elle s'exprime avec éloquence et passion sur la politique et le monde des affaires. Elle espère un jour devenir photographe de guerre comme sa mère. Malgré quelques années de rébellion adolescente, Lejla voue un grand amour à Dan et Sian.

Le couple a adopté deux autres enfants et Dan effectue encore régulièrement des reportages dans des zones de guerre. Récemment, il a couvert les attaques de l'Armée de résistance du Seigneur (LRA) en République démocratique du Congo. « Je veux voir le monde, et pas seulement les endroits sympas, et je veux aider. C'est vraiment l'influence de mes parents. » Elle prépare déjà sa prochaine visite en Bosnie, il est difficile d'imaginer un meilleur avenir pour ce bébé né pendant la guerre un jour de Noël.


Bošnjačke ljubavne pjesme

Gorom jašu kićeni svatovi.

Gorica him s lista progovara:

„Kuda idete, kićeni svatovi,

Kud idete kud konje morite?

Umrla je prošena djevojka,

Na umoru majci govorila:

„Dobro, majko, svate doćekajte!

Izved'te hi u gornje bojove,

Moga dragog u moju odaju!

Častite hi slatkom limunatom,

Moga dragog grkom čemerikom!

Neka mu je grko i čemerno!

Svakom svatu po boščaluk dajte,

Mom dragom devet boščaluka!

Nek oblači na devet Bajrama!

Neka dere, neka me spomene!

Neka nosi, neka se ponosi!

I ja ću se ponositi mlada

Crnom zemljom i zelenom travom“.

 (Kazivala Hajrija Šaković, Gacko, 20.05.1935.godine)

Druga pjesma:

Pod Tuzlom se zeleni meraja,

Na meraji prostrta serdžada,

Na serdžadi Čelebiću Mujo.

Što na cure đumruk uzimaše,

Svaka cura žuti dukat daje,

Lijepa Fata ogru ispod vrata.

Tud se šeće Zlata Atlagića.

Vriska stade Muja Čelebića.

Kriska stade Zlate Atlagića:

„Nemoj, Mujo, obadva ti svijeta!

Nemoj, Mujo, obadva ti svijeta,

Ugrisćeš me, karaće me majka!“

Kako ju je slatko poljubijo,

Četiri joj dagme napravijo,

Dvije dagme na bijelu vratu,

A dvi' dagme na rumenu licu!


(Kazivao Meho Jarić, Livno, 21.09.1934.godine.)



La Divination par les haricots ou Falanje u grah

La Divination par les haricots est largement répandue dans les Bosnie.  Une des raisons principales est la disponibilité de l'équipement nécessaire, c'est à dire les haricots.

Tout ce dont vous avez besoin pour une divination sont des fèves de 42 grains de haricots d'un vesce facilement disponibles.

Cette méthode de prédiction est particulièrement populaire en Turquie et en Bosnie-Herzégovine, elle est considérée comme l'une des méthodes les plus précises de la divination.

Ceux qui l'utilisent croient que les haricots peuvent refléter l'état actuel des forces universelles et donner le conseil à la personne cherchant de l'aide.


La Divination par les haricots (ou falanje u grah) est réalisée à l'aide de 42 grains de haricots. Pour pratiquer cette divination on a besoin de 42 grains, tous les grains sont mélangés, mais on en jette 41 seulement. Avant de les jeter on prend les grains dans le bras droit, et pendant  ce processus on doit réfléchir intensivement sur le désir ou sur le problème.  Ensuite, on met les haricots sur la table ou le plancher et on divise en trois piles rangées en colonnes  ou  falovi. On utilise le plus souvent pour la divination les haricots blancs, et il est souhaitable que la base soit rouge.



La grille de „falovi“ (nombres) se lit de droite à gauche, soit comme suit  :

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

1 glava  (tête)   -  2 jastuk (oreiller)  -  3 glava (tête)

4 ruke (mains)   -  5 kuća (maison)   -   6 ruke (mains)

7 noge (jambe)    -   8 prag (seuil)      -  9 noge (jambe)


                1                                           2                               3

                4                                           5                               6

                7                                           8                               9

      présente femme           présente maison         présente mâle



On jette les haricots 3 fois – pour le passé, pour le présent, et pour l'avenir.

Le premier présente généralement l'enfance, le deuxième l'état actuel et le troisième ce qui se  produira.

Les symboles qui se produisent en jetant les haricots peuvent être lues selon le sexe et le statut de la personne faisant la divination. Ainsi, le même symbole peut signifier une grossesse ou le mariage, selon s'il s'agit d'une fille ou d'un garçon.




Bosniaques Amulettes

Amulette Bosniaques écrite sur papier  faite à la main en plusieurs couleurs avec des versets du Coran  des chiffres et des signes. Amulettes en Bosnie avoir plusieurs noms: hamajlija, hodžino pismo, zapis, zaštita, hirz, etc. Le but principal d'amulettes est de protéger l'homme contre la magie noire et le mauvais œil.

Zapisi ou les talismans sont courtes citations du Coran et les personnages magiques sont censées accomplir certains désirs, comme l'amour ou la guérison. Pour se remettre de la maladie de construire quatre talismans. La première zapis comporte un très bref texte commençant par « Bismillahi... Cette première zapis se met dans l'eau et, pendant trois jours, le malade doit boire seulement de cette eau-là. Si le malade est chrétien, pendant ces trois jours il ne peut boire de vin ou de raki (alcool, eau de vie), ni manger de porc, ni d'ail. Le restant de cette eau doit être versé le quatrième jour dans une rivière. Le hodža confectionne les trois autres zapis  sur un même morceau de papier qui comporte, en arabe, la triple inscription suivante.

Pendant trois jours, au coucher du soleil, on découpe de ce morceau de papier l'une des zapis, on la jette sur les braises et le malade en inhale la fumée. Après la fumigation, les braises doivent être jetées dans le foyer. Pour chaque personne, la hamajlija et le texte seront différents. De même, les zapis et leur nombre changent. Mais il doit y avoir toujours, cependant, une hamajlija et une zapis  à immerger, tandis que le nombre de celles qui servent à la fumigation varie - il peut y en avoir parfois jusqu'à quinze. La fumigation elle-même peut se faire à des moments différents selon les patients. Certains la font le matin, d'autres le soir, et d'autres encore et le matin et le soir. Les hamajlija se font non seulement en cas de maladie mais aussi contre les sorts (les magies), contre le mauvais œil, contre les armes, etc.


Si le patient est à tel point malade qu'il ne peut venir personnellement chez le hodža, alors quelqu'un d'autre peut venir à sa place chercher la hamajlija. Mais celui-ci doit veiller à ne pas aller avec le talisman aux toilettes, et si il est obligé d'y aller avant de l'avoir remis au malade, alors il doit le laisser à l'extérieur afin qu'il ne soit pas désacralisé ou souillé dans les toilettes, auquel cas il perdrait son pouvoir. Pour ses services le hodža ne doit pas demander de rétribution, il doit se satisfaire de ce qu'on lui donne, que ce soit en espèces ou en nature, et seulement de cette façon son travail garde un caractère sacré. Cependant les hodža suivent peu cette règle et, pour la plupart, ils demandent à être rétribués.


Amulette boîte de rangement dispose de plusieurs types:

-Bezument  de lame d'argent contenante une amulette de cheik ou hodža placée dans un pendantif triangulaire et des autres amulettes écrites contre l' ensorcellement dans deux tubes.

- Vezme

- Dilbagija

- Enamluk, boite d' enam (ehap. du Coran contre l'adoration des animaux do- mestiques).



Bosnischen Magie



In Bosnien die Zaubersprüche werden verschiedenartig angewendet. Die Beschwörerin oder Stravarka wirft drei glühende Kohlen in's Wassergefäss und sprechen magischen worte. Hier die eine Formel gegen den bösen Blick :

Mein Alija ist neunmal vom Urok besessen. 
Von neun sind sieben, 
von sieben sind sechs, 
von sechs sind fünf, 
von fünf sind vier, 
von vier sind drei, 
von drei sind zwei, 
von zwei ist eins, 
von eins ist keines. 
Dieses eine geht in die hohen Höhen, 
in die tiefen Tiefen, 
wo die Feuerschaufel nicht klingt, 
wo das Schaf nicht blockt, 
wo die Ziege nicht meckert, 
wo der Hahn nicht kräht, 
wo der Hund nicht bellt. 
Und nun möge es dort bleiben
Veledalin amin.

Bosnien magische methode „Auslöschen der Kohlen“ oder „gašenje ugljena“ gegen den bösen Blick.


Das Volk glaubt, dass das menschliche Auge dreierlei Farben haben kann, und unterscheidet daher nur schwarze, blaue und grüne Augen. Da man gewöhnlich nicht weiss, von welcher Farbe die Augen waren, welche das Verschreien verursacht haben, so denkt man beim Hineinwerfen der Kohlen, was einzeln oder zu dreien geschieht, an die einzelnen Farben der Augen, oder spricht eine Formel, die auf die einzelnen Augenfarben Bezug hat. Als Zeichen, dass es Augen dieser oder jener Farbe waren, welche das Verschreien verursacht haben, wird gewöhnlich das Untersinken des Kohlen stückes betrachtet. Sinkt die Kohle z. B. bei Erwähnung der schwarzen Augen, so haben es nur Augen dieser Farbe sein können, welche das Verschreien herbeigeführt haben.


Bosanska sofra



Ishrana je stara koliko i samo čovječanstvo. Od svog prvog trena kada dođe na ovaj svijet čovjek je ovisan o hrani da bi preživio. Hrana osim primarne egzistencijalne svrhe ima i onu drugu gurmansku da zadovolji ljudsku potrebu za uživanjem. Svi imamo tu hedonističku crtu u sebi koja nas stalno tjera da obogaćujemo fond čula okusa. Hrana je izvor energije ili prostije rečeno ona je gorivo za tijelo. Ali za razliku od auta mi imamo mogućnost da u hrani uživamo zahvaljujući čulima okusa i mirisa. Zbog toga hrana je neiscrpna tema o kojoj se može pričati u beskonačnost.

Hrana ima i jak socijalni učinak, ona nas povezuje kroz zajedničke doručke, ručkove i večere. Objedujući članovi familije njeguju osjećaj zajedništva, djeci jača samopouzdanje ali i roditeljima koje briga o potomstvu čini sretnim i zadovoljnim. Vjerovatno neraskidiva ljubav majke i djeteta se rađa upravo za vrijeme dojenja, dok su fzički spojeni, u trenucima dok majka držeći dijete upija njegov miris i obratno.

Hrana nas otvara emotivno, nebrojeno puta smo čuli izreku da ljubav ide kroz želudac. Dijeljenje hrane, posebno sa gladnim i siromašnim, razvija u nama altruizam, čovječnost, obogaćuje dušu i svijest te ono najvažnije – oslobađa nas egoizma i sebičnosti koje degradiraju svako ljudsko biće.

Znanost nas uči kako se čovjek rađa sa tri straha; strah od buke, strah od pada i strah od gladi. Upravo glad je fobija koja čovjeka prati kroz cijeli život i u nama  aktivira praiskonski nagon za preživljavanjem. Sa pojedinim ljudima taj strah vlada jače nego sa drugima pa oni postaju sakupljači – kupuju velike količine hrane, gomilaju zalihe za “crne dane” i trude se svim silama da produže rok trajanja tim proizvodima. No, na žalost, ne postoji mogućnost da se iko od nas osigura za duži vremenski period i koliko god nam se činilo da je hrana dostupna svima u manjem ili većem opsegu ne treba zaboraviti da glad nije stvar prošlosti.

Strah od gladi međutim nije pojedinačan, on postoji u svakom narodu pa tako i  našem.  U prošlosti, posebno tokom gladnih godina koje su došle ubrzo nakon završetka Drugog svjetskog rata  u Bosni i Hercegovini narod je bio poprilično neuhranjen i boležljiv  usljed oskudice što se posebno odrazilo na natalitet ali i sposobnost rada i privređivanja zajednice. Stoga se izrazito cjenila uhranjenost i punašnost, kada su to materijalne mogućnosti dopuštale, posebno kod mladih djevojaka, jer su one po narodnom poimanju bile pravi primjer životne snage  i dobrog zdravlja. Debele djevojke garantirale su majčinstvo, mogućnost za rađanje, ali i za rad. Kolika je bila opsjednutost debljinom u prošlosti dovoljno ilustruje izjava jedne nene koja se usprotivila izjavi kako današnje djevojke moraju biti vitke kako bi bile lijepe: “E, moj sinko, jel’ tako kad ti odeš kupiti jabuke da ćeš uvijek odabrat one velike i crvene  a nećeš uzeti one žute i male? Tako ti je i sa curama, valja samo ona koje ima. Te ima i na oku i na konaku”.

Isto tako krupni muškarci odavali su određenu sigurnost zbog svoje veličine i snage. Djeca su se hranila sa željom da budu debela, rumena u licu jer mršava djeca smatrana su bolesnim, od njih se nije ništa očekivalo. Istovremeno u razmišljanju  naroda debljina je podsvjesno održavala iluziju da se ima dovoljno hrane i na taj način se živjelo u pritajenom optimizmu. I danas se često čuje izjava “Neka nisi samo gladan” ili “Hvala Bogu ima se za pojesti i popit, a ostalog  će biti”u kojima se naslućuje tradicionalni  strah naroda od gladi i nestašice hrane.

tekst preuzet iz e-book Bosanska sofra:



Bosniak customs against evil eye

With the arrival of Turks and Islam in Bosnia, belief in the “evil eye” suddenly escalated, therefore in line with this whole series of rituals and beliefs about the protection and eliminating the negative effects of the “evil eyes” were developed.

“Evil eyes”, is a reflection of the negative energies of one's soul (psyche) triggered by uncontrolled emotions such as jealousy or a great admiration. It is believed that every man has this power even those blind, because the spell is created with the help of views and words. It is believed that the green eyes are evil eyes, especially if that person is born under the sign of Scorpio. This category includes persons who cut their nails with scissors, etc.


In the wedding procession one person carries a mirror to catch the rays of the sun and cast them on the bride and the guests, thereby protecting them from  the evil eye.

Universal word "Mašallah" ( ما شاء الله )

Mothers use amulets to protect their babies from the evil eye. Bosniaks use triangular pieces of silver or gold called Mašale. When someone compliments a Bosniak baby, they touch it and say „Mashallah“  to keep away the evil eye. In the original Arabic it means something like „what God wants will be“.

Grab Ass

If you are afraid that you could become a victim of spellbound eyes you then need to grab your bottom every time you meat a negative person.

Five fingers

There is also another way to eliminate the gaze of a person with spellbound eyes - one turns his right palm towards that person and looks at him/her through the fingers.


The mother would protect the child from spellbound eyes by plucking three hairs from underneath her armpit and placing them in a small bag made out of red cloth. She then sows that amulet onto the child's clothes.

Beads of turquoise

To protect the child against the evil eye, a beads of turquoise  is placed around his neck. This attracts and neutralizes any envious or evil looks. Blue beads of turquoise, glass, faience, or plastic are also frequently pinned to children's clothing in Bosnia, Turkey, and Greece.


Fear of evil eye

In the past, it was believed that all the living beings, especially the young and beautiful ones, could be bewitched by the look of a bad eye. Even mothers should not caress their babies for fear of casting a spell on them. For that reason, they used to put amulets on the child as soon as it was born or they blackened their forehead. Amulets were also attached to young animals, especially to milk cows. It was also believed that bad eyes, bewitchments and various supernatural forces were the causes of many misfortunes and diseases of men and domestic animals, so that even diseases were treated by black magic: by »salivanje strahe“, „gašenje ugljena“, etc.


Aberglaube von Bosnia

Die Bosniaken sehen in langen Fingernägeln eine große Sünde, für die man beim jüngsten Gericht zur Verantwortung gezogen wird.

In Bosnien darf eine Schwangere in der Nacht nie allein das Haus verlassen; muß sie es aber doch tun, so darf sie nicht vergessen, ein Stückchen Brot unter der rechten Achsel mitzunehmen, sonst wird sie das Opfer eines bösen Zaubers.

Wenn eine Frau im zwölften Jahre der Ehe noch kein Kind bekommen hat, so hilft ihr nach bosnischem Aberglauben erwähnte Zauber: Ein schwangeres Frauenzimmer muss einen Stein auf einem Birnbaum ( kruška jagodnjača) suchen, der zufällig auf dem Baume liegen geblieben, als jemand mit Steinwürfen reifende Früchte abschlug. Die Schwangere hat nun den Baum zu schütteln, aber dabei so geschickt sein, den Stein mit den Händen aufzufangen, damit er den Erdboden nicht berühre. Das Kleinod trägt sie nun im linken Schosszipfel ihres Rockhemdes zum Bache, füllt über den Stein hinüber einen Krug mit Wasser und geht heim.

Trifft eine schwangere Frau eine Schlange oder einen Fuchs, so wird ihr Kind im Leben Glück haben; trifft sie einen Hasen, so wird es moralisch verkommen und seinen Mitmenschen zum Schaden sein.



Vudù, zingara e araba magie

Si ritiene che il voodoo (Vudù), la magia zingara e quella araba sono le  tre più potenti magie del mondo. Ognuna di essi si basa sulla comunicazione diretta con gli spiriti che sono i promotori di incantesimi ed effetti magici.  



Secondo la tradizione araba ci sono 40 specie o forme di magia e 70 modi in cui i demoni attaccano gli esseri umani. Magia e demoni sono strettamenti legati e qualsiasi utilizzo di jinns, shaytan, ifrits per raggiungere obiettivi come quello che qualcuno inizia a amare o odiare qualcun'altro, chequalcuno si ammala o che divanta pazzo  rapressenta sihir o la magia. Gli sihir sono alcuni testi magici, talismani e nodi che vengono legati sul filo o sull'abbigliamento delle persone a causa dei quali si ha un effetto magico sulla persona. Succesivamente la consapevolezza delle persone cambia, cambia il loro modo di pensare e la loro vita, diventano improvvisamente malati, ecc...


Lo stregone arabo usa nella maggior parte dei casi una foto o un parte dell’abbigliamento della persona alla quale si desidera lanciare l’incantesimo, di seguito porta la foto o il pezettino dell’abbigliamento al cimitero dove lo seppelisce; in certi casi prende le unghie dei morti o il  sapone con il quale si lavavano e con questi  esegue la magia. Questi rituali e simili sono modi per conquistare i demoni che poi attaccano la persona il cui nome viene pronunciato dal mago durante il rituale.

L'effetto della magia nera si rivela nelle seguenti situazioni: se una persona è malata anche se nei controlli medici tutto sembra di essere a posto, se ha spesso  mal di testa, dolori nello: stomaco,  braccia e gambe, schiena, se ha la pressione al petto soprattutto al tramonto e di notte. Una persona che è sotto l'influenza della magia nera ha spesso gli incubi (sogna: serpenti, cimiteri, le sagome nere della gente, nel sonno ha una sensazione come se sta per cadere ...), ha molta paura, ha spesso improvvisi cambiamenti dell’umore, senza alcuna ragione inizia a piangere o a ridere, ha delle allucinazioni nei momenti difficili, vede anche i fantasmi nella stanza in cui si trova….


 In Bosnia la magia nera viene distrutta dal Hodža (prete musulmano) e dalle  Stravarke. Il hodža neutralizza la magia dicendo le preghiere dal Corano in modo che  sta sopra la persona incantata. Inoltre il hodža crea degli amuleti il cui scopo è quello di proteggere la persona da ogni influenza della magia nera.

Le Stravarke distruggono la magia nera eseguendo un rituale con il piombo o recitando le preghiere del Corano sopra la ciotola d'acqua. L'acqua deve essere presa da una fonte naturale. Il paziente deve consumare l'acqua 21 giorni di seguito e deve fare il bagno lei nel modo che la mischia con l’acqua calda nella quale si lava.

Secondo le statistiche, la migliore protezione dalla magia nera  secondo tutta la Bosnia ed anche altri paesi del Balcano sono gli amuleti fatti dai hodže. Hanno attribuito il più alto potere di azione e di protezione. Amuleto viene fatto specialmente per ogni uomo e di solito contiene alcune citazioni dal Corano o una preghiera intera. Amuletto viene indossato sul petto e ancora il suo potere dura per tutta la vita dell’individuo.



Liebeszauber in Bosnien

Noch heute trägt man zum Beispiel in Anatolien verstohlen Fledermausknochen als Liebeszauber bei sich, und in Bosnien hoffen junge Mädchen, die Liebe eines Burschen zu erregen, wenn sie ihn durch den durchlöcherten Flügel einer Fledermaus ansehen.

Zahlreich sind die Anwendungen der Fledermaus zum Liebeszauber in Bosnien. Man trägt ein solches Tier entweder bei sich, oder man schüttet einige Tropfen seines Blutes in ein Getränk, das man der Geliebten verabreicht und das auf diese Weise zum Liebestrank wird. Oder aber man befeuchtet ein Tuch mit Fledermausblut und legt es unter das Haupt oder das Kopfkissen der Person, deren Liebe man begehrt. Eine besondere Rolle spielt wiederum das Herz des Tieres, das, getrocknet, zu Pulver zerrieben und in ein zu verabreichendes Getränk geschüttet wird. In Bosnien und in der Herzegowina werden Haare der Tiere in Kaffee gegeben.

 In Velika Kladuša giebt die Maid dem Jünglinge heimlich drei Haare einer Fledermaus im Kaffee zu trinken. Auch wird es für sehr wirksam gehalten, wenn das Mädchen mit einer Fledermaus, die hier ebenfalls für ein blindes Tier gilt – sie heisst slijepi miš, die blinde Maus — den Burschen unbemerkt dreimal umkreist. Auf diese Weise wird er geblendet.

In Foča tödtet man die Fledermaus und lässt einige Tropfen des Blutes in den Kaffee desjenigen fallen, der bezaubert werden soll.

In Sarajevo sagen namentlich die Mädchen, dass jedes Haus glücklich sei, in welchem sicheine Fledermaus, ob lebend oder todt, befindet. Die Kaufleute hängen eine in Schildkrötenplatten gewickelte Fledermaus in ihrem Laden auf, damit ihnen die Kunden wie blind zuströmen.


Bosnischen Aberglauben - Bösen Blick

Der Urok oder Zazor (Verschrien werden) ist bei allen Frauen der Südslaven sehr gefürchtet. Die Bosniaks Frauen machen hier keine Ausnahme, da es sich hier, wie gesagt, um eine altslavische Sitte handelt.  Die Mütter schläfern ihre Kinder mit folgender, den Urok bannender Formel ein:

San u bešu, nesan mimo bešu.

Rok u bešu, urok mimo bešu.

Uroci ti po gori hodili, travu pasli,

 Sa  lista vodu pili,

Studen kamen pod glave metali,

Tebi, sine, nista ne nahudili. Dušmani ti pod nogama bili,

Kano đogi čavli i potkove. Veledalin amin.

Das heißt zu deutsch:

Schlaf sei in der Wiege, Schlaflosigkeit hinaus,

Ruhe in der Wiege, Urok hinaus;

Urok soll in die Berge gehen,

Gras fressen und vom Blatt Wasser trinken.

Ein kalter Stein möge unter seinem Kopf sein.

Dir, Söhnchen, soll er keinen Schaden machen.

Deine Feinde mögen Unter deinen Füßen sein,

wie dem Pferd die Nägel und Hufeisen.  

Veledalin amin. 


Genocide against Bosniaks in Visegrad 1992-95

Since some civilizations or cultures are simply more barbaric than others, and since these are multiethnic – and different ethnic groups will naturally want to fight each other – such conflicts consist of assaults on civilians, bizarre masquerades, acts of unspeakable cruelty, and outright genocide, as in Bosnia and Rwanda.

Mary H.Moran - Liberia: the violence of democracy, 2006.




Molitvom protiv ovisnosti

Jedno od najvećih zala kojim se susreće sve veći broj ljudi jeste kockanje, odlasci u kazina i neprestano gubljenje novca. Uzroci takvom problemu i krajnoj slabosti čovjeka ponajviše se mogu tražiti u ljudskoj pohlepi i lijenosti, uvjerenju da se sa malo truda može doći do velikog novca. Naravno, svaki posjetioc kazina za sebe misli da je sretnik koji će podići veliku svotu novca i tako se preko noći obogatiti. No, da u tome ima istine sva kazina već odavno bi prestala da postoje jer bi svojim vlasnicima bila krajnje neprofitabilna.

Ovisnost o kockanju sigurno spada u red psihički (duhovni) oboljenja i prema ovom problemu treba se postavit kao i prema svakom drugom obliku ovisnosti.  A ona se može liječiti i vjerskim putem, uz malo dobre volje samog ovisnika.

Prema kazivanju stravarke Bilke svaki ovisnik o kockanju može se osloboditi svoje destruktivne ovisnosti praktikujući vrlo jednostavan ritual sastavljen od izgovaranja molitvi u periodu od 41 dan tojest 41 noć. U tom intervalu on mora izgovoriti sljedeće dove i molitve:


-dova Rihul-Ahmer


-Ihlas (tri puta)


Prije nego što započne sa izgovaranjem osoba mora dati nijet sadržan u sljedećim riječima: Dragi Allahu, molim ti se da od mene otkloniš svaku želju i potrebu za kockanjem. Usmjeri me na pravi put i zaštiti od džinskog i šejtanskog zla.

Dok traje ciklus molitve, tokom 41 dan, doći će do nestajanje želje ka kockanju i posjećivanju kazina. Ukoliko se nakon nekoliko mjeseci ponovo javi želja za kockanjem stravarka Bilka savjetuje da se ponovi  ritual od 41 noć.


Fortune telling with forty-one beans - العرافة في الفول

One fortune telling practice is said to be an exclusively Bosniaks one in that it is not practised by bosnian Serbs, bosnian Croats or others. Further, it is said to have an Islamic religious basis and thus to be the truest of all techniques. This practice is fortune telling with beans which is said to have been done by the Prophet's daughter, Fatima, and thus to come "from God".  (Some Bosniaks denounce this as a mistaken belief but it is a widely held one. )


Fortune telling with beans (favomancy) is carried out in secrecy and talked of in whispers. The fortune teller or faladžija holds forty-one dried, white navy beans in her hands and murmurs a Quranic verse into them. They are then thrown onto a cloth and arranged into three columns of small bean clusters. As in the coffee cup, one side is the male, the other the female. The beans are thrown and arranged three times and the fortune told from them.


After the third arrangement the subject of the fortune leaves the room with a bean in each hand and one in her mouth. The first word she then hears is interpreted by the teller as having a certain significance for the future. In contrast to the coffee reading technique which I witnessed numerous times and was able to learn the details of, I witnessed the bean reading only twice and found it difficult to learn the details of the process from the teller who treated it with some secrecy. As in other traditional techniques, the teller Is not deemed to possess any particular power although she may have greater or lesser ability or "knowledge".


Bosnischen Liebesmagie

Die bosnier Mädchen zaubern sich folgendermassen ihren Liebsten herbei: Abends vor dem Akscham, sobald Sterne den Himmel bedecken, erwählt sich das Mädchen ein blinkendes Sternlein auf jener Seite, woselbst sich ihr Geliebter (Aschik) befindet, und in den Stern blickend, sagt sie Folgendes:


»Gottes Friede mit dir, mein Stern, bringe mir ein Geschenk:

des Geliebten Polster und die Weltdecke (den Himmel).

Du goldenes Schwesterlein, wo immer du meinen Mujo  findest,

erobere mir sein Herz und bring' es mir!

Nach diesen Worten berührt sie mit der Hand die Erde, und dieselbe anstarrend, setzt sie fort:

»Schwarze Mutter Erde, dieser Zauberspruch vollziehe sich weder an dir, noch an mir, weder am bebauten Garten, noch an den gesetzten Obstbäumen, weder an den gelben Schafen, noch an den Kühen, sondern an Mujo und Mujos Herzen, an seiner Leber, seinen siebenundsiebzig Nerven, achtundachtzig Gelenken, neunundneunzig Gebeinen und an seinem Geiste und Verstande und an seinem Herzen und dem Hauptnerv, an dem das Herz ihm hängt; wo immer hin er seine Schritte lenken mag, denke er an mich. Kommt er aber nicht zu mir, um tausend und ein Wort mit mir zu wechseln, möge er zugrunde gehen, verenden.

Daraufhin haucht sie dreimal nach jener Seite, wo ihr Liebster weilt.





Weilt das Mädchen im Garten, reisst sie einen Grashalm aus der Erde und sagt : »Wo ich schreite, schlucke ich Gräser: hinter mir wickelt sich die Seide ab (blickt hinter sich) ; aus dem Munde tropfen Perlen ( schaut vor sich hin) ; vorne bin ich eine ich eine Vila.  Die ganze Welt hab' ich verhext: am Wege den Wanderer, im Glücke den Glücklichen, am meisten jedoch meinen Zukünftigen !



Bosnian Prophecy

During the last decade of the 20th century many astrologers were announcing the coming of the age of Aquarius which should bring peace and advancement to humanity and it should forever close the doors on the dark age of the Pisces which was full of wars and misfortunes. Entering the 21st century and the long awaited era of Aquarius nothing has changed, on the contrary the whole world entered an even bleaker and negative era. What do the old Bosnian prophecies say about all of this?


Announcement of war and crimes


All of the prophecies coming from the Bosnian people are of an oral character, they were recited traditionally as a warning from the elders to the younger generations. It is interesting that they are full of negative predictions which talk about accidents, wars, misfortunes. They never determine the time of any of the events, however it can be easily discovered by analysis. The most interesting predictions are those that deal with the Bosnian people. An old Imam from Velika Kladuša foretold during the 70's "the rule of a Woman Jinn which is more wicked than the Male Jinn"- "When the female Jinn starts ruling, said the old Imam, our people will disperse around the world, and we will long to see each other!"


Aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) from Serbia and Montenegro which culminated with the genocide on the Bosniaks in Srebrenica forced millions of people to abandon their homes and try their luck in other countries. Another harbinger of the war is the sentence "When the world becomes red, horrible times will await Bosnia!" In this sentence the symbolic term "red" means when the roofs of the houses become red (red bricks). The economic boom in Bosnia which took place during the second half of the past decade enabled the building of better houses and it also changed and upgraded the way houses were built.


"Neighbours will start hating each others, brothers will hate each others, there will be no shame, children will be giving birth to children", foretold the great prophecies announcing the coming of a great hatred whose consequences could have been seen in the media that reported of the great atrocities that the Serbian army undertook throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The second part of the prophecy dealt with the moral debasement of the human race, the rise of juvenile delinquency, crime, no moral role models.


Judgement day or nuclear war?


Today the folk wisdom claims that the world is "cleansed" every 40 years, i.e. there is a big war or a disaster that sweeps away millions of human lives. And this will continue until judgment day. According to the predictions of the people, "40 years before the judgement day three heavenly gifts will disappear from the Earth- bees, sheep and wheat!" The description of the last day on Earth, or the world as we know it are summed up in the following dramatic sentences: "A multitude of hot stones will fall on the Earth and it will melt and scorch its surface." We can forebode that here we are dealing with a nuclear disaster or another disaster that will afflict the Earth because the Bosnian prophecy continues with the following words: "Not all people will perish, from this disaster new people will emerge, shorter and instead of two eyes they will only have one. Because the sun will beat down mercilessly these people will run underground where they will have some peace and quite." By interpreting these omens we can reach a conclusion that people could suffer some sort of radiation because of some sort of disaster and that their bodies could mutate or evolve into a different and deformed form. The prophecy also foretells our future that will take place in underground cities whose blueprints and plans are already among us.  




Bosnian Prophecy

The collapse of capitalism, recession, headless wars in the Middle East, rise of China, Europe weakening, are only some of the signs of the coming of a new age in which the domination of western states ends and new world leaders emerge.


China- rulers of the world

According to the prophecies of the 20th century in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Bosnian people claimed that the "yellow ants" (Chinese) will rule in the 21st century. According to that prophecy in the 20th century the white race (white ants) was supposed to rule, which was reflected in the rule of USSR and USA. As we know USSR vanished begining 90's of the previous century. Judging by the claims of the elderly Bosniaks the time of American domination is at its end, and it is clearly shown in the last turbulent decade in which the USA led by two disastrous presidents, Bush and Obama, made a lot of bad judgments and actions, whose repercussions are being felt now.




Iran- military power


The USA, in the last 10 years, created an ideal environment that promoted Iran into a single military and nuclear power in the Middle East. Attacking Iraq, the USA weakened Iran's greatest adversary. Today Iraq is a country doomed to internal division and military and economic powerlessness. Attacking Afghanistan, a traditional ally of Iran, made things even worse and convinced the Afghan people that Taliban's are the best solution that they have at their disposal. The Taliban are objectively the only victors in this war. Current attempts of the USA and Europe to create a similar scenario in Syria weren't fruitful. With such an attempt the USA made another bad move and created an adversary from a former ally that will certainly seek to ally itself with Iran. All in all they created an ideal environment for the creation of a powerful Shia union that will return Iran on the throne of military power. A similar thing is happening with Egypt. With that, we come to the Islamic prophecy of Israel's final destruction whose end was announced. "Israel will exist for 70 years and then it will be destroyed by Allah's will", claims the old prophecy. With that the Middle East would be finally free of the culprit that created all the unrest in that part of the world.


USA politic:Pay and kill


As is known the USA is a country that functions on the principle of its own self interest. The country that has enough money to pay for their protection and propaganda like Israel and Saudi Arabia will be spared of their 'democratic' judgment. Even though Israel has been committing horrible crimes against Palestine for over 40 years, destroying their houses and enlarging its territory, the "Democratic USA" has been blind to this fact because of all the money that the Jews are making for them. Every word that the American president utters in Israel's defence is well paid and probably costs several millions.

The second example is Saudi Arabia which is also a large treasury, and as long as the royal family keeps buying the USA off, none of the American politicians will utter one word against violation of human rights or religious fanaticism. The third example is Turkey. As long as it is serving the interests of USA and NATO it is allowed to wage its war against the Kurd population just like Israel is allowed to wage war against Palestine.





According to legend, Ajvaz-Dedo prayed to Allah for 40 days, and on the 40th day, the rock cracked apart.

About 6km or 7km from the village of Prusac in central Bosnia is Ajvatovica, the oldest religious gathering site of Muslims in the Balkans. The faithful go there -- as well as to the surrounding towns of Donji Vakuf, Gornji Vakuf, and Bugojno -- every summer. This past June (2010)  marked the 500th anniversary of the key event.

Ajvatovica was named for a devoted believer, Ajvaz-Dedo, who, according to popular legend, lived in the 15th century. At the time, Prusac had no water, prompting constant searches for it. It was Ajvaz-Dedo who found a good spring, and worked to bring the water to the village. In his way was a massive rock, 74m high and 30m wide. Legend has it Ajvaz-Dedo prayed to Allah every early morning for 40 days, and on the 40th day, the rock cracked apart and the spring water poured in, bringing much needed relief to the villagers.

The Ajvatovica event is a custom of Muslims in Bosnia, and is believed to be derived from the old Bogumil prayers for rain, fertility and protection of summer crops. Bogumils were a religious sect prevalent in Bosnia before the occupation by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. Ajvatovica always falls in June and lasts for almost the whole month. The event was banned in 1946 by the then Communist authorities. Restored in 1990, it has been regularly held ever since.




Mistična Bosna: Dobri

Po cijeloj Bosni i Hercegovini vjeruje se kako se dobri ljudi, sveti ljudi ili evlije, nakon smrti pretvaraju u Dobre te noću ustaju iz svojih mezara i mole se Allahu. Ovdje nije riječ o nikakvim lampirima niti džinima već o ruhovima (duhovima) pobožnih ljudi. Zbog tog uvjerenja narod često ostavlja u turbetima vode u ibricima i čiste peškire kako bi Dobri mogli obaviti abdest i obrisati se. To se čini radi sevapa i želje da im Dobri iz zahvalnosti pomognu u nekoj nevolji. I danas se može čuti priča kako su turbetari, oni koji čuvaju turbeta, zaklinjali se da su više puta ujutro u turbetima zaticali vodom poliven pod i peškir premješten na neko drugo mjesto.

Bošnjačka predanja prepuna su različitih priča o Dobrima. Ono što je posebno zanimljivo jeste da u tim legendama postoje Dobri oba spola kojima se ukazuje isto poštovanje.

Legenda iz Srebrenika pripovijeda kako je u selu Sladna živjela pobožna Rahima (Raha), žena velikog srca i sevapli ruke. Živjela je skromnim životom u maloj kućici preživljavajući od svog rada i dviju krava koje je posjedovala. No to je nikada nije spriječavalo da ode pomoći gdje je god trebalo ne gledajući na vjeru i naciju nevoljnika. Tako je živjela sve do kraja života. Predanje navodi da se nakon Rahimine smrti na njenom mezaru sedme noći po ukopu pojavio nur, obasjavajući sve okolo sebe punih narednih 40 dana. U narodu se brzo pronio glas o tom nadasve mističnom događaju što je protumačeno znakom kako je njena dobrota i velika bosanska duša nastavila živjeti i nakon nje pa joj narod iz zahvalnosti podiže turbe koje se i danas može pronaći u Srebreniku. Narod čvrsto vjeruje da upravo Rahimino turbe štiti Srebrenik od svakog zla.

U mezarima u Šehovini sahranjen je i učeni Salih Opijač koji je umro 1145. (1732.) godine. Predanje kazuje da je Opijač bio Dobri tojest sveti čovjek (evlija) i da je veći dio vremena provodo u kući gdje je na pastekiji sjedio i molio se Allahu. Njemu je svijet sa svih strana dolazio i u raznim nevoljama i bolestima od njega pomoć i savjet tražio. On je svakom pomagao i zapise pisao, a svakog ludog čovjeka kojeg bi mu doveli da ga liječi izlječio bi.

Opijač je imao mačka koji je stalno sjedio kod njega na pastekiji. Legenda pripovijeda da je ovaj mačak šejhovom nadnaravnom moći (kerametom), našao nestalo dijete neke šejhove kmetice i kući joj ga doveo. Priča se kako je mačak uginuo isti dan kad je Opijač umro i da je sahranjen u drugom mezaru uz njegov.


Narodni kalendar Bosne

»-Takav ti je Hamsin, draga, i da ga nije stid starije sestre Zehmerije, zamrzo bi, moja Čamilovce, lonac za vatrom i ždrijebe u kobili« — odvraćala je majka ispraćajući našu konu.
(Ham-dagova osveta i druge priče, Muhamed Kondžić)

Takvim, što ga uređuje autor, zadržao je ove uobičajene narodne dane:

Erbeini su, kao što i samo ime kaže, prvih 40 dana zime, brojeći ih od zimskog solsticija (21 decembra – 30 januara).

Hamsini su posljednji 50 dana zime do pred početak proljeća; nastavljaju se odmah na erbeine (31 januara-20 marta).

Zemherije su najstudeniji dani u godini.

Džemre prvo, drugo i treće pada na 1, 8 i 15 dan ulaska Sunca u zviježđe Ribe. To su dani kada počne u našim krajevima kopniti snijeg i osjetnije popuštati studen.
Postoji narodna pitalica koja kaže: Tri brata, sinovi zvijezda; jedan zrakom leti, drugi vodom pliva, treći licem zemlji pada. /Tri džemre, tri jugovine.

Baba traje 7 dana i to od 20 do 27 dana ulaska Sunca u zviježđe Riba. Po narodnoj predaji tih dana pada ostatak snijega sa neba, obično u krupnijim i mokrim pahuljicama.

Sultan Nevruz je prvi dan proljeća, dan kada Sunce ulazi u zviježđe Ovna. To je prvi dan dželalijske odnosno perzijske godine. Na ovaj dan je u nedjelju 16 marta 623 g. Jul. Ili 18 zulhidždžeta 10 godine po Hidžri održao Muhamed, po povratku sa oprosnog hadždža, u Gadiri Hammu (ovaj se dan zove javmul-gadir) svoju hutbu u kojoj je, kako vjeruju Šiiti, odredio Aliju za svoga zamjenika. Taj dan su se u carskoj Turskoj iz dvorskih staja prvi put i svečano izvodili državni jahaći konji.

Nisan je sirijsko ime aprila, mjeseca u kom najviše pada kiša. Naš narod od 1-30 nisana skuplja kišnicu za razne lijekove, jer se vjeruje da je ona u to vrijeme najčišća, budući da još nema u zraku prašine.

Sittei-Sevr ili Goveđa zima je prvih 6 dana ulaska Sunca u zviježđe Bika.To su, kako narod veli, posljednji trzaji zime: hladan sjeverac nekad praćen kišom.

Rozi Hidr je 6 maja, ili Jurjev, kako ga u Sarajevu zovu. To je praktički početak ljeta, od koga se na selu broje dani ljeta.

Aliđun je 2 avgusta. To je najtopliji dan i sredina ili prekretnica ljeta (do Alidžuna s prahom od Aliđuna s kalom — • veli narod).

Rozi Kasum je 8 novembra.


Bošnjačke uspavanke

Uspavanke su pjesme koje se pjevaju uz bešiku. One čine najljepšu građu naših narodnih pjesama. Često u njima bošnjačka mati želi od voljenog djeteta odagnati uroke i loš kismet a privući mu zdravlje, sreću i miran san.

Lila, buba, san te privario,

San te vara, majka te ne vara,

San t' u bešu, uroke pod bešu,

Uroke ti voda odnijela,

Za velike st'jene zanijela.


Majka sinu tanku košu kroji,

Košu kroji, godinice broji.

Koliko je u košulji žica,

On'liko ti, sine, godinica!



Predaje o Ajvaz dedi


Hajvaz-dede je živio u Pruscu u središnjoj Bosni bez ikakva imetka, no kao vrlo skroman i pobožan čovjek. Kako nije imao ni kuće ni kućišta, uze ga u svoj konak hadži-Nazif Ćišija, jedan od uglednika toga mjesta. Hajvaz-deda je tu provodio život u pobožnosti. Pored davanja savjeta onima koji su mu se obraćali, usput je i liječio ljude. Sve je to on uradio za Božji hator! Kad bi mu ponestalo trava od kojih je pravio mehleme i šerbete, on bi se sam uputio u šumu, poveo bi mazge h. Nazifove da u šumi nasiječe drva i da ih dotjera kući. Hadži- Nazif to od njega nije tražio, ali je on htio i s te strane da bude koristan. Međutim, h. Nazif se uputio na hadž. Pri polasku je naredio ženi i ukućanima da paze na Ajvaz-dedu. Oni su ga i pazili. Jednog jutra hadžinici se javi Ajvaz-deda sa zahtjevom da mu ispeče halvu da je ponese u šumu. Hadžinicu to ugodno iznenadi, jer tako što deda nikad nije zahtjevao. Ona se dade na posao. Pazila je da joj tirit ne zagori i kad je halva bila gotova, stavi je u savatli sahan s poklopcem i pospe je još i sitnim šećerom da bude primamljivija. Zamota sahan u čistu bošču i predade je Hajvaz-dedi. Uveče obje mazge natovarene do ušiju suhim drvima vratiše se kući, ali Hajvaz-dede s njima nije bilo. Domaćica se jako zabrinula. Cijelu noć nije imala mira i spokoja! Zato, u zoru uputi starijeg sina s dvojicom momaka u šumu da potraže Hajvaz-dedu. Oni se oko podne vratiše kući s kara-haberom, da su ga mrtvog kod nekog izvora u šumi našli. Vijest uzbudi Prusac. Ljudi jatimice pođoše u šumu da vide šta se to s Hajvaz-dedom dogodilo! Nađoše ga kod izvora koji iz pećinske pukotine izviraše. Kako kod njega ne nađoše sude u kojima je halvu odnio, pomisliše da je opljačkan i, vjerovatno, i ubijen. Tijelo temeljito pretražiše ne bi li otiske od udaraca našli. Ali, ne nađoše ništa sumnjivo. Po nahođenju ondašnje pruščanske uleme, trebalo ga je, kao šehita, zakopati ondje mu je tijelo nađeno, što uz uobičajene obrede i učiniše. To se zbilo na dan Arefata, na dan kada hodočasnici iz svih krajeva islamskog svijeta to sveto mjesto kraj Meke o Kurban-bajramu posjećuju. Ali kada se hadži- Nazif četrdeset dana iza smrti Hajvaz- dedine s dalekog puta vratio kući, u njegovim se seharama nađoše i sudi izgubljeni prilikom smrti Hajvaz-dedine. Hadži-Nazif je tvrdio da mu je te sude napunjene halvom na Arefatu uručio Hajvaz-dedo, rekavši: -Na domu su svi zdravo, a ovo ti je dar od njih! Iščeznuo je među hadžije i ja ga više nijesam vidio! (obznanjen) keramet Hajvaz-dedin. Pruščani su mu podigli i turbe i tekiju koje,u određeno vrijeme,  posjećuje svijet iz cijele Bosne.

Kasida Ajvaz Dede

Ajvaz Dedo govori:
Nimac Savu prehodi,
Banjoj Luci dohodi
I u Luku uhodi,
Te u Jajce dohodi
Kostajnicu prohodi,
I u Prusac dohodi
Deset dana ne budi.
Njega Ajvaz izgoni.
Ajvaz Dedo govori:
Nimac Bosnu osvoji,
U Saraj'vo dohodi.
Sarajevo kavga bi,
Kabanice krv boji,
Konjima krv do kičice
A junacima do mišice.
Mart je vada, Jurjev kavga.
I Ajvaz Dedo govori:
Ovu kaside ko uči
Nek' Dedi rahmet prouči,
Nek' se niko ne muči!
Ajvaz Dedo govori.




Gretings from Bosnia!

Bosnia is famous for its generous hospitable people, its exotic architectural and historical monuments, its rich folklore and handicrafts, and colourful bazaars. With its superb scenery, unpolluted rivers, mediaeval tombstones and many rare beauty spots and contrasts, it could well be termed a gem of European tourism.



Bosnian lampir



Bosnian name for vampire is lampir (lepir or lampijer) . Term coming from the folks name of the butterfly – lepir. The according Bosnian beliefs death man from grave,  who is become vampire, went to out in shape butterfly and fly.

 Due to the lack of medical knowledge ages ago, vampires were often the blame for disease and death. That was the case with the lampir. Disease was what usually triggered the appearance of a lampir in towns, if disease swept through the community it was more often than not attributed to lampirs if no other cause could be found.

The first person stricken by the disease and killed by it was labeled as a vampire, and those who were died after were all considered to be victims of the original vampire, and said to be incredibly dangerous for they could further spread death to the town.

In 1879 when the Austrians took control of Bosnia, officials made note of many cases of people exhuming corpses and burning them as lampirs (a practice common throughout parts of Europe), since fire was the one and only way to destroy this vampire. The Austrians, not agreeing with such practices, later banned them.

This fear didn’t just exist in Bosnia hundreds of years ago, it was also prominent in more recent years. In an article written in 1923 by M. Edith Durham, an English anthropologist studying in Bosnia, reported her experience:

“A recent case was when there was an outbreak of typhus [in 1906] … A young man was first to die. His wife sickened and swore that her husband returned in the night and sucked her blood and said, ‘He is a lampir.’ The neighbours, filled with fear, begged the authorities to permit them to dig up and burn his body. Permission was refused, and panic ensued. The lampir was seen and heard by many people and there were 15 deaths.”



Gaza became the largest concentration camp in the history of mankind which lasts for over 40 years. With the world watching, Israel expelled millions of Palestinians from their homes, continuing their Nazi policy and killing innocent people without regard whether it is a small child, a woman or an old man. For them the Palestinians are a people that need to perish and without a doubt in that regard they are copying Hitler and Nazi Germany- anyone who watches the news will notice that Israel usually kills ten Palestinians, with no regards of the gender or age, for every solider they lose.


Bosanske narodne pjesme

Džanan viče svojim Bošnjacima:

-Djeco moja od Bosne Bošnjaci!

Kad udremo kroz ordiju carsku,

svaki dobru  ćeru izgubite a preda se oči oborite

Ovaki ćemo adet zametnuti

Svak se tomu čudu začudio

Kakav je ovo adet u Bošnjaka.

(narodna pjesma iz Foče)


Vidovita Vava

Najveća vidovnjakinja bivše Jugoslavije bila je Vidovita Vava koja potječe iz Bosanskog Novog. Rođena je 1925.godine kao jedno od dvanaestero djece majke Sultanije i oca Murata. Imala je osam sestara i četvoricu braće od kojih ni jedan muški potomak nije preživio dvanaestu godinu. Potjecala je od izrazito religiozne i obrazovane bošnjačke familije, koja je bila spoj dviju najbogatijih familija tog kraja Cerića i Kapetanovića.

Iako se navodi da se Vava zvala Dubravka to nije točan podatak posebno ukoliko uzmemo u obzir da je dolazila iz pobožne bošnjačke familije te je lako dokučiti da je njeno ime promjenjeno usljed nekih događanja. Sličan primjer imamo i sa našom poznatom pjevačicom Silvanom Armenulić koja se zapravo zvala pravim imenom Zilha Bajrektarević.

Nesretna sudbina je htjela da već u petoj godini ostane bez oca Murata, i možda je upravo baš taj težak gubitak utjecao da joj se počnu pojavljivati vizije budućnosti. Drugi svjetski rat je provela kao partizanka i baš zbog toga mnogo je voljela bivšu zajedničku državu Jugoslaviju. Veliki dio života provela je u Beogradu gdje je i umrla 2006.godine. Udavala se dva puta, prvi put za srbijanca Dragišu Burića a drugi put za Čeha uglednog Vojislava Melku koji je bio inžinjer. Iz prvog i drugog braka dobila je po sina.  


Njena klijentela bili su kako pripadnici ex Ju estrade, među kojima je bila i Lepa Brena, pa sve do domaćih ali i ponekih inozemnih političara. Jedan od njenih blistavih trenutaka je i onaj kada je predsjednik  Gabona poslao avion po nju da bi mu bila počasna gošća dvije sedmice. Iz Gabona se Vava vratila sa mnoštvom afričkih figurica koje je dobila na poklon od predsjednikove familije.

U vrijeme devedesetih nije mogla izbjeći kontakte sa pripadnicima srbijanske političke i vojne elite pa postoje predaje kako je ratnom zločincu Arkanu na njegovo inzistiranje prorekla nasilnu smrt, supruzi balkanskog Hitlera Miri Marković najavila je pad režima i neslavan kraj, itd.


Sending back the spell

Traditionally in Bosnia and Herzegovina the spiritual healers, stravarke, bule and hodžas, annul all those psychological and physical problems that can be caused by negative energy (black magic) by writing zapise (notes), hamajlije (amulets), by spirituality (da'ira) or salivanje strahe (melting lead). However, the effects of black magic can be neutralised by certain exorcist rituals that are specific to Bosnian magic. In the ritual all the power of the spiritual healer comes to the forefront, where the healer, without coming into contact with the patient, annuls the negative energy and sends it back to the one who created it by simply using the patients name and surname.

Since the old days in Bosnia there was a rule that when a patient's medical results claim that he is healthy but he still feels ill, that then it is time to visit a spiritual healer. Today the belief in the power of magic is similar to that one of the old days. The only thing that has changed are the names for the occult processes, and instead of the term sihr or black magic, evil eyes the terms negative energy is used, and instead of ograma, nagaza the term astral attack is used, etc. When a spell is cast at someone, then that person changes its behaviour quickly, all of a sudden it loves or hates a certain person, falls ill, divorces or experiences a series of accidents both business or family related.

Stravarka Nisveta B. from Zenica is one of the people who has a lot of experience when it comes to Bosnian magic, its disadvantages and its benefits if it isn't misused. Besides being known for the ritual of salivanje strahe (melting lead) she is very successful in falanje u grah or throwing beans. Her specialty is neutralising black magic and returning it to the sender.

-Black magic can be returned to the sender in a few ways. In my work I use the ritual with chicken egg and lime (Calcium oxide). The ritual is best performed during sunset, between 17h and 22h.

Nisveta places a half of kilo of lime in a metal dish and places an egg in the middle. Before she continues with the more aggressive part of the ritual she finishes her religious washing (ablution) and reads a couple of verses from the Qur'an such as Fatiha, Ikhlas, Falaq, Nass, Jinn, Mohammed and Ya'sin. After reading the mentioned verses, Nisveta blows towards three corners of her room, the fourth corner is left intact to serve as an astral portal through which the negative energy will go back to its sender.
After she has finished with the part consisting of prayers stravarka Nisveta pours a glass of water on the lime then takes a wooden stick which she uses to stir the mixture in a circle, around the egg, the mixture is stirred until the egg bursts because of the heat of the lime. While she stirs the lime Nisveta repeats the exorcist formula:
"Dear Allah, as the egg cooks in the lime so also the enemy of XX (here the name of the patient and his parents needs to be said) cooks in pain and agony. Let the magic be returned to the one who made it and who sent it!"
The moment when the egg bursts, the ritual is finished. The black magic has left the spellbound patient and has returned to the sender.

Sometimes the egg bursts in the first ten minutes of the ritual but more often it happens after half an hour to an hour. The success of the ritual is usually dependent on the person that is performing it. It is necessary to achieve a perfect focus, calmness and complete emersion into the ritual. The ritual is done with God's help and belief that only with His will the evil can be banished. For that reason it is necessary to achieve a mind and body state that resembles the one of an actor. If that is achieved often tears come to one's eyes. In the end it is a reliable sign that the ritual will be successful.
The witch or wizard immediately feel the effects of the ritual on themselves. It is manifested in smaller or bigger reactions depending on the strength of the black magic that they just created. If it's a weaker form of magical effect then the witch will usually have uncontrollable fits of laughter or crying, insomnia, bloated stomach while in the case of stronger spells she can experience serious health issues or even delirium.


Sevdalinke - Bosnian love songs

The most typical form of urban music in Bosnia is the sevdalinka or love-song. (The name is derived from the Turkish word sevda - love - but in the Bosnian sense it has come to mean a yearning, hopeless, and painful love, doomed, never to be consummated). The broad, ornamented melodies often use oriental scales and chromatic inflections, with a free and flexible rhythm and sweeping arches of melody.

The lyrics speak of star-crossed lovers, faith or betrayal and breathe an atmosphere of regret and resignation. There are tales, possibly somewhat exaggerated, of listeners who were so moved by a particularly impassioned performance that they left the room and shot themselves out of grief. The origins of sevdalinke lie in the interaction of the musical forms that the Turkish invaders brought with them with the ballads and lyric songs of the Slavs that they found there.

Many of the Bosnians accepted Islam much more readily than did the other inhabitants of southeastern Europe, possibly because they had been Bogomils, a Christian sect proclaimed as heretical and attacked by both Eastern and Western churches. As a result the towns of Bosnia became centres of Islamic culture, and it is believed that some oriental religious melodies known as ilahije were adopted by the townspeople and fitted with new lyrics to become sevdalinke. This does not mean that all sevdalinke were introduced from the East. Many sevdalinke show typically Slav melodic formulae and cadential patterns, and the melody of the celebrated "Kad ja pođoh na Benbašu". which has been proclaimed the unofficial anthem of Sarajevo.

Each of the towns of Bosnia or Herzegovina has its own sevdalinka tradition, and their subjects relate to their home-town's particular quirks of history or geography. Zvornik, for example, on the River Drina between Bosnia and Serbia, was was known as the Gate of Bosnia and was, in the time of Turkish rule, the point from which armies were despatched to put down revolts and uprisings in Serbia. Consequendy, many of the sevdalinke from Zvomik deal with loss and with lovers who are never to meet again. One famous song says: "The Drina flows from hill to hill, not with rain or while snow, but with the tears of the maidens from Zvornik.

In contrast, Sarajevo, the capital of the province, was the home of rich land owners and merchants who carefully guarded the honour and marriage prospects of their daughters by keeping them hidden away from undesirable suitors. So many Sarajevske sevdalinke speak of thwarted love. The story goes that young women, forbidden to meet or even see their lovers, would sing of their love through the barred windows of their walled gardens to the young men strolling in the dusk through the narrow lanes of the city. The following is a typical lyric:

A red rose has blossomed

In the lane, there is but one left.

Through that lane my sweetheart passes

And with his horse he tramples the flowers.

Let him, O let him trample them

If he but pass this way more often.

Traditionally sevdalinke were performed to the accompaniment of the saz, a stringed instrument of Iranian origin with a pear-shaped body and long neck. Ideally the singer would also be his own accompanist (women rarely if ever were acquainted with instrumental technique, save for the tambourine-like daire, although they were and are frequently valued as singers). The sound of the saz is  quiet and contemplative and fits the mood of sevdalinke perfectly, but it is a dying art and in Bosnia before the war there were perhaps only thirty sazlije, mostly of the older generation. Among the most notable of the singers were Hasim Muhamerović, Kadir Kurtagić, Emina Ahmedhodžić and Muhamed Mešanović- Hamić, some of whom were also sazlije.

Far more common these days is the performance of the same songs to the backing of a typical folk orchestra of accordion, violin, clarinet and guitar, with harmonies influenced by (but not identical to) Western models, and less rhythmic subtlety, but retaining the supple and mournful beauty typical of these songs. The old sazlije look down on this style, but there is no doubt that performers such as Safet lsović, Hanka Paldum, Nedžad Salković, Zaim Imamović,  the late Himzo Polovina and others are part of the long and sophisticated tradition.



Bosnian name for vampire is lampir (lepir or lampijer) . Term coming from the folks name of the butterfly – lepir. The according Bosnian beliefs death men from grave,  who is become vampire, went to out in shape butterfly and fly.

A Bosniaks term for "vampire," seen most often during periods of severe epidemics, one of several types of undead in the region. Edith Durham, an English anthropologist, reported her experience in Bosnia in a 1923 article for the journal Man: „A recent case (told me in 1906) was when there was an outbreak of typhus. ... A young man was first to die. His wife sickened and swore that her husband had returned in the night and sucked her blood, and said, 'He is a lampir!' The neighbors, filled with fear, begged the authorities to permit them to dig up and burn his body. Permission was refused and a panic ensued. The lampir was seen and heard by many people and there were fifteen deaths. It would be interesting to know how many of these died because they believed they must die, owing to the lampir.


Turbeta po Bosni i Hercegovini


Na oko 5 km južno od Kotor-Varoši je jedno obično drveno turbe sa tri kubure u unutrašnjosti, bez natpisa, a predaja kaže da su tu sahranjena trojica braće koji su uporedo išli i sva trojica poginuli. Kod ovog turbeta se svake godine na Aliđun održavaju dove.



Idući iz Lukavice za Tilavu, u Topliku, s lijeve strane do ceste postoje podori turbeta. Danas se samo vidi podzid turbeta i iznad toga jedan osmokutni nišan bez turbana i natpisa. Narodna predaja ovo turbe pripisuje bratu kneza Pavla Radinovića, čiji se grob nalazi nedaleko odavde u Pavlovcu. Knezov brat je, prema istom predanju, primio islam kada su Turci došli u Bosnu. Oko ovog turbeta nema drugih spomenika.


Ilijas-Babino turbe u Komotinu

Situirano je pod starim gradom Komotin, na putu Jajce-Banjaluka. Predstavlja sasvim jednostavno zdanje od kamena i čerpića sa unutrašnjim dimenzijama: 4x3 m.

U unutrašnjosti turbeta se nalazi drveni sarkofag bez nišana.

Nije poznato kada je prvobitno izgrađeno, a ni ko je bio ovaj Ilijas-baba. Naziv baba ukazuje da je Ilijas pripadao derviškom redu. Spomen na Ilijas-babu sačuvan je na jednom rukopisnom djelu.

Turbe Fatihova bajtara u Dnoluci

Na oko 3 km udaljenosti od Jajca prema Dnoluci nalazi se turbe za koje je vezana legenda po koioj je tu sahranjen neki bajtar (veterinar) sultana Fatih Mehmeda, a ime mu nije poznato. Ovo turbe je jednostavna građevina, veličine 6 x 5 m sa četverostrešnim drvenim pokrovom. Zidano je od čerpića sa kamenim temeljem. U unutrašnjosti je jedan drveni sarkofag sa nišanima na kojima je isklesan mač i neki krug u obliku potkove.


U Gornjoj Seoči postoji i turbe za koje predanje kaže da je u njemu sahranjen neki Arslan Muhamed, sin Azizov, a koji je prema istom predanju tu sahranjen prije 450 godina. Ovo turbe je sasvim jednostavna zgrada sa krovom na četiri vode.


Stravarka or Stravaruša


Stravarka Aiša from Sarajevo practices a form of ethno-medicine characteristic for Middle East  and the Balkans, a method called salivanje strahe or salivanje zrna „melting the fear“ in Bosnia. This method consists of ritual behaviour and a special text known as a „basma“ (or magic poetry), used together with the aim of healing the patient.

Another part of the technique is the melting of lead (or 'melting the fear'), which consists of the ritual melting of a small piece of lead, by means of which stravarka Aiša ' sees' the cause of the illness. This piece of lead represents the condensed illness and its cause as well. The shape the melted metal assumes is interpreted by the conjurer (stravarka). At the end of the interpretation, the conjurer gives this piece of lead to the patient and he must liberate himself from it by throwing it ritually back over his shoulder without turning back his head, while pronouncing a charm.

That ritual can be performed by man or woman, but women perform it more often, as they used to, traditionally, care about their family's health. Women who does that ritual in Bosnia is called „stravarka“ or "stravaruša", and she is usually older lady who has been passed through menopause. The illness which stravarka Aiša heals and from which the term 'melting the fear' originates are defined in the folk speech as straha or strava - a terror, a fear, a spell, or evil eyes. These are different psychic crises, neurosis, states of stress and nervousness.

Stravarka, in the process, uses a few props; metal spoon, bowl for water, 3 or 4 pieces of lead and red towel or scarf. Ritual follows the strict religious pattern and therefore Stravarka, before she starts performs abdest (muslim religious washing). Stravarka, over the lead and bowl filled with water, pronounces some individual Quranic prayers, with El-Fatiha first Quranic chapter and Ikhlas 112. chapter dominating.


 When treating a frightened child, Aiša first put little pieces of led through the gun barrel and then puts them in a spoon and melt in the fire. However, when treating her adult patients she holds a larger or several small pieces of lead in her hand and rotates them 3 times clockwise round around the patients head saying: „Euzubilahi mineš šejtanir radžim bismillahir rahmanir rahim“. While the lead is melting in fire, Stravarka, over the bowl with water, quietly speaks prayers and basma (magic words) that seek the salvation of God and the health for a patient.

Between the prayers she repeats the following words:"Dear Hazrat Fatima, my dear mother, tell your father Mohammed that the patient needs help day and night" - "Draga moja hazreti Fatime, draga moja majko, reci svom ocu Muhamedu pejgamberu da bude u pomoći i u danu i u noći". When she pronounces all the words and prayers due to which she normally experiences some harmless sensations like uncontrolled yawning or tearing eyes stravarka covers patient’s head with a cloth or red scarf (patient sits on a chair). Then, while holding the bowl of water in her left hand over the patient’s head she takes a right handed spoon with melted lead and quickly pours it into the water. On this occasion stravarka says; “lead to break and all evil to bounce from (name of patient) Amen!, Amen!, Amen!” - "Olovo puca i sve zlo razbija sa N Amin! Amin! Amin!"  When pronouncing the magic words she looks out into a high mountain intending, in such a way, to positively affect the recovery of a patient.

Namely, in BIH high landscapes such as mountains, are considers as symbols of happiness and good health; this is originating from the old Bosnian Sun-worshiping Cult. During this ritual, several times encounter the segments of those beliefs when stravarka 3 times moves in clockwise direction; following the path of the sun, when circling lead around the patients head or during her prayers’ chanting over the bowl of water that she, after every prayer, rotates in clockwise circle.

After she throws dissolved lead in cold water, on which occasion leads form various shapes, Stravarka Aiša commences analyses of the obtained shapes what leads her to the cause of problem/disorder. If lead forms in a shape of a needle or number of them Stravarka is convinced that the patient was a victim of an enormous shock of fright. Lead formed in a circle is a sign of a direct patient’s contact with the spiritual world of Jinns, on which occasion spirits harmed the patient.

After Stravarka Aiša performed the analyses of the obtained forms of lead, she collects all the lead by the spoon and brings it back to fire in order to re-melt it. Then, she repeats the same ritual that has already been described above, with a difference in lead being melted in water this time over the patient’s stomach not head. When stage two is completed the last time Stravarka melts lead over the patient’s feet, what is the final/ending stage of the ritual.

srce or heart

The sign of successful treatment is sought in the lead itself. Namely, so-called heart (srce) appears in the very lead  (shape of tear), what is a sign of all the evil being neutralized in the patient. The patient washes his face 3 times with the water lead was melted in 3 times, drinks a bit of it too, washes his/her hands up to his/her elbows and washes his/her legs up to his/her knees. The rest of the water is spilled under bush of rose. 


Heart or tears of lead is kept for a month time under the patient’s pillow and then thrown down the river stream.


Fortune telling in the coffee cup

Fortune telling or falanje  is done by and for women, principally for young women. Most of its predictions concern love and marriage, although they also deal with matters of employment, finance and health. One practice, followed only by unmarried girls and in the spirit of fun, involves hanging a golden ring on a piece of thread held over a glass of water. The number of times it sways back and forth indicates the age at which the woman will marry. The ring is then suspended over the pulse of the woman's wrist, its subsequent movements indicating the number of sons and daughters she will bear. This simple method of prediction requires no elaborate preparation or skill and is pursued more in the spirit of a parlour game than in that of serious prophecy.

The most common technique is certainly that of reading the fortune in the coffee cup ( or falanje u kahvu). On any occassion when women who know each other well are gathered together to drink coffee, they may read fortunes in the cups. However, the presence of a relative stranger or of one who is known or felt likely to disapprove, will inhibit the fortune telling.

After the coffee has been drunk the dregs are allowed to settle in the cup which is then inverted onto a saucer or tray and left to stand. When these dregs have dried to a stain inside the cup, fortunes may be read therein. One side of the cup is the male side, one the female. On these two sides the teller searches for certain symbols - dark men and blond men, dark women and blond women, the bird which means one will receive a message, the horse for strength, the rabbit for speed, the question mark for some unforeseeable but important event or for a hint of doubt.

All of these symbols are standard and thus anyone may learn to read fortunes. On one occasion I sat drinking coffee with two women I knew well. I asked if one of them would read my fortune but the first said she wasn't In the mood and the second claimed not to "know". She had had her own fortune told countless times and was familiar with all the symbols but was squeamish about reading fortunes herself since the practice is considered a dubious one.

Instead she told me to read my own fortune. I protested that I didn't "know" it either but she told me: "You've heard it all before, bird, horse, rabbit... You just have to look for it. "

Yet whilst anyone can read a fortune in some manner or other, certain individuals are said to be better at It than others. Their superior knowledge is judged by their ability not only to discern the relevant symbols in the coffee stain but to weave them all into a coherent picture. Thus, anyone who is so inclined can see that: "You have a message-and there's a horse here, that's some sort of strength ... a number three, maybe you'll get three messages... " But only those who know fortune telling well will tell one things along the lines of: "There's a blond man in your life, he's far away but he's trying very hard to send some message. He's hindered by a dark woman who's jealous and likely to cause problems in some devious way...“

Those who have the reputation of really "knowing" fortune telling usually meet the request for a reading with at least a brief display of reticence before complying. There is no question of offerring payment to the teller, one is not even supposed to thank them for their pains. Such thanks ne valja.


Jela sa povrćem

Čimbur ili Ćilibur: jaja, popržena na maslu i uprženom luku.

-U tavi se preprži crveni luk a onda se po njemu ulije smjesa od jaja u koju je dodano soli, vegete i bibera.

Buranija: tikva izrezana na dilumiće (komadiće), poredana po tevsiji, malo omlijevljena, ispečena i poljevena maslom i kiselicom (kiselim) mlijekom.

Japrak: zeleni kupus obaren, te u nj tojest u njegovo razno lišće uvijeno isjecano s pirinčem pomiješano meso te vareno i poslije malo začinjeno malsom.

Kladuški pirjan (tur.piryan):: u dublju tepsiju ulije se malo ulja (pomasti se) i na njemu poprži jedna glavica nasjeckanog crvenog luka. Tomu se dodaju komadi piletine, najbolje file, ili govedine te začini: sol, vegeta, mljevena paprika i biber. Kada meso dobije rumenu boju u tepsiju se dodaje oko pola kilograma narezanog krumpira u ploške i povrća tojest jedna mrkva, dvije paprike, paradajz, bijeli luk. Zatim se u krompir i meso doda još oko šolja riže, posipa se,  i potom u tepsiju nalije vode toliko da pokrije cio sadržaj u tepsiji.

Tepsija se stavlja u već zagrijanu pećnicu na 180-200 stepeni da se peče do onog trenutka kada voda nestane sa površine ali pri tom pazeći da vode ostane u krompirima, kako pirjan „ne bi bio suh“. Isto tako, poneke domaćice tepsiju ne stavljaju u pećnicu već na široki pleh šporeta da se tu krčka ali tako što tepsiju poklope sa drugom tepsijom kako bi se krompir kuhao u pari. Pirjan je obično gotov za nekih pola sata a najbolja provjera  je kašikom pritisnuti krompir u tepsiji. Ako ga kašika lako razreže znači da je kuhan i spreman za posluživanje.

U prošlosti pirjan se običavao zapržiti ali u današnje vrijeme već na početku kuhanja, kada se nalije voda, u pirjan se umješa jedna ili dvije kašike ajvara kako bi se izbjegla zaprška a pri tome ostvario i bolji ukus. Pri kraju po površini pirjana može se dodati i malo peršina.

Uz pirjan se može servirati neka salata mada nije potrebno pošto je ovo samo po sebi jelo od povrća.

Dolma: dolma je turska riječ, a značila bi na bosanski: puniti, napuniti. Dolma se puni u tikve, zelene i modre patlidžane, paprike, luk itd. Meso za dolme se dobro isjeca, pa se osoli, popari (to jest: pospe paprom, biberom) pa  doda još kojekakvih mirodija, primješa nešto malo oriza  i  utuče koje jaje. Tikve ili što bilo, te se misli u nj puniti dolma, dobro se izvrte, pa se onom smjesom napune te  slože u tendžeru. Zatim se nalije ili mesne vode ili čiste vode i kuha.


Juhe i čorbe

Smatra se da je juha prestaje biti juha i postaje varivo ili čorba ako se u nju doda krompir.


Tarahana (tarhana, tarahana, rastarić) – u prošlosti trahana se najviše pripremala pred zimu: od tvrdo zamiješanog tijesta odvajali su se komadići i trali među dlanovima (otuda, kažu, i naziv tarhana), da se dobiju mrvice, koje se suše i poslije kuhaju na vodi ili mlijeku i jedu začinjene maslom.

-Za tarhanu je potrebno prvo pripremiti tijesto od brašna, jaja i zečije ili kokošije vode (vode u kojoj je kuhano zečije ili kokošije meso), koje zamjese čvrsto kao tijesto za kruh. Pošto malo odstoji, uzima se komad po komad i dobro trlja među dlanovima ili na rešetu, te otpadaju sitni komadići kao zrna pšenice. Tarhana se priprema u jesen i služi u velikim količinama zimi.

-zakuhano brašno mlakom vodom, koje se pusti dan dva, da kisi, jer je zakuhano kvasom, za tijem se istare među dlanovima na mrvice, onda na rašetu prosije i suši. Mrvice, koje kroz rašeto propanu, služe za čorbu, a koje u rašetu ostanu, krupnije su i zovu se otušci, te se od njih pilav vari. Trahanu valja dobro osušiti.

Trahana potječe od turske riječi tarhana koja dolazi od perzijske terhwane.


Jerište: ovo bosansko jelo gotovi se od jufke – utvrenog i osušenog tijesta, zvanog tarhana, kojim se zamjenjuje pirinač, pa se pogdje ovo jelo i zove jufka-pilav.  Za ovaj pilav uzima se tri mjere vode a četvrta mjera je jufka. Kad voda prokuha, onda se saspe jufka, a snima se s vatre gotov pilav, kad sva voda uvre. Pilav se zatim začini maslom, a neki ga još, pošto ga povade u sude, pospu ozgo izrendisanim sirom. Inače ako ima mesne vode, jerište je ukusnije.

Šehrija: prave se od jaja i tijesta, a izgledaju kao sitni konci, smotani kao u malo kančilo. Kad se metnu u čorbu, rastave se. Ima više vrsta šeherije, kao zvijezdice (u Istanbulu – yildiz sehriyyesi).

Škembe-čorba: zapršci od brašna i kravljeg masla dodaje se malo riže i polukuhane tripice, pa se to sve izvjesno vrijeme kuha. Pri sipanju čorbe u tanjire dodaje se sol i biber.

Begova čorba: Nekoliko vrsta povrća se isjecka na komadiće, pomiješa sa raskuhanom piletinom, a prije serviranja se dodaje malo začina, najčešće bibera i mljevene paprika.

Juha od jaja: u posudu se izmute dva jajeta sa dvije kašike brašna, malo ulja i vegete pa se ta smjesa sipa u pola litre kipuće vode I kuha 5 minuta. Po želji zasoliti.

Kalja: 1  ½  kg slatkog kupusa, 1/ kg debele govedine, ½ kg janjetine (od rebara ili bubrežnjak), ¼ litre kiselog mlijeka, sol, biber, paprika.

U Cazinskoj krajini kalja se pripravlja od 1 kg slatkog kupusa, pola kile govedine, jedne, mrkve, glavice crvenog luka i začina. Prvo se na ulju poprži crveni luk da dobije lijepu rumenu boju a zatim se po njemu poreda nasječeni kupus, potom po kupusu se poreda meso, pa opet kupu, meso...Uvijek se pazi da se u loncu napravi toliko mjesta da se može naliti vodom koja će potpuno prekriti sadržaj. Po vrhu se stavi na komadiće isječena mrkva, osoli, začini vegetom i biberom te pusti da na tihoj vatri kalja se kuha cio dan. Upravo zbog toga kalja se u Velikoj Kladuši i Cazinu naziva zimskim jelom. Dok se tiho kuha na kraju šporeta kalju sa vremena na vrijeme treba nadolijevati toplom vodom, nikako hladnom jer onda dolazi do pojave tamne boje na mesu i kipljenja.



Bosanske pite

“Kakvu ko pitu želi jesti onake i jufke razvija”

             “Kakve jufke, takva i pita”


Na početku treba odmah kazati kako je tradicija pravljenja pita a samim time i razvijanja jufki/juhki u Bosni započela pod uticajem Turaka.

Iskusne domaćice tvrde kako se jufka (tur.yufka) za razvijanje mora zamjesiti u veličini ljudske šake ili čak da bude “kao jaje”. Način je vrlo jednostavan –  zasoljeno brašno se zamjesi, obično mlakom vodom, u obliku loptice i ostavi neko vrijeme da “ jufka otpusti” tojest omekša. Potom se razvija na sofri uz pomoć oklagije. U BiH srećemo dva načina razvijanja jufki. U Cazinskoj krajini, tako, domaćica jufku oklagijom, uz stalno posipanje pšeničnog ili kukuruznog brašna, razvije toliko da ona pređe preko rubova sofre. Od kukuruznog brašna jufka se brže suši, pošto da bi se koristila za slaganje pite mora biti “suha” a ne previše svježa. U drugim dijelovima jufka se razvije samo polovično, onda se namasti uljem, sačeka da namašćeno tijesto otpusti te se rukama razvlači preko rubova sofre. Dok razvija, ako se domaćici jufka na sofri zgužva ili zamota, ona vjeruje da će joj ubrzo doći gosti.

Za pripremu pite mogu se koristiti svježe, tek razvijene na sofri, jufke ili pečene jufke koje se dobijaju tako što ih domaćica prvo razvije, onda nožem presječe u manje komade i peče na plehu šporeta. Takve su jufke dugotrajnije pa se mogu koristiti i nakon dvadeset ili više dana, posebno, ako se čuvaju na hladnom i suhom mjestu. Samo od pečenih jufki ili kora spravlja se jedna vrsta pite koja se u Cazinskoj krajini zove pečena pita. Domaćica prvo u povlaci ili kajmaku umuti nekoliko jaja, doda malo ulja i sira te na taj način dobije smjesu kojom će polijevati po jufkama.  Pošto su pečene jufke tvrđe domaćica ih prije redanja po tepsiji prvo potopi u toplu vodu.

Pita se spravlja na nekoliko načina ili bolje rečeno oblika: na hamajliju, u gužve, u zvrkove, polagan pita ili na boščaluk.

Vjeruje se da bi pita bila ukusna ne smije sadržavati više od četiri ili eventualno pet jufki tojest mora biti tanja. Od sadržaja koji se stavlja u nju, među jufke, određuje se njen naziv: ukoliko se koriste kuhana i izmrvljena jaja onda je riječ o piti jajuši, posipa li se kuhana riža – pita sa rižom, ako se koristi sir tada se pravi sirnica itd. Svaka pita u koju se stavlja meso smatra se burekom.

U ačiniskom popisu nalazimo na slijedeće pite; zeljanica, sirnica, kupusnjača, kumpirnjača, kajmakuša, burek, tatar burek, sterani burek, buredžici, pita od pendeviša, crjevaruša, prisnac, ujevak ‘šenišni, ujevak kukuruzni, razvaruša, oparuša, kljukuša, učkur pita, maslenica, lizibaba, babura, gruša.


Različita jela iz bosanske kuhinje

Lušnica (zvrčići): jufka se izreže, smrzga se (sgužva, skuvlja), peče se na tevsiji i  polije kiselicom, maslom i bijelim, istucanim lukom.

Potkorica: jelo koje se priprema od prosušenih ili potpečenih jufki (kora), komadići jufki se kvase kuhanim mlijekom ili mlakom osoljenom vodom, slažu u sud, ukuhaju, pomaste i jedu.

Kulen-pita: sprema se kao i burek, samo što se za punjenje upotrebljava škemba (fileki). Dan ranije škembu treba skuhati, a zatim isjeckati, dodati luk i  biber, izmješati i dolmiti pitu. Kad se ispeče, ova pita je često tvrda i  silovita, te je treba raspariti. Parenje pite se vrši u đevđiru, koji je dubok oko 12 cm i  veličine tendžere (promera oko 35 cm). Pečena pita se izreže i  složi u đevđir, koji se postavi na tendžeru u kojoj vrijucka voda. Kada se raspari pita postaje mehka i razabrana, manje silovita. Servira se samo topla, a nikako hladna. 

Droba: jelo koje se pripremi od starog kukuruznog kruha (kuruza), ako ostane. Kukuruza se izdrobi u vodu ili mlijeko koje vrije, pomasti i jede.

Kljukuša obaruša: posoljeno pšenično brašno zamjesi se (obari) vrelom vodom u gušću smjesu, koja se potom izlije u pomašćenu tepsiju i rukama  razvuče po njoj. Kada se ispeče kljukuša obaruša se iskomada kao i obična kljukuša te pomasti rastopljenim maslom u kojem se upržio bijeli luk.

Sincanija: pravi se tako što se oguljeni krumpir isječe na što manje komadiće ili kockice, osoli, začini vegetom i mljevenom paprikom te posloži po namašćenoj tepsiji i peče. U međuvremenu, kada je krompir skoro pečen, prelije se smjesom od kajmaka (vrhnja) u koji je dodano jedno ili dva kokošija jajeta. Onda se peče još nekih desetak minuta i posluži.

Stučeni mladi krompir: u proljeće, kada se pojavi mladi krompir, opere se i onako neoguljen  poreda po tepsiji. Prije nego što se poreda svaki se krompir pojedinačno malo udari batom za meso (natuče), a nakon toga začini,  prelije sa mladom povlakom  i  peče. Najbolje ga je jesti uz svježu i toplu pogaču.

Krompiruša: pripremiti jufke za pitu. Oprati, oljuštiti, na kockice isjeći 1,5 kg krompira, posoliti i ostaviti da se dobro ocijedi. Krompir propržiti na vrelom ulju i  dodati bibera. Na podmazan pleh tepsije redati neizmjenično po dvije jufke i  red krompira tako da na vrhu bude jufka. Preliti uljem i staviti u dobro zagrijanu pećnicu i peći dok ne porumeni. Gotovu krompirušu preliti mješavinom mlake vode i  ulja pa prekriti salvetom.

-razviti jufku za pitu. Krompir oljuštiti, oprati,  isjeckati nožem na što sitnije komadiće. U to dodati malo solo, vegete, bibera i sitno isjeckanog bijelog luka. U ovu smjesu se dodaje  mljeveno meso, ako se želi krompiruša sa mesom, ili može samo ovako. Kada se pripremi pita prelije se uljem  te peče u pećnici. Kada krompiruša bude skoro pečena onda se izvadi iz pećnice,  prelije sa smjesom koja se napravila od kajmaka, malo mlijeka i ulja. Pošto se prelije krompiruša se nastavi peći. Nakon što se ispeče i  izvadi van, prelije se sa vrućom vodom u kojoj se prethodno otopljena kašika margarina ili masla pa vrati nazad u pećnicu “da upije vodu”.

Na sličan način se u Cazinskoj krajini priprema Varena krompiruša: krompir se oguli, opere i  kuha u zasoljenoj vodi. Pošto bude skuhan voda iz posude se ocijedi a krompir se  izgnječi kašikom. U njega se potom doda malo bibera, vegete te nasjeckanog bijelog luka. Nastavak procesa pripreme krompiruše isti je kao  u prethodnom receptu.

Ćorava pita:  za to se uzmu samo bataci i komadi krtine od kokoši, svaki se komad posebno uvije u komad svježe jufke, komadi se slažu u tepsiju, pomaste i ispeku.

Zeljanica:  je slana pita od zelja. Ona se pravi ponajviše od špinata, pazije ili lobode. Samo lišće bez korjena od zelja se sitno iskriža, pa se malko omelja u pšenično brašno. U zelje se utuče koje jaje, udrobi sira, metne nekoliko skorupa i osoli. Zatijem se razviju nekolike jufke, pa se prestru preko tepsije, a između svake premaže maslom. Na jufke se izruči ona smjesa sa zeljem, pa se lijepo jednako rezredi po tepsiji a odozgo se opet rasuču nekolike jufke, smaže maslom, izreže i peče ili u peći ili kod kuće pod sačem.

Najboljom zeljanicom se smatra “ona prava, vaktilašnja, sa mnogo povlake i blagog sira, a ne piturina puna smrdljivog torotana ili, još gore, neki užas od samog zelja i to, ponad svega, složen u gužve od jufki koje kao da su nogama umješane i razvijane”.


 Olivača ili livača: kukuruzno brašno se osoli i  zamjesi sa vodom kao za kljukušu. U njega se doda kašika ili dvije povlake te jedno jaje a po želji može još  na sitno isjeckan krompir. Kada se smjesa izlije u namašćenu tepsiju po njoj se poredaju komadići mesa, obično pileći file, mada može poslužiti i suho meso. Malo prije nego što bude pečena, po želji, po olivači se može preliti smjesa od  razmućenog jajeta i  dvije kašike povlake te ostaviti u rerni, da se zapeče, još nekoliko minuta. Olivača se jede uz jogurt ili kiselo mlijeko.

Šaren-pita: kombinacija olivače i zeljanice naziva se šarena pita ili šaren-pita.

Ždribci: u posudu sa pola kile kukuruznog brašna izlije se jedno jaje, prašak za pecivo, kašika vrhnja i malo soli. To se sve dobro promješa i  zamjesi mlijekom u gušću smjesu kako bi se mogla kašikom vaditi. Prije toga razvije se jufka i  čim se malo osuši, rasječe se nožem na komade u obliku vrpce duge po desetak a široke nekih 7-8 cm, na koje će se stavljati po kašika kukuruzne smjese  i  zamotavati jufkom tako da se krajevi juhke premotaju jedan na drugi. Potom se tako zamotan ždribac okrene naopako tojest na drugu stranu kako se ne bi vidjelo premotavanje te  reda po tepsiji. Čim se ispuni tepsija ždribcima peče se u pećnici na 180-200 stepeni, dok jufka ne dobije lijepu crvenkastu boju. Onda se tepsija izvadi van, prelije vrućom vodom  u kojoj je rastopljena kašika masla (margarina), te potom vrati u pećnicu “da upije”. Ždribci se jedu uz jogurt ili kiselo mlijeko.

Sirnica / Pita sa sirom: zamjesiti 250 grama brašna, 100 grama ulja, šalicu mlijeka i  malo soli. Kada je tijesto gotovo podijeliti ga na dva dijela. Dijelove razvući u jufku debljine prsta. Tepsiju malo namazati uljem i  staviti u nju jednu jufku. Preko nje staviti fil koji se jednostavno pravi od 300 grama sira i  2 jajeta. Preko ovog fila staviti drugu jufku i  premazati je žumanjcetom od 2 jajeta. Staviti u šporet i  peći na jakoj vatri. Gotovu i malo ohlađenu pitu isjeći na dijelove po ukusu i poslužiti.

Preuzeto iz e-knjige  Bosanska sofra, autor Raif Esmerović



Evil eye and Mashallah

In Bosnia is  the custom of always say "Mašallah" comes from when seeing something beautiful, wishing luck and warding off the evil eye.

Another way of averting the Evil Eye, when cast by envy, is by giving the glory to God in the exclamation "Mashallah ! " (Praise be to God). It is dangerous to praise a baby or a beautiful woman, for that may bring the Evil Eye on them, but if the charm or beauty be ascribed to God they will be safe. So when a hanum sees a beautiful child, she does not say; „how pretty she is!“ but prudently exclaims „Mašallah!“.

The Evil Eye is especially dreaded for new-born babes. Those who come to see the baby seek to avert evil influences by spitting at the child, and using abusive epithets. When all the visitors have left, the women of the house hold throw on the mangal a clove for each visitor. If it explodes it is proof that the person named with it has been quilty of casting the Evil Eye on either the hapless infant or its mother. Measures are immediately taken to protect the supposed victims, who are fumigated with smoke arising from locks of hair thrown on the live coals, this being accompanied by spittings, blowings, prayers, and mystic incantations, until a fit of yawning shows that the Evil Spirit has left the sufferer. After this, a servant is sent to the house of the guilty one to obtain possession surreptitiously of a scrap of clothing belonging to the woman who cast the spell, and this is burned also in the presence of mother and child. Midwives are very learned in spells to avert evil.

Your courteous Bosniak or Iranian will not take a compliment without "Mashallah;" the Italians will not receive one without "Grazio a Dio!“ while the Irishman almost always says „Glory be to God“, and the English peasant „Lord be wi' us“, the idea in every instance being to avert the danger of fascination by these acknowledgments of a higher power.


Srebrenica 1995 - 2012


"This was a crime committed, first and foremost, against more than 8,000 human beings – more than 500 of whom we bury today – men and boys alike were massacred in an act of genocide.... The United States rejects efforts to distort the scope of this atrocity, rationalize the motivations behind it, blame the victims, and deny the indisputable fact that it was genocide."

Commemoration Address
President, Appeal of Conscience Foundation
Senior Rabbi, Park East SynagogueNew York
July 11, 2012
Salaam, Shalom, Peace Be upon You.
Your Eminence, Reis Ul-Lema, Mufta of Tuzla, Acting Mayor of Srebrenica, Your Excellencies, and Brothers and Sisters.
I have crossed the Atlantic Ocean to stand here in solidarity with you as you remember your loved ones who were massacred and to recall another ugly chapter of man’s inhumanity to man.
Although the devastating pain of this crime belongs uniquely to the people of Srebrenica and all of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and most particularly to the family members of its victims— you are not alone.

I grieve with you.
I feel your anguish.
I hear your cry and feel your pain.
I personally know the pain that you have endured and that you continue to suffer. I am a survivor of the Holocaust. My entire family was murdered in Auschwitz and in Terezin. I know the anguish and despair that you feel when those dearest to you are brutally murdered for no other reason than their religion or ethnicity.
But as a survivor I neither turned against man or God. Instead, in memory of my family and the many millions exterminated like them, I devoted my life to help build bridges between all of God’s children in pursuit of peace and justice.
That is why when the war in the Balkans began, the foundation that I lead, the Appeal of Conscience Foundation, brought together for the first time in Switzerland the Grand Mufti of Sarajevo, the Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Cardinal of Zagreb, to condemn the use of religion as a justification for war.
On November 26, 1992, we signed the Berne Declaration stating that “A crime in the name of religion is the greatest crime against religion”.
The brutality of what took place here can never be forgotten not just in our generation, but also for all time. The totality of this crime must be remembered—not denied. The testimony of those who survived cannot be refuted and the historical fact cannot be altered.
This was a crime committed, first and foremost, against more than 8,000 human beings – more than 500 of whom we bury today – men and boys alike were massacred in an act of genocide. The victims’ only sin was to have existed— their only offense was to have been born, to have dreamed, and to have loved as humans.
As President Obama observed in the statement he issued for today’s commemoration:
“The name Srebrenica will forever be associated with some of the darkest acts of the 20th century.
“We know that Srebrenica’s future, and that of Bosnia and Herzegovina, will not be held back by its painful recent history. The United States rejects efforts to distort the scope of this atrocity, rationalize the motivations behind it, blame the victims, and deny the indisputable fact that it was genocide.
“We all desire continued reconciliation and peaceful coexistence for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Balkans…
The United States stands with the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina and grieves again for the loss of so many loved ones. Our hearts and deepest sympathies are with them, and we pledge our enduring commitment to support their aspirations for a better tomorrow.”
The crime we remember today was also committed against the victims’ families and the many survivors who are thankfully with us today, many of whom still bear its scars and all of whom still bear its pain.
It was a crime committed against Europe and against religion and the natural order — from whom the victims and their progeny have been forever taken.
This was a crime against humanity— and against God.
We say ”never again” and we mean “never again”.
For those who committed this crime, there can be no absolution. They bear a mark of Cain, which no man can wash away. But no matter how long it may take, justice will be done.
Yet, even as we condemn the unique and inescapable guilt of the perpetrators, we must acknowledge that for the rest of the world, we too share in its shame. For just as this was a crime committed against all humanity, it was a crime allowed by all humanity.
It was allowed by a world that remained silent in the face of suffering for too long, and that did not lift its strong hand to stop the evil or help the weak. “Thou shalt not stand idly by the blood of thy neighbor”, the Torah teaches us. (Leviticus, 19:16.)
Mankind must not remain silent or helpless in the face of grave injustice. Silence is not a solution; it merely encourages the perpetrators and ultimately it pays a heavy price in blood.
It is a lesson that the world must learn again today as we witness the massacres being perpetrated by the regime in Syria against its own people. It is time again for humanity to say with one clear voice: these crimes must end!
The Responsibility to Protect adopted by the United Nations in 2005, obligates the community of nations to protect the innocent from mass atrocities.
Today we remember the horrors of the past but vow not to be paralyzed by the past. Today’s commemoration is also about the future: mankind’s future and your future. You and I survived our tragedies. And despite the excruciating pain, it is our obligation to those who did not survive that we continue to participate in society and in perfecting this world.
Let us all resolve – for the sake of our children – to build a better world together so that they never come to know the kind of pain and loss we have known.
Let us resolve, in this country and around the world, to work together to build understanding among all faiths, particularly among the children of Abraham.
In memory of our massacred loved ones, for the sake of future generations, let us resolve to banish hatred from our hearts and lips and to strive for a world of coexistence, peace and tolerance.
In our own communities let us “live and let live” as neighbors who respect “the Other”.
As is stated in the Qu'ran:
“What is after will be better
Than what came before
To you the Lord will be giving
You will be content
Did he not find you orphaned
And give you shelter
Find you lost
And guide you
Find you in hunger
And provide for you”
Take these words to heart. Make them your own.
Today and tomorrow are the “after”. The “before” cannot be changed, it can only be remembered and should be remembered. But the future is ours to change: the future of your country, the future of your family, your own future. May God give you strength and bless you with peace.

Amulet or Hamajlija

Amulets (hamajlija), the history of which goes back to ancient times, are an expression of a widespread belief in the power of written material, particularly when this is from the Qur'an. A hamajlija is an amulet inscribed by the Bosnian hodja for the treatment or prevention of such evils as illness, evil, and sorcery. They may also be used for the purpose of sorcery. The hamajlija consists of a small scroll upon which various surahs from Qur'an are inscribed, as well as ritualistic signs and numerical configurations. The scroll is folded into a cloth of various colours or leather, and is worn like a necklace or sometimes fastened with a safety pin under the arms or over the chest. It is possible to see three or more amulets worn by the same patient.

The traditional person's beliefs concerning illness may reflect religious attitudes, such as all goodness and all suffering comes from God. „Allah gave an illness“ is a common expression. Praying may serve as both a preventive and therapeutic measure against mental illness.


Mental illness may also occur as a result of sorcery which, unlike the evil eye which is generally involuntary, is intentionally malevolent magic. It may cause the inability to concentrate, physical weakness, sexual impotence, loss of love, hallucinations, and confusional states. The sorcery may be carried out by a sorcerer with special knowledge (which may involve tying of knots, hiding amulets near the intended victim) hired by enemies such as a rival, a spouse, or an unknown person.


Love poems from the oral poetry of Bosnia and Hercegovina


I wonder neither at the dark nor clouds,

Nor at the North Wind that stirs up the sea,

But at my lover who is angry with my.

Yet were I once to grow angry with him,

Not all Bosnia could reconcile us.

Neither Bosnia nor Herzegowina.


Oh my violet, I would pluck you,
But I have no love to give you to.
If I gave you to Ali-beg,
Ali-Beg's a man of haughty bearing,
He will not wear flowers of any kind
Save only a single rose and a carnation.



Ensalmo contra el mal de ojo (Bosnia)

«Urok sjedi na pragu uročica pod pragom,

urok skoči te uročicu uguši.

Uroka od 9 oka

uroka od 9 oka 8

uroka od 7 oka 6

[etc. ...)

 uroka od 2 oka 1

 uroka od 1 oka nijedan!

Sa božijim emerom,

Veledalin amin!


Mythological world Bosnia and Herzegovina


The attack of malevolent beings usually begins from the legs. Here is a description of an attack of the night demon, called Mora; from Bosnia and Herzegovina:

„First, beginning from the toes on the left foot, a man feels some very heavy presence there: - something is pulling the toe and he feels it climbing on the leg; it feels like a huge stone falling on the leg. From the leg it goes into the stomach and, then, into the chest.“

Bosniaks believe that a Mora is a discarded or cheated girl which uses this form to get back at her boyfriend. In her invisible form she comes every night around midnight and suffocates the young man by sitting on his chest. The young man feels a large pressure on his chest, he sweats and has nightmares. He awakes in the morning pale and feels powerless. It is believed that every girl can turn into a Mora if she surrenders her soul to Iblis.

How does one catch a girl-Mora? From the mosque one must bring a green belt used for tying down a deceased to the stretcher during a funeral. The one who is attacked by a Mora must go to bed holding the green belt in his right hand. He mustn't fall asleep but only keep his eyes closed. Around midnight the Mora will appear and sit on his chest. At that moment the man needs to put the belt on himself and the Mora will become visible to the human eye. Caught in a trap the Mora will be scared and she will start to beg the man not to reveal her secret in return she must swear not to be a Mora any longer. That way she will lose her invisibility power and she will become a normal girl once again.





Malocchio (Bosnia)

L'uomo moderno, pur avendo un livello superiore di coscienza e di vivere in una società molto più sviluppata di quella dei suoi predecessori, continua ad essere costernato dagli occhi diavoleschi piu di tutte le altre malattie. Ciò è meglio dimostrato dalla convinzione alla quale le persone credono e cioe che appunto le maledizioni sono la causa della morte di molte persone .
La credenza negli occhi diavoleschi ha origini gia nella vecchia Persia (Iran), la cultura per la quale si presume, sulla base delle localita scoperte, di essere più vecchia di anni, dove ha preso la forma di un demone femminile chiamato Agassi.
Oggi in tutte le nazioni del mondo esiste una convinzione più o meno espressa nel potere negativo dello sguardo umano, compresi: induisti, musulmani, cristiani, buddisti .... Con l'arrivo dei Turchi e dell'Islam in Bosnia si nota un forte aumento della credenza nel malocchio e in conseguenza si è sviluppata tutta una serie di riti e tradizioni per eliminare gli efetti negativi del malocchio.
Gli occhi diavoleschi, cioe quelli che portano male oppure il malocchio sono il riflesso delle energie negative dell'anima (psiche) di un individuo attivate da emozioni incontrollate, come la gelosia e una grande ammirazione. Si ritiene che ogni uomo ha questo potere anche le persone cieche in quanto l'incantesimo non si crea soltanto con lo sguardo ma anche con le parole. Si ritiene che gli occhi verdi portano malocchio e soprattutto se la persona è nata sotto il segno dello Scorpione. Appartengono a questa categoria anche le persone che si tagliano le unghie con le forbici.
Anche se gli occhi che portano malocchio sono principalmente considerati come una malattia per i bambini, ad essi non sono immuni neanche i più anziani, e in particolare le persone che sono giovani, belle e di successo. Altrettanto, tra le persone che non sono immuni a questa ''malattia'' sono comprese le donne in gravidanza, pazienti, animali ... Minimamente resistente sono i bambini nei primi 40 giorni di vita e allora le madri cercano di proteggerli con una serie di rituali profilattici: mettendo gli amuleti, o l'aglio, o una lista di sedef (Ruta graveoles) sotto il cuscino o un pezzo di tasso di legno (Taxus baccata), al palmo gli si lega un filo rosso su cui sono legati 40 nodi, ecc.
Nel'obiettivo della prevenzione in Bosnia, di solito può sentire spesso pronunciare la parola ''mashalah'' che si ritiene di essere la piu potente protezione contro il malocchio.
Quando un bambino piange senza motivo o e inquieto la madre subito sospetta il malocchio, specialmente se ciò avviene dopo la partenza degli ospiti. Per distruggere il malocchio la madre si versa un po' dell'acqua in bocca, ma non ingerisce e si ferma dietro la porta guardando l'angolo tra la porta e il muro. In piedi, pronuncia la preghiera Ikhlas, poi versa l'acqua dalla bocca nella mano destra e la getta sopra la spalla sinistra e con la mano bagnata lava il viso del bambino.
Una volta che neutralizza il potere distruttivo del malocchio lega attorno al suo palmo un filo di seta rossa "per la salute".


Mythological world of Bosnia and Herzegovina

According to scientific definition, mythology is a science that studies stories of fantastic content whose heroes are various gods and goddesses, warriors, demons, etc. Seen through the eyes of modern psychology, mythology is a bond that binds the man of today with the past, shapes his identity and even his childhood. No matter the geographic location, culture or period every mythological story whether from a large civilization or a small one is based on a classic Pantheon or more commonly on a dualistic division of fantastical beings and spirits, where humans are in the centre. Today, mythology is present in large numbers of various publications, TV documentaries, art and history itself. Not even movie directors could resist its call and mythology is a constant theme of many films.

Analyzing the legends and stories of a country one can discern a lot about the thinking and behaviour patterns of a given people. Mainly in most of the mythological stories we find a classic fear in humans of disease, death and evil, constant need of upholding the cult of the hero and warrior, love towards his country, family, individual, etc. Besides this, mythological characters represent intractable human imagination, ability to weather the hard times as best as one can, or creation of an authentic identity for a people or a country.

Mythology of Bosnia and Herzegovina abounds with various external influences because of its geographical position but also its turbulent history which shaped the Bosnian spirit and imagination. In Bosnia both the East and West always manifested which is clearly evident through mythology where we come across interesting elements of both eastern and western beliefs.

With the above mentioned in mind, the mythology of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be best understood if it is divided into three groups of influence which were the keys to its creation:

a) The old Slavic beliefs (Europe)
b) Bosnian beliefs (Illyrians, Bogumils)
c) Oriental beliefs (Iran, Turkey)

Slavic pagan beliefs were preserved in legends about demons of diseases and generally in negative creatures like vampires (Lampir), Mora (Nightmare), Witch (Sihirbaza), Plague, Cholera, etc.
Remnants of the old Bosnian beliefs of the Bogumil also remained especially in the beliefs about Did Adža, Black bull, mysterious bird Plačo, etc.
The vast number of Oriental beliefs that were brought to Bosnia by the Ottomans originate directly from Iran. By that we mean first and foremost on the belief about angels (Melek), Faeries (Periler), visiting burial grounds (Dobri), etc.

Lampir: in Bosnia vampires are called lampir, lapir, lampijer, vukodlak or vukozlačina. It was believed that if a cat crosses over a deceased man that he will become a lampir. Of course the effect would be cancelled out if the cat returns the same way it came. Because people were afraid that this would happen they would place a knife on dead man's chest or they would spike a knife next to his head. There was also a custom where people would place a bowl of wheat or only three grains of wheat where the dead person was lying before he was buried, after the burial the wheat was given to a pauper. There were a lot of lampiers but the most famous ones were Meho from Glamoč, Pajo Tomić and a certain Korkut from Nevesinje.

Bosnian witches were able to call forth the deadly power of the vukodlak by going to a graveyard and repeating the formula: Adali Ada to protect me" and then they would sit next to a grave keeping their eyes closed, and they would grab a handful of dirt and they would take it home. They would hold on to that dirt until one of their enemies would die and they would plant the dirt under the threshold of his house while the deceased is carried out of it. They did this because they wanted someone else dead from that household.

Dobri: In Bosnia there is a legend about Šehidi (martyrs) and especially evlije, holy men, that they can help people even after they die and that's why they are called dobri. It is believed that dobri rise from their graves at night and they pray to Allah. Because of that belief people leave jugs (made out of copper) of water and clean towels inside mausoleums in order for the dobri to take ablution (religious cleansing). A large number of people who were in charge of taking care of the mausoleums swore that a lot of the times they saw wet floor from the water and misplaced towels. That was usually interpreted as a dobri rising during the night to take ablution and to pray to God.

Did Adže: belief in this mythological being is characteristic for the south-western part of Bosnia, in Cazin-Velika Kladuša to be more exact, where it is believed that he is a dwarf with a long white beard and black feet who rides a large white rooster. His name stems from the Bogomil name for priests- Did. According to the above mentioned it is clear that this creature is a Bogomil priest from the south-western parts of Bosnia whose name stuck through legends in Bosnia. Did Adže presents a mystical character who was used to scare children into submission. Although in legends Did Adže possesses powers of teleporting, he is the keeper of wisdom and an entrance in the underworld.

Prepasti: After WWII in Bosnia rumours started spreading about scary apparitions which were called Prepasti. Usually they appeared on roads, meadows or next to rivers and creeks as obscure, black clouds, silhouette and whirlwinds that would go high into the clouds and sometimes they would turn into scary dark figures. Those supernatural apparitions were described by the people as distempered ghosts of dead soldiers because the places where they usually appeared were battlefields where large number of soldiers died during the war. Prepasti usually appeared in places where the soldiers lost one of their body parts, and according to belief they appeared to search for their lost limbs. Prepasti would disappear forever when the rain completely washes their blood from the soil and when plough furrows their bones into the ground.

Bik Garonja (Black Bull): old Bosniaks believed that the Earth rests on the back of a giant black bull. When the bull moves his ear then an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world, and on the day when the bull shudders the whole world will come to an end (Judgement day). The tumult that is heard during the earthquake is believed to be the bulls bellow.

Stuhe: in the past it was believed that stuhe or zduhači were male witches. They possessed magical powers and they were clairvoyant. They usually helped people by performing various miracles and protecting some place from ill weather. They usually moved at night. Amongst the people there are a lot of tales about fights between stuha when there was a fight between the good ones and the bad ones. The most famous zduhači in Bosnia and Herzegovina were Gaibija and Suljo Aganović from Foča.

Faeries or Vile: Faeries are young beautiful women with long golden hair. They have supernatural beauty and a soothing voice. They live inside forests and around lakes, they fly around trees and they like to dance in circles on the green grass. During that occasion they usually sing one of their many songs whose words worn people about some danger. There's a belief amongst the people that a child who feeds a fairy with his milk will become a great hero, this is best illustrated by the legend of Mujo Hrnjica.
If people hurt the fairy in any way, it will immediately take revenge by making the human psychologically disturbed. Fairies were afraid of mothers, especially in the past. According to a Turkish folklore which found its place amongst the Bosnian people, in the past humans stole the first child of a fairy and ever since then the fairies seek revenge by stealing human children or by exchanging a human child for its own. For this reason Bosnian women would place a metal object, most often a spoon, near baby's feet inside the crib, when they had to leave the house or when they had to do some chores.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina the most famous fairies are Bosanska vila, Gorska vila, and the queen fairy Zlatna. It was believed that Zlatna was the mistress of the forest and the water. Legend has it that every night, Zlatna accompanied by other fairies, went to the river to take a bath and after that they would dance and sing throughout the night on a nearby hillside. Bosnians believe that only those of pure spirit and a clear heart can see fairies in their sleep.
Besides female fairies it is believed that there are male fairies amongst these mythological creatures. The most famous male fairy is Ušušur. According to a legend from Doboj, Ušušur fell in love with a girl, who married another man. Desperate and furious, Ušušur used his magical powers to drown the girl in a river. Comprehending the gravity of his actions, he threw himself in the river after the girl but he couldn't drown himself because he was immortal. Because of this incident he decided to punish himself and he chained himself to the bottom of the river, which became his home. Ušušur is described by the people as green man, ragged and covered in moss.

Dragons or Zmajevi: in the past Bosniaks believed in dragons, they described them as giant snakes with wings that were able to live both in the sky and on the land. It can be concluded from the folklore that dragons were males, there was no mention of a female dragon, and the dragons fulfilled their desire for offspring with human woman and animals, especially cows. According to folklore if a dragon was attracted to a woman, he would come to her room at night or wait for her somewhere outside, on a meadow, and he would use his magical powers to put her in a trance like state. After the intercourse the dragon would fly away and the woman wouldn't have any recollection of the incident.
Fatima K. from Bosanski Novi claimed that she gave birth to a dragon in 1974: "I gave birth inside the house, sometime after midnight, after half an hour of painful labour, out came a child in a white placenta and after a few moments it disappeared?!" She claimed that she never saw the child again and therefore she concluded that she didn't give birth to a "Snijet" but to a dragon. Another confirmation to this claim is that her breasts were full of milk in the evening, but when she woke up in the morning they were all drained. This occurred on a daily basis for a couple of months. Being afraid she told this to her neighbour, an old lady, who in turn told her that it was the dragon-child that came each night to feed himself with her breast milk. After some time the night visits ceased.

Jinn or Džin: demonic creatures that have an aberrant form, which were created out of a flame. The Bosnian people describe the Jinn as small creatures with one eye and a tail. Each Jinn is limping. Even though they can take various human or animal forms they prefer to appear to humans in a form of a dark man (dark silhouette) whose face can never be seen. They also like to show themselves in a form of a black dog, a cat or a snake. It is believed that the Jinn are faithful servants but also masters of witches and wizards. When the Jinn want to seduce and subject someone to them, they dance a fiery circle and call out the name of the one they want. This usually happens when that person is sleeping. Jinn can dance a circle during the day but at that time in a whirlwind, that is why people avoid whirlwinds to this day. It is believed that as soon as the human utters: "In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful" and blows towards the whirlwind, that the whirlwind will disappear.
A special group of Jinn by the name Al-Karisi attack women who have recently given birth, and babies in the first 40 days after the birth.

Šejtani or Sheitan: they are demonic creatures that are similar to the Jinn. They are less powerful than the Jinn, because when a Šejtan enters a human, the human starts enjoying vices, impurity, lies or theft; but when a Jinn enters a human being, then the person suffers mental illnesses. Šejtan are easily frightened and they run away from humans as soon as the following words are uttered: "In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful". A Bosnian legend claims that that the Šejtan was present when the first man, Adam, was created. Namely, when God created the human body, He left it lifeless for three years. Each day the Šejtan would come and observe the human body and he would batter his fingers on the body. When he would reach the human's head, he would batter it to and say: "This head won't be empty". At the passing of the third year Allah gave life to the human and it rose to life. Allah warned the human immediately about the Šejtan and told him not to speak to the first creature that approaches him and not to tell him his name. In the beginning Adam resisted the Šejtan's advances, but after some time he gave in to the Šejtan's blandishment and questions and he started a conversation with the Šejtan. The cunning Šejtan jumped on his left shoulder and exclaimed that he will remain there forever since they are now friends. As soon as God saw what had happened he sent an angel to land on to Adam's right shoulder to stop the Šejtan from influencing the human to do evil all the time.
In Bosnia against the Šejtan there is a saying: "Šejtanu nalet te bilo!"

Angels or Meleci: it is believed among the people that there are two angels, one of them is blind and the other one is deaf, which are sent by Allah to stir up the clouds and the storm to places where Allah wishes to punish the people because of some sin. If the blind one hears the prayer from the mosque he will immediately redirect the clouds and save that place from the storms. It is further believed that the Šejtan wants to hinder him in his intent and that a fierce fight between them arises. According to the legends when the angel swings his sword towards the Šejtan a lightning flashes in the sky.
When a baby is smiling it is believed that it has seen an angel. The angels are considered to be the protectors of babies because of the baby's purity and impeccability. It is believed that babies are actually angels until the moment when they learn to speak because then they can utter the bad words along with the good ones and so they lose their gracious ability.

Soul or Duša: according to belief a man should never be woken abruptly because his soul leaves his body while he sleeps and travels around the world without any limitations. There is a similar belief amongst the Bosniaks about witches, they can also travel in the same manner with their physical bodies while they are asleep. When a witch falls asleep her soul exits through her mouth and wanders off to do evil to other humans. Her body then becomes blue and cold, her mouth stretches and her lips blacken. Before dawn her soul returns in a form of a bumble bee and enters her mouth at which moment she awakes abruptly from this mystic state.
It is believed that the souls of children haven't yet completely merged with the body and that their souls wander the world almost every time they fall asleep. Because of this reason mothers who want to move their child while it is sleeping, call the child by its name, or she lightly pulls its nose, wanting to alarm the soul about what is happening at that moment. Immediately the soul returns to the body. Otherwise, if the soul isn't warned, it is believed that the child can get ill or have serious psychological consequences.
Today in Bosnia and Herzegovina it is believed that a dying man's soul can not leave his body until his family and his neighbours "ne halale" (forgive him for his sins).

Čifuti: Coming to Bosnia the Jewish people were known as very stingy people to which a dozen sayings witness. That's why they are called Čifuti or misers. But the thing which was most linked to them was the killing of children. This belief about the Jews is not far from the truth because we find written records in Bosnia about the concoction of a magical remedy made out of human parts, called mumijo or mumya, which were made by the Jewish witches or rabbis. They acquired human parts by stealing corpses or by kidnapping and killing Christian and Muslim children. It was believed that during Pasha or some other holiday the Jews steal a child place him in a casserole and sting it with needles until it bleeds out. That's why children were frightened by these words: "Run to your uncle, run to your uncle, sting!" (Bježi amidži, bježi daidži, boc!”) in order for them to stay away from the Jewish homes.

Cigani: Gypsies were also known among the folk in BIH as children kidnappers. According to folk belief they broke an arm or a leg to the kidnapped child or they blinded him so that it can beg for money in such a disfigured form. To individual gypsy women, magical properties were ascribed which allowed them to mug anyone they wished. Usually they did it with the help of a small finger from a child's corps and by uttering secret magical formulas. For that purpose they usually used a wing from a bat. Gypsies were even mentioned in magical formulas for curing fear such as salijevanje strahe (melting lead) when the stravarka banishes the fear with the following words: "Let the gypsies take your fear and your tears in their sack far away from you!"

Snakes inside a human being: All until the half of the past century in smaller places around Bosnia and Herzegovina it was believed that there were snakes that can enter a human body and spend a certain amount of time inside it. Such a scenario would take place if a man fell asleep outside, in the shade of a tree, and opened his mouth during sleep. Allegedly the snake would use that moment if it was in the vicinity and enter his body. She would stay there for days, months even years. The man who had a snake inside him could be recognised by loss of weight and pale face. According to folk belief the snake would eat everything what the man ate not leaving anything for him. In order to cure himself of this mysterious disease the man would be told to lay somewhere outside, on the grass, and fall asleep and one of the inhabitants would bake a chicken and place it next to his mouth. According to belief as soon as the snake would sense the smell of roast meat she would get hungry and would go out and in such a way free the man of its presence.

Mora or Nightmare: Bosniaks believe that a Mora is a discarded or cheated girl which uses this form to get back at her boyfriend. In her invisible form she comes every night around midnight and suffocates the young man by sitting on his chest. The young man feels a large pressure on his chest, he sweats and has nightmares. He awakes in the morning pale and feels powerless. It is believed that every girl can turn into a Mora if she surrenders her soul to Iblis.
How does one catch a girl-Mora? From the mosque one must bring a green belt used for tying down a deceased to the stretcher during a funeral. The one who is attacked by a Mora must go to bed holding the green belt in his right hand. He mustn't fall asleep but only keep his eyes closed. Around midnight the Mora will appear and sit on his chest. At that moment the man needs to put the belt on himself and the Mora will become visible to the human eye. Caught in a trap the Mora will be scared and she will start to beg the man not to reveal her secret in return she must swear not to be a Mora any longer. That way she will lose her invisibility power and she will become a normal girl once again.

Witch (or Naletnica, Sihirbaza): According to a Bosnian belief girls become witches if they wish to cause someone harm, for example, to get revenge on her neighbour, her neighbour's cattle or children. Witches drink children's blood and they take away the milk from cows. While a Mora stops being a Mora as soon as she gets married, the same thing does not apply to witches. They don't lose their title after marriage because they stepped on the Holy Qur'an and they gave their souls to Iblis.
The witch can turn into a large butterfly and enter any house she wants especially the one that has small children in it. When you notice such a butterfly in your house, you must catch it and burn one of its wings on a candle uttering: "Come back tomorrow, I will give you salt" and then let the butterfly out of your house. It is believed that the first woman that comes to that house to ask for some salt is a witch. If she is then told that she visited this house during the night in a form of a butterfly and that she is a witch it is believed that she looses all her demonic powers.

Tvora: An evil spirit of diseases which attacks the patient and burdens his psyche with various nightmares and horrible appearances.

Činilica: An evil spirit that caused a lot of anxiety and fear in the patient's soul, so that the patient thought that all the evil of the spiritual world has entered him.

Otrovnica: An evil spirit that would poison the patient's blood until he would finally die exhausted.

Krvopilica: An evil spirit that would drink the patient's blood all night until it would completely drain the patient of his power.

Mraza: An evil spirit of hatred and disputes, he took away love and unity from people, and he made them fight one another.

Prikaze: Are evil spirits that appear to people only at night in various forms, mostly as cats, rabbits, goats, dogs. It is believed that whoever sees a Prikaza he will get seriously ill or die in a short time.

Kudretfenjeri: It is believed that these are the ghosts of dead Muslim soldiers who usually appear in the form of mysterious lights at abandoned cemeteries, ruins of old houses or military fortresses and even sometimes forests. It is believed that these soldiers were buried in Christian cemeteries and now they are wondering in search of a Muslim cemetery.

Meknjača or Plačo: is the name of a mysterious bird that has never been seen but has been heard usually during eve time or at night. Its call can be compared to a child crying. The folk believe that it is a soul of a deceased child that has turned into a bird and that it is only heard when someone is about to die. It is also called drekavac.

Karanđoloz: the belief about this mythological creature was brought over to Bosnia by the Ottoman Empire. Karanđoloz as it is believed can be found at night on lonely intersections, when it surprises a traveller by jumping on his back and riding him like a horse. Besides being very heavy, Karanđoloz has an awful smell and reeks, and in that way deepens the traveller's misery and suffering. If the Karanđoloz asks the traveller "Am I heavy?" the answer mustn't be affirmative or this being of the night will become even heavier. The Karanđoloz won't stop torturing the man until dawn; when the roosters call is heard in the morning the demonic being will disappear. People used to protect themselves against the being by going around the house or a stable in circles holding a walnut in each hand and clapping one against the other they uttered: "Tučem kućnog dušmanina, što berićet odnosi a musibet donosi!". The famous Bosnian writer Mehmed Meša Selimović wrote about Karanđoloz.


Evil eye (urok, zazor)

 Modern man, though having a higher level of consciousness and living in a society much more developed than his ancestors, is still afraid of “evil eyes” more than all other diseases combined. The best evidenced for this is a belief in the nation that more people have died as a result of “evil eyes” than all diseases combined.
Belief in the power of “evil eyes” was found even in ancient Persia (Iran), the culture for which it is assumed, based on the discovered historical sites, that is older than years, where she was embodied in the form of the female demon named Agas.
Now days, there is no nation in the world where there is more or less expressed belief in the power of the human negative view, whether we talk about Hindu, Muslim, Christian or other religion. With the arrival of Turks and Islam in Bosnia, belief in the “evil eye” suddenly escalated, therefore in line with this whole series of rituals and beliefs about the protection and eliminating the negative effects of the “evil eyes” were developed.
“Evil eyes”, is a reflection of the negative energies of one's soul (psyche) triggered by uncontrolled emotions such as jealousy or a great admiration. It is believed that every man has this power even those blind, because the spell is created with the help of views and words. It is believed that the green eyes are evil eyes, especially if that person is born under the sign of Scorpio. This category includes persons who cut their nails with scissors, etc.
While the evil eyes are considered primarily children's disease, since they are most affected, also adults are not immune to them especially the young, beautiful and successful ones. Spells are subject to pregnant women, patients, animals and etc. At least resistant to the spell are children especially in the first 40 days of their lives, therefore caring mother stick to the various prophylactic rituals of placing amulets, garlic, or list of nacre (Ruta graveoles) under the pillow or a piece of wood yew (Taxus baccata),or around his hands she ties the red thread on which is tied 40 knots and etc.
For the purpose of prevention in Bosnia we usually can hear the word universal “mashalah” which is believed to be the strongest protection from all forms of evil eyes.
When a child cries for no apparent reason and is restless, mother immediately suspects on the effect of the evil eye, especially if this happens after departure of guests from the house. In order to neutralize the effect of the evil eye mother pours some water into hers mouth but does not swallow the water and stands behind the door and looks into the angle between the door and the wall. While standing in that position she recites the prayer “Ikhlas” and then water from her mouth spills into her right hand and throw it over her left shoulder and with her wet right hand wipes the child's face.
Once the power of evil eye has been neutralized, she ties around his hand red or silky thread for his "health”.

The symptoms produced by an evil eye are pallor, loss of appetite and weight, nervousness, insomnia, vomiting, depression of spirits, and oddness of behavior. A folk doctor of Bosnia will examine the eyes of such a patient and, if they appear clouded and dull, or seem „queer“ in any way, will make a diagnosis of fascination.

Formula against the evil eye:

The evil eye sits on the treshold,

his mate under the treshold.

The evil eye has three eyes:

one eye is of water,

the second eye is of fire,

the third eye us charmed.

 The water eye burst

and put out the fiery one

and took the charmed one

to the high mountains

to the broad plains.

The sea has no bridge,

nor a dog horns,

nor the palm (of the hand) hair

nor is here any evil eye on my -name-.



Other names for evil eyes:

Germany: bose Blick; Holland - booze blik;  Poland - zte oko;  Norway - skjoertunge;  Denmark - et ondt oje;  Scotland - cronachadt;  Ireland - droch-shuil;  Iran - aghashi;  Armenia - paterakBosnia – urok, zazor; Greece – avascama; Hungary; szemveres; Morroco – l'ain; Ethiopia – ayenat; etc...



Bosnian traditional cuisine

Bosnian traditional cuisine has certain distinguishing characteristics. Dishes are not made with a roux; strong and hot spices are seldom used; spices are used in small amounts to enhance, not hide the taste of the meats and vegetables; food are lighter because most are cooked in their own juices rather than in fat; and a wide variety od sweets are consumed. Cookery styles do change, and contemporary cooking styles may modify these generalizations.

The primary home cook is the female head of the household, whose tasks are to plan and prepare the meals. This is especially the case in traditional regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina; however, in contemporary urban settings, more and more men can be found in the kitchen.

Hearth cooking was still viable into the 1970s in isolated mountain villages of western Bosnia. In one example, the stone hearth was approximately 10 feet long and 4 feet wide and stood about a foot high off the ground. It was backed by a stone wall; the smoke from the hearth escaped through the roof of the passageway thad divided the lived-in rooms and the storerooms. Wood was stacked at the end of the hearth; a fire burned in the center of it. When they had burned down, the glowing embers were swept aside, the hearth was carefully cleaned, and the ready bread dough was placed on the hot hearth and covered with a sač (a convex metal cover similar in function to a Dutch oven), which was then covered with the glowing embers from the fire. Pita and other foods were also baked under the sač. Foods such as eggs (čimbur) and soup (čorba) were cooked in pans over low fires. For long slow-cooking  foods, a pot was hung from a heavy chain over the hearth.

Eventually, villagers acquired wood-burning sheet metal stoves with ovens. The sač is still available in Bosnia, and sometimes in Bosnian xafss in the United States, though it is now seldom if ever used in daily cooking.

In contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina, both rural and urban stoves are electric, burn wood or coal, or use bottled gas. Grills and barbecues are popular, and Bosniaks can follow their passion for grilled meats. Spit-roasted sheep is everyone's favorite, and meat, sausage, and cheese are smoked in backyard smokehouses to provide popular accompaniments to beer.


Bosnischen Liebesmagie

1. Das Mädchen geht an den Bach und spricht: »Selam alek (Gottes Gruss) Wasser und am Wasser drei goldene Mulden : die eine aus Honig, die zweite aus Milch und die dritte aus Spiegelglas. Aus der Honigmulde hab' ich mich gewaschen, mit der Milchmulde mich abgewischt, in der Spiegelmulde mich angesehen ! « Ein Schlag mit dem Wasser ins Gesicht und flugs geht's nach Hause, ohne sich umzublicken.

2. Begibt sich das Mädchen in Gesellschaft zum Spinnen oder sonst wohin unter ihresgleichen, dann spricht sie beim Fortgehen: »Ich erdröhne gleich dem Berge und fliege wie das Wasser: man erwartet mich wie einen Beg. Alles staunt mich an wie einen bosnischen Pascha, am meisten aber mein Liebster und Zukünftiger

Hierauf haucht sie nach jener Seite, wohin sie abgeht.


Sarajevsko pivo

Sarajevsko Pivo, brewed in the capital, is the favored brand of beer.

Stravarka - die bosnischen folk Heiler

Wenn ein Kind heftig erschrickt und im Schlafe plötzlich aufschreit, auch wenn es tagsüber Angstgefühle, äussert, dann hat es die „Strava" oder „Straha“ bekommen. Gegen dieses Übel hilft das „Begi essen" und das Hersagen des , Straha-Gebetes . Das „Strava"-Begiessen ist nur sehr wenigen Frauen bekannt und geschieht auf folgende Weise:

Stravarka (Stravaruša) oder die Frau, welche die Beschwörung der Strava vornimmt, verschafft sich eine Gewehrkugel, die schon einmal abgefeuert war. Mit dieser Kugel berührt sie das kranke Kind an der Stirne, am Scheitel, am Nacken zwischen den Schultern, an der Magengrube und zuletzt an den Pulsadern, früher an der rechten Hand und am linken Bein, dann an der linken Hand und am rechten Bein.

Nachdem dies unter Hersaguag des Strava-Gebetes (Dova) geschehen ist, verwünscht die Beschwörerin die „Straha" in neun Mühlen, neun Felder, neun Hirten, neun Berge und neun schwarze Felswände, zuletzt in's Meer und seine Tiefen. Den Beschluss macht die Rezitation der Formel: „Bismillahir rahmanir rahim. Das Meer hat keine Brücke, auf der Handfläche wächst kein Gold, der Rabe hat keine Hörner, das Kind keine „Strahe" mehr. Amen von Gottes."

Damit ist jedoch die Prozedur erst eingeleitet. Nachdem dies geschehen, wird die Gewehrkugel in einem Blechlöffel über Feuer zum Schmelzen gebracht, was in der Küche über Kohlenglut bewerkstelligt wird. Die Matter trägt dann das kranke Kind in die Küche, legt es auf den Rücken und deckt es mit einem roten Lappen zu. Mittlerweile hat Jemand in einem Gefässe frisches Wasser von der Quelle, vom Bache oder vom Brunnen gebracht.

In das Wasser legt sie eine Schere, ein Messer und einen Löffel. Die Beschwörerin fasst das Gefäss mit dem Wasser mit der einen, den Löffel mit der geschmolzenen Bleikugel mit der anderen Hand und lässt von diesem über dem Kopfe, der Magengrube und den Beinen des Kindes Blei tropfen in das Wasser fallen. Das heisse Blei zischt auf und nimmt die Form jenes Gegenstandes an, vor welchem das Kind so erschrack. dass es die Strava bekam. Zischt das iii's Wasser fallende Blei laut, dann ist die Strava nicht heftig, tönt das Zischen leise, dann ist die Krankheit heftig aufgetreten und das Kind leidet schon längere Zeit daran. Im ersteren Falle genügt das einmalige Begiessen, im letzteren muss die Prozedur dreimal wiederholt werden, am besten an drei Markttagen zur Zeit, wenn sich die Marktbesucher schon zu zerstreuen anfangen. Sie nehmen die Krankheit dann mit sich.

Doch auch dann ist die Beschwörung noch nicht beendet. Nachdem das Bleigiessen vorüber, erfasst die Beschwörerin die im Grefässe liegende Schere und schneidet mit derselben das Wasser kreuz und quer, ebenso mit dem Messer und mit dem Löffel, denn dadurch wird die Strava vertrieben. Hierauf zieht die Mutter den roten Lappen weg, mit welchem das Kind bedeckt war, und die Beschwörerin wirft drei glühende Kohlen in's Wassergefäss. In dieses steckt sie dann die Fingerspitzen der rechten Hand, benetzt damit die Stirne und die Augen des Kindes, ferner die Pulsadern und zwar zuerst an der rechten Hand und dem linken Fusse, dann an der linken Hand und dem rechten Fusse, schliesslich die Magengrube in der Weise, dass sie mit den befeuchteten Fingernägeln gegen die Beine über den Bauch streicht. Den Rest des Wassers bewahrt die Mutter gut auf und gibt davon dem. Kinde an drei Tagen auf nüchternen Magen zu trinken. Das Messer, die Schere und der Löffel werden oberhalb der Türe angebracht, damit die Strava nicht mehr zurückkehre.

Am dritten Morgen, nachdem das Kind den Rest des Wassers ausgetrunken, bestreicht die Beschwörerin den Kopf des Kindes dreimal mit einem Geldstücke. Sie setzt an der Stirne an und zieht einen Kreis um den Kopf. Dann wird das Geldstück, das geleerte Wassergefäss, das Blei und die Kohlenstücke auf einen frequenten Kreuzweg gelegt, wobei sie ununterbrochen das Straha-Gebet sagt.




Cheeses Travnički or Vlašićki - a white, feta-like cheese from the Travnik district in central Bosnia. It is a bit salty and very popular with meza, which is the tradition of slow drinking and eating throughout the course of a whole day.


Bosnian kitchen


PITA: the general Bosnian name for most confections made with phyllo pastry. The Bosnian version is usually made in a round baking dish and cut in wedges like a big round cake. Similar to BAKLAVA.

Rahatluk: also called lokum. Blandly flavoured ( rose water or orange water) jelled confection cut in squares and dusted with icing sugar.

SlS-CEVAP: sis (pronounced "shish") is the Turkish word for skewer. So this is a dish of skewered meat cubes, green peppers and and tomatoes.

SOGAN DOLMA: "dolma," means "stuffed" in Turkish, this is stuffed onions filled with ground mutton, rice, kajmak, and tomato paste.

Suha pita: just like Baklava. (Perhaps having many names for the same thing means you can order it more often without sounding greedy)


Bosniak custom

Friends add a kiss — once to each cheek for Bosniaks.

The usual greeting is Dobro jutro or Sabah hajrla (Good morning), Dobar dan (Good day), or Dobro vecer or Akšam hajrla (Good evening). Zdravo or Merhaba (Hi) is an informal greeting usually followed by Šta ima? (What's up?).

When parting, Bosniaks might say Do vidjenja (Good-bye),  Zbogom (Farewell), or Allahimanet, or the more informal Vidimo se (See you) or even Ciao. Gospodin (Mr.) has replaced Drug (Comrade), and Gospodja/Gospodijica (Mrs./Miss) has replaced Drugarice as common titles. Bosnians tend to use the informal ti (you) in conversation with peers. Friends and family call each other by first name, as do older people talking to those younger. In written form, a person's surname usually precedes the given name.


Friends may wave to one another on the street. It is impolite to beckon with the index finger or shout in public. However, many such rules of etiquette are routinely ignored. Bosnians customarily offer older persons a seat on  the bus. Eye contact is expected when people raise their glasses prior to a toast.


Family and friends visit each other often, with weekends being the most popular time to get together. It is common to sit for hours over cigarettes and a cup of coffee (kahva), juice, beer or some rakija (brandy), reflecting the leisurely pace of life most Bosnians prefer. Such visits are informal, with people simply dropping by without prior arrangement. Invited guests often bring gifts such as flowers, coffee, wine, or a box of chocolates; a gift is nearly obligatory from first-time guests.



Bosniak custom


Bosniaks generally remove their shoes when entering a home, replacing them with slippers. Hosts serve coffee at the beginning and end of a visit. For arranged visits, they offer meze: a spread of various fried pies, dried meats, cheese, and salads . Visiting is expected for events like weddings or funerals; guests do not need to call ahead, nor do they receive invitations. Bosniacs typically stay for a brief time to offer condolences or congratulations.

Rural Bosniaks eat some foods like pies with their hands. It is impolite to speak with a full mouth, but it is not too impolite for friends to share food from the same plate. When entertaining, hosts offer more food than can be eaten; this is a sign of hospitality and wealth. Indeed, hosts consistently urge guests to eat more during the meal and guests customarily decline several times before accepting.

Still, it is impolite for a guest to eat too much. At restaurants, usually one person pays the entire bill. Tipping is not necessary but increasingly expected and appreciated. One does not tip the restaurant owner even if he or she served the meal.



Die Bohnenlegung - falanje u grah


Bosnier glauben Wahrsagen mit weißen Bohnen oder falanje u grah. Brauch des Bohnenwerfens (fal vom arabischen tefaul = glückliches Wahrsagen) von des Propheten Tochter herrühren. Als Hasreti- Fatima einmal besorgt und bekümmert war, soll sie sich den Kummer und die Zeit mit Bohnenwerfen vertrieben haben. Um einen »Fal« zu eröffnen, nimmt die Wahrsagerin genau einundvierzig Bohnen in die Hand, spricht darüber zu allererst ein Gebet, lässt hierauf die Bohnen auf den Boden fallen und zertheilt sie dann in eine bestimmte Anzahl von Haufen. Die Zahl der Haufen sowie auch die Zahl der Bohnen in jedem Haufen hat eine bestimmte Bedeutung.

Die Bohnenlegung (falanje u grah) ist sehr genau, jedoch nur bei Ereignissen, die die nähere Zukunft betreffen und kann bei den unterschiedlichsten Problemen herangezogen werden. Dazu benötigt man als erstes 42 weisse Bohnen. Diese werden dann in einen roten Stoff eingewickelt, der sie von negativer Energie frei hält. Dieser Stoff wird dann unter ein Kissen gelegt und man schläft über diesem, so ist gewährleistet, dass die Bohnen am nächsten Tag ihre Energie aufgenommen haben. Diese Technik ist hilfreich, um genauere Vorhersagen treffen zu können. Wenn man mit der Zeremonie beginnt, wird der Stoff auf dem Tisch ausgebreitet und die Bohnen in der Hand gemischt. Während dieses Vorgangs sollte man an die betreffende Person oder das Problem denken. Eine Bohne wird dann auf die Seite gestellt, falls man noch eine andere Frage hat.

 Die restlichen 41 Bohnen werden zum Hellsehen in drei gleich große Haufen geteilt. Von jedem Haufen nimmt man sich nun jeweils vier Bohnen. Diese werden jetzt so aufgereiht, dass 9 kleine Haufen entstehen. Jeder vertikale und senkrechte Haufen hat seine Bedeutung. Der Diagonale Haufen steht für eine Prophezeiung. Die Zukunft eines Mannes wird von der rechten senkrechten Seite gedeutet, die linke Seite zeigt die Zukunft der Frau. Alles was mit Finanzen, Besitz und Zuhause in Verbindung steht, wird mithilfe der mittleren senkrechten Seite gedeutet.

Auslegung, Erklärung

Fällt aber nur eine Bohne auf die Stelle, die ihr Polster bedeutet, so ist sie „allein am Polster", d. h. er liebt sie nicht. Liegen auf dieser Stelle mehrere Bohnen, so sind es Liebessorgen; liegen zwei, so ist es richtig: „Er und sie! Endlich allein!". Bleiben in den Häufchen, wo man je vier Bohnen abnimmt, viel Bohnen übrig, z. B. zu fünf bis sechs Häufchen, so bedeutet das Reichtum, Glück. Eine Bohne auf der Stelle, die ihr oder sein Herz bedeutet, will ein zerrissenes Herz (pokidano srce) anzeigen. Mehrere Bohnen auf der Stelle, die den „Kopf bedeuten, sind Sorgen, trübe Gedanken, Liebespein. Mehrere Bohnen im Zimmer bedeuten Gesellschaft, Hochzeit usw. Zwei Bohnen dort, wo ihre Füße sind, bedeuten, daß sie zu ihm laufen wird, eine „Zugelaufene" , toll vor Liebe, etc.




Bosnian meal

Pies or Pite dominate the menu of Bosniak: burek (meat pie), sirnica (cheese pie), zeljanica (spinach and cheese pie), kupušnjača (cabbage pie), krompiruša (potato and onion pie) and many more. Breakfast pies are served with bread, cheese or cream, and smoked meat like sudžuka (a sausage) .


Bosnia happened, Srebrenica happened

Bosniaks as a people traversed the bloody path of distress, concentration camps, shelling, hunger, they died from bullets, grenades, torture, blows, rapes, they were thrown in fires, drowned in rivers, buried alive. Srebrenica represents only the pinnacle of that path paved with blood and suffering. Srebrenica is the horrifying truth for the entire world to see. Srebrenica continued the tragic story of Nazi concentration camps where the helpless gaze of the victims testifies about the brutality that is done by the monsters and psychopaths. Srebrenica represents all nightmares about people without a soul and heart, about the dratted people that kill and torture innocent people out of sheer pleasure. Whosoever forgets Srebrenica will become a victim of the same hangmen.

Every year on July 11th, Srebrenica receives new victims of the 1995 genocide. Every year more painful cries are heard by the mothers who lost their children, bloody memories are evoked...The graves keep piling up, they keep multiplying in unrevised rows. They killed them for the simple fact that they weren't Serbs. They killed boys, men, women, old people. Without mercy, just because they weren't Serbs. Just because they weren't members of the superior race, sounds familiar?


Did you know that Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only country in the world that has two names?! The reason for it is to stop its national unity in every possible way. While it was a part of Yugoslavia, which was a communist and therefore atheistic country, there were the Muslims as a nation in BIH?? Even though we all know that religious affiliation cannot be regarded as an affiliation towards nationality, that exact thing happened to the Bosnians in the hegemonic Yugoslavia in which the Serbs did their best do degrade Bosnia and the Bosnian people. At one time they called the Bosniaks "Muslim Serbs"???? We will understand this attitude if we comprehend the fact that Serbia had territorial ambitions for the neighbouring countries, especially Bosnia and Herzegovina. The attempt of the Bosnians to assimilate failed despite the fact that they were forbidden to proclaim their nationality, this ended in the biggest war crime since WWII. Bosnia happened, Srebrenica happened.

With the attack on Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia started to openly implement its plan to annex the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, this was also evident when the Serbian politicians called it "The Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina" during the start of the aggression in 1992. Even though the plan failed despite the horrible suffering of the Bosnian people, mass raping of children and genocide, the dream of Great Serbia hasn't been completely destroyed, it has been reshaped into something that the Dayton agreement calls "Republika Srpska" or "Republic of Serbia". This genocidal creation which represents a brake for any advancement of the modern Bosnia and Herzegovina towards the EU or NATO is one of the biggest world political mistakes of the 20th century. A catastrophic mistake which the European leaders will have to correct if they want to have a stabile region.

During the 90's of the last decade, Europe showed is powerlessness in the face of the Serbian Nazism as it did in the face of the German Nazism during WWII. The result of such passive attitude was the creation of new concentration camps in which the Serbian Nazis undertook ethnic cleansing and genocide over the Bosnian people. Europe got a new Auschwitz-Birkenau in Srebrenica, Višegrad, Foča, Sarajevo...During the period of 1992 to 1995 the Bosnians survived an attempt of total obliteration that the war criminal Radovan Karadžić announced at the beginning of the aggression with the words: "one nation (Bosniaks) in Bosnia will completely disappear!".  

Whosoever forgets Srebrenica will become a victim of some new Miloševića, Mladića  and Karadžića!

An attempt of the European political elite to calm their consciousness in front of the whole world is their attempt to call the aggression of Serbia and Montenegro on Bosnia a civil war in Bosnia?! However the real truth is that there was never a civil war in Bosnia, a well planned out aggression by Serbia and Montenegro through the army force JNA took place. That army changed its name during the beginning of the war and it became the army of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to conceal itself and under the pretence of protecting the Serbian people from the unarmed Bosnian people it committed such horrific crimes that were last seen in the Nazi camps.


Bosniak oral tradition


In Avdo's song, The Wedding of Meho, Son of Smail, there is a deep personal ring in the words of young Mehmed when asked whether the old men are better than the young.  

-Opinions are divided, he said, but mine shall ever be that the old men are better than the young. His questioner replied: Bravo, my dear son! If God grants, you will be an honor to us. Avdo was singing of a past agem the ideals of which were his own, tried and not found wanting in the acid of his own experience.

After serving in the army Avdo returned to his trade with his father, but later he was called up again as a border guard this time on the Montenegrin frontier, where he stayed for a year and a half. He was wounded in the Balkan wars; his right arm was was broken by a bullet. With some epic exaggeration he told of how the doctor in Bijelo Polje could non stop the blood for four days and finally had to put on a horse and send him with two soldier to Sjenica. Here the doctor did not dare even to inspect his wound but sent him on to Novi Pazar. Four doctors looked him over, saw the danger, and sent him to Mitrovica, where twelve doctors consulted together about his case and them sent him post haste by train to Salonica. There he lay in the hospital forty-five days. One bullet was extracted, but another remained in his arm for the rest of his life.



21.vijek - kraj svijeta kakvog poznajemo

Živimo u dobu laži, pohlepe i velikog zla. Ovo vrijeme je najavljeno još u prošlim vijekovima i ostvaruje se kroz USA koja svuda po svijetu širi teror, ubijanje i pljačka zemlju po zemlju. Oni su po svom uvjerenju gospodari svijeta i života svih ljudi na Zemlji. Kroz njih vlada Đavo ili ono što se u kršćanstvu naziva Antikrist. Ako bolje pogledate lice predsjednika Obame ili prošlog Buša vidjet ćete da je ono često u čudnim grimasama, sa prijetećim sjajem u očima. Đavo se udomaćio upravo onamo gdje ima najviše naoružanja i moći. Zbog toga cijelom svijetu prijeti kaos i uništenje.


Neuništivo zlo

Uništenje svijeta dolazi kroz kršćanstvo. Cijeli sistem te religije sagrađen je na pojmu ubijanja i žrtve kroz Isusa. Religija koja je stvorila kult obožavanja čovjeka (nebrojeno mnogo svetaca), nametnula je ideju kako je čovjek zapravo Bog te da kao takav ima moć da vlada sa svime.

Zlo nikada nije poraženo. U Drugom svjetskom ratu zlo nije izgubilo nego se samo nakon razaranja i ubijanja povuklo  iz jedne prijestolnice zla u drugu. Tako je i završilo u Americi. Ostale su iste ideje nacističke Njemačke – uvijek mora postojati jedan poseban narod, jedna super rasa, kojoj je „od Boga dano“ da vlada svijetom i ljudskim životima. U početku su to bili Njemci a sada su Amerikanci.

Dok se europljani i ostatak svijeta tješi sa mišlju kako je pohlepa Amerike usmjerena samo prema Arapima i Irancima događaju se druge vrste američke agresije na „zaštićene“ narode. Naime, svi znamo kako su jedini krivci za recesiju u svijetu upravo USA koja je svojim osvajačkim ratovima protiv Afganistana, Iraka i Libije prešla sve novčane limite, ugrozila svoju ekonomiju, koja je u padu, i tako povukla Europu i zapadni svijet za sobom. Sada isisava novac iz Europe, zajedno sa svojim najvjernijim saveznikom – Njemačkom. Svi mogu propasti ali ove dvije zemlje ne smiju. No, USA polako propada i do konačnog sloma napravit će velike svjetske katastrofe.

Učitelj i učenik predstavljaju savršeni duo uništitelja svijeta kakvog poznajemo. Grčka, Španija,balkanske zemlje....Recesija neće stati dok se sve europske zemlje ne pokore i stave u ekonomsko robstvo. Zatim slijedi razdoblje smirivanja kada će prevareni narodi misliti da dolazi bolje vrijeme. A biće sve gore i gore. Kada se ljudi dignu na proteste ne uspije li vojska nasilno ugušiti pobunu na narod će se bacati  smrtonosni virusi, umrijeće milioni. Još jednom Njemačka će dovesti Europu na rub uništenja.


Plati i ubijaj

U svijetu vlada uvjerenje kako su Izrael i USA najveći saveznici no istina je potpuno drugačija. Dok god Izrael plaća protekciju USA, koja je Palestince koštala 60 američkih veta u UN i Vijeću Sigurnosti, i štiti ih od arapskih zemalja ta mala državica će postojati na karti. Isti slučaj je i sa Saudijskom Arabijom. U zemlji gdje se stalno krše osnovna ljudska prava i sprovodi teror nad stanovništvom „lider demokratije“ USA zbog obilnih kraljevskih donacija ne vidi i ne čuje. Ili dok god Turska služi NATO-u moći će voditi svoj privatni rat protiv Kurda bez ikakvih posljedica ili osuda sa Zapada.

Izrael će na kraju biti žrtvovan od strane USA. Protekcija  Izraela je zapravo dvosjekli mač za ovaj narod – cijelo vrijeme Amerika podstiče i gaji mržnju kod arapskog naroda prema njima, namjerno ne želeći iznjedriti mirno rješenje sukoba, koje je vrlo moguće, kako bi u pogodnom trenutku završila proces koji su počeli Njemci.

Od starih se planova nikada ne odustaje, mudrost je koju mnogi narodi nikada ne nauče.




Bosnian folk calendar

The Bosnian national (agricultural) calendar spans back to the old era. The maker of the calendar is unknown. It is known that it was created and used by a farmer. Some dates from the Julian calendar, which was created 45 years BCE, can be recognised in the Bosnian calendar. After Christianity came, some of these dates received names of saints. With the arrival of the Slavs, pagans, people known for agriculture, the dates had different names, but they always remained the same. The folk calendar was used continuously, it was used during the time of the Bogumil's, it was also used during the Ottoman period, and it even serves a purpose today. Besides this, in Bosnia the Hijri calendar was also strictly observed. It was done by the Imam's and other religious scholars, in order to be aware of the important religious dates (Ramadan, Bayram, New year, etc.). The Hijri calendar was impractical when it came to agriculture, since it moved forward ten days every solar year, however it was practical when it came to fasting during the month of Ramadan since it moved through all the seasons. We need to mention that the Hijri calendar was the official calendar in Bosnia during the Ottoman period, until the Austro-Hungarian period when they brought the Gregorian calendar.

The Bosnian folk calendar begins on December 21st, the folk belief holds that on that date, the day extends as much as a rooster can jump from a doorstep. From this date on comes the Zehmeriya (Turkish: Zehmeri) the coldest part of winter that lasts for 40 days. While Zehmeriya lasts people avoid drinking cold water in fear of catching a cold.

January: the folk call January the longest moth in the year. From January 17th the counting of the weeks until Hidirlez begins (May 6th), 17 weeks total. This is what determines the sowing.
The period from January 31st until March 20th is called Hamsin and it represents the second part of winter.

February- from February 14th until March 14th is Veljača, the folk belief is that if snow falls in the beginning of the Veljača that the year will be fertile, and that wheat will have a good yield.

Djemre (Turkish: Cemreler), the meaning of this word is "burning charcoal", it is believed that Djemre is the sun's heat which starts to have an intense impact on the land and it starts awakening the nature.
-The first Djemra appears on February 20th and heats the air. That's when the Southern wind starts blowing and it becomes milder.
-The second Djemra appears on February 27th heats up the water and raises its level. The water in the river doesn't freeze from this point on.
-The third Djemra appears on March 6th and heats up the land. The snow melts fast and the first grass starts sprouting.
(Right after the first Djemra the people have a custom to notch the roots of the birch and put a glass bottle so that the juices of the birch flow in it. The bottle stays in that position until the third Djemra. The collected juices are used for medicinal purposes, especially kidney diseases)

March: the agricultural works begin during this month, the potatoes, onions and salads are sown. After the third Djemra the fruit trees are notched and inoculated.

Grandma (Baba)- from March 15th until March 21st is the period of the grandma, the unstable period when a couple of weather phenomena change in one day.
Grandpa (Did,Djed)- from March 21st until March 28th is the period of the grandpa, the folk beliefs are that it is more merciful and people start sowing potatoes during this period.

(“Did” or Grandpa is a name (title) of each Bogumil priest in Bosnia and “Baba” (grandma) is the name of his wife who helped her husband and the community by healing with herbs, assisting in births, or foretelling fortunes. Since the Bosnian people were Bogumils before Islam came, it is then no mystery why they kept some of the memories of their old religion. Among the folk there are numerous stories, mostly comical, about Did and Baba and their adventures. By them, we can discern that they commanded great respect among the Bosnian people.)

Kablići- March 29th until March 31st
Stablići- April 1st until April 3rd
Štapići- April 4th until April 7th
(All three names are connected to the past of Bosnia when the winters were very long and they usually lasted until the middle of April. During that period the cattle used to die because of lack of food)

Mučenjaci- period from April 8th until July, this is the period when people suffered (hence the name) until the sowing of the wheat.

April: during April the corn is sown. The old Bosniaks would wait for the frogs to start making noise, which would be a sign that the climate is optimal for sowing. The people also followed other signs of the nature, and therefore it is believed that when the beech tree starts sprouting leaves that one can begin sowing grain without fearing frost. During the middle of April the grapevine was notched and a bottle was placed underneath it for the juices to drip in it until Hidirlez. This juice was used by women to smear on their hair so it would be healthy and grow quicker.

May: in the first quarter of May the sowing of beans begins.
Hidirlez or Jurjevo (May 6th)- according to the national calendar from this day forward, the summer begins and the swimming in lakes and ponds can begin. In the period from May 6th until May 13th the first swarms of bees are let loose.

June: the first seven days of June are called "bijela nedjelja” or “white week" because the white mushrooms (Cantharellus cibarius) are picked in the forests at that time. In the beginning of June , pumpkins, turnips and radishes are sown.

August: it is believed that this month gives diarrhea to children and the elderly. To prevent this from happening, the mothers would take some clothes of their children and throw it under the wheel of carriages that carry wheat bundles. In the first days of August the onion and garlic are picked.
Aliđun- August 2nd: the folk belief is that from this day on, the summer loses its heat and slowly turns into autumn, the water in the rivers begins to cool down and there can be no more swimming.

September: during this month the potato is reaped, the corn as well and the grapes start ripening. If some strawberries sprout in September, then it is believed that the autumn will be long and mild.

October: in the first and second week of October wheat is sown.

Kasum - November 8th: from this day onward, winter starts. On this day, all loans are settled, and leases of land end. Kasum is Turkish the name of November. The Arabic word kasim means 'something that divides“.

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